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FUND    GIVEN    IN     1 8^1     BY 



3   1924  091    757  025 


Cornell  University 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

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Heliangehis  clarissa      2.  Eriocnemis  alincu.     3,  Docimastes  ensifems,     \.  Eriocnemis  vesiiia.     5.  Ckrysolampis  moschitvs. 

6.  Campylopterus  lasams.     7.  Acestrttm  muhanti. 






VOL.   IV 

CASSELL  and  COMPANY,  Limited 






Hawk-moths  . 




Iron  Ores 



Majolica  Ware 


Front isyiece 
To  face  p.  S4 


Encyclopedic  Dictionary. 

*  glot  -  er  -  y,  *  glot  -  er  -  ye,  *  glot  -  ry, 
*  glut-rie,  s.    [Eng.  glut ;  -ry.]    Gluttony. 

"  Of  thy  fowle  gloterye  absteine."  —  Myrc :  Instruct, 
for  Parish  Priests,  p.  52. 

*  glot-e-rous,  a.  [Eng.  glut;  -erous.]  Glut- 

"A  beeste  .  .  .  most  gloterous." — Wycliffe :  Lev  It. 
xi.  30. 

*glot-on,  *.    [Glutton.] 

glot-tal,  -a.  [Eng.  glottl(s);  -ol.]  .Relating  or 
pertaining  to  the  glottis. 

glot'-ta-lite,  s.  [From  Lat.  Glota,  Clota  =  the 
Roman  name  of  the  Clyde,  and  Gr.  ki&os  (litltos) 
=  stone.] 

Min.  :  A  variety  of  Arialcime  (Brit.  Mns. 
Gated.),  or  of  Edingtonite  (Dana).  Thomson 
described  it  as  occurring  in  white  crystals, 
regular  octahedrons,  or  four-sided  pyramids  or 
cubes.  Found  near  Port  Glasgow,  on  the 

gldt'-tlS,  s.  [Gr.  y\u>TTts  (glottis)  (see  the  def.), 
from  y\u3TTa  (glotta),  the  Attic  form  of  yAwcrtra 
(glossa)  —  the  tongue.] 

Anat.  :  The  mouth  of  the  wind-pipe.  It 
constitutes  a  narrow  aperture  covered  by  the 
epiglottis  when  one  holds  his  breath  or  swal- 
lows. It  contributes  by  dilatation  and  con- 
traction to  the  modulation  of  the  voice.  It 
is  sometimes  called  the  rima  glottis,  that  is, 
the  fissure  or  chink  of  the  glottis. 

glot  -  to  -log7-  Ic,    gldt-to-log'-ic-al,    a. 

[Eng.  glottolog(y) ;   -ic;  -ical.]    Pertaining  or 

relating  to  glottology. 

"This  very  teaching  .  .  .  must  certainly  afford  a 
wide  scope  for  glottologic  observation  and  research." — 
Prof.  Jiajna,  in  Eighth  Annual  Address  to  Philol. 
Society,  1879,  p.  28. 

glot-tdl -6-glst,  s.  [Eng.  glottolog(y) ;  -ist.] 
One  devoted  to  the  study  of  the  science  of 

"  It  Is  in  the  Aryan  family  that  the  glottologist  will 
have  to  receive  his  training  for  some  time  to  come." — 
A.  H.  Sayce :  Principles  of  Comp.  Philol.  (1878),  p.  69. 

glot-tdl'-o-gjr,  s.  [Gr.  ykurna  (glotta)  =  the 
tongue,  language,  and  Adyos  (logos)  =  a  dis- 
course.] Generally  used  in  the  same  sense  as 
glossology  (q.v.).  Professor  Sayce,  however, 
gives  a  wider  signification,  as  will  be  seen 
from  the  extract. 

"  Glottology  will  be  the  science  of  language,  by  which 
•we  are  enabled  to  trace  the  gradual  growth  of  the  mind 
of  man,  whether  displayed  in  the  creation  of  language 
generally  as  an  instrument  of  intercommunication, 
and  the  embodiment  of  the  conceptions  of  the  rela- 
tions between  thought  and  the  world,  or  in  the  tri- 
umph of  the  will  over  the  mechanism  of  the  bodily 
organs,  and  the  limitations  imposed  in  turn  by  them 
upon  it,  or  lastly  in  the  evolution  of  the  religious  idea 
— in  other  words,  in  Comparative  Mythology  and  the 
Science  of  Religions."  —  A.  II.  Sa//ce  :  Principles  of 
Comp.  Philol.  (1874),  p,  59. 

glout,  v.i.  &  t.     [A  variant  of  Gloat  (q.v.).] 
A.  Intrans. :  To  look  sullen  or  gloomy ;  to 

"  Clouting  with  sullen  spite,  the  fury  shook 
Her  clotted  locks."         Garth:  Dispensary,  iL  35. 

B.  Trans. :  To  stare  or  gaze  at. 

"The  same  setteth  himselfe  upon  a  stage  to  be 
glouted  upon  by  every  evil  eye."  —  Bible  (1618),  The 
Translators  to  the  Reader. 

■  glout,  $.     [Glout,  v.]    A  sulk,  bad  temper. 

"  My  mamma  was  in  the  glout."  —  Richardson  : 
Clarissa,  ii.  140. 

glove,  s.  [A.S.  glof;  Icel.  glofi.  Probably 
from  Goth.  Ufa;  Icel.  loft  (Scotch  too/)  =  the 
palm  of  the  hand,  with  A.S.  pref.  gc-.] 

1.  A  covering  for  the  hand,  differing  from 
the  mitten  in  having  a  separate  compartment 
for  each  ringer. 

"  Cicely,  brisk  maid,  steps  forth  before  the  rout, 
And  kissed  with  smacking  lip  the  snoaring  lout 
For  custom  says,  '  Whoe'er  this  venture  proves, 

For  such  a  kiss  demands  a  pair  of  gloves.'" 

Gay  :  Pastorals  ;  Saturday. 

2.  Hatwialcing  :  A  smooth  piece  of  wood  for 
rubbing  a  sheet  of  felt,  and  causing  tlie  nap 
to  adhere  to  the  body  when  working  at  the 
battery.  The  glove  is  held  in  the  palm  of  the 
hand,  and  tied  on  by  a  string. 

3.  Boxing :  A  padded  casing  or  covering  for 
the  hands. 

"Fifty  years  ago  sparring  with  the  gloves  was  re- 
garded as  a  means  to  an  end." — Saturday  Review, 
Jan.  26,  1884,  p.  108. 

*  1  (1)  To  bite  the  glove:  To  exhibit  mutual 
enmity  or  hostility. 

(2)  To  throw  down  (or  take  up)  the  glove  : 
To  give  (or  accept)  a  challenge  to  single 

(3)  To  be  hand  and  glove  with  one  :  To  be  on 
terms  of  the  closest  intimacy  or  friendship. 

"  And  prate  and  preach  about  what  others  prove. 
As  if  the  world  and  they  were  hand,  and  glove." 
Coioper:  Table  Talk,  173. 

glove-band,  s.    A  glove-clasp  (q.v.). 
glove-clasp,  s. 

1,  A  band  passing  over  the  glove  at  the 
wrist  to  secure  it. 

2.  An  instrument  with  a  hook  at  the  end, 
used  for  buttoning  gloves. 

glove-fight,  s. 

Boxing :  A  pugilistic  contest  in  which  the 
men  wear  boxing-gloves.  It  is  less  dangerous 
than  prize-fighting  (q.v.),  since  the  padded 
glove  breaks  the  force  of  the  blow. 

"  Men  were  being  punished  for  engaging  in  glove- 
fights.  —Saturday  Review,  Jan.  26, 1884,  p.  108. 

glove-fighter,  s. 

Boxing:  One  of  the  principals  concerned 
in  a  glove-fight  (q.v.) ;  a  promoter  of  glove- 

"Fate  has  not  proved  bo  unkind  to  the  Elthain 
prize- lighters,  or  glove-fighters,  or  whatever  they  were, 
as  she  at  first  threatened  to  be."— Referee,  Feb.  10, 1884. 

glove-fighting,  s. 

Boxing :  The  practice  of  fighting  with  box- 
ing-gloves, as  distinguished  from  prize-fighting 

"  We  have  thus  four  different  species  of  encounter, 
of  which  the  first  two— fighting  and  tflnve-hghthiq— 
are  clearly  prohibited."— Saturday  Revieic,  Jan.  ~2G,    , 
1884,  p.  108. 

*  glove-money,  s. 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  A  gratuity  given  to  servants 
ostensibly  to  buy  them  gloves. 

2.  Law :  An  extraordinary  reward  given  to 
officers  of  courts,  &c,  and  money  given  by  a 
sheriff'  of  a  county  in  which  no  offenders  were 
left  for  execution,  to  the  clerk  of  assize,  and 
the  judges'  officers. 

The  same  as  Glove- 

*  glove-silver, 
money  (q.v.). 

glove-Stretcher,  s.     An  instrument  for 

opening  and  stretching  the  fingers  of  gloves, 
in  order  that  they  may  the  more  easily  be 
drawn  on  the  hand. 

glove,  v.t.     [Glove,  s.]    To  cover  with  or  as 
with  a  glove. 

"  A  scaly  gauntlet  now,  with  joints  of  steel. 
Must  glove  this  hand."      Shakesp. :  2  Henry  IV.,  i.  L 

glov'-er,  s.      [Eng.  glov(e);  -er.]    One  whose 
trade  is  to  make  or  sell  gloves. 

"Does    he    not    wear  a  great  round  beard  like  a 
glover's  paring  knife  t  "—Shakesp.  :  Merry  Wives,  i.  4. 

glovers-stitch,  s. 

Surg, :  A  peculiar  stitch  employed  in  sewing 
up  a  wound. 

glow,  *  glowe,  *  glow-en,  *  glow-ynf  v.i. 

&  t.  [A.S.  gl&wan;  cogn.  with  Icel.  gloa;  Dan. 
gloe;  Dut.  gloeijen  ;  Ger.  gluhen  =  to  glow  ; 
Sw.  glo  =  to  stare  ;  Sw.  dial,  glo,  gloa  =  to 
stare  ;  O.  H.  Ger.  gluojan.  From  the  same 
root  as  glad,  glass,  gloat,  gloom,  glide,  glitter, 
glance,  &c] 
A.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  be  so  heated  as  to  give  out  an  intense 
or  white  heat,  without  flame  ;  to  be  incan- 

"  Not  all  parts *1  ike,  but  all  alike  inform'd 
With  radiant  light,  as  glowing  iron  with  fire." 

Milton;  P.  L.,  iii.  594. 

2.  To  sparkle,  to  gleam. 

"  The  circles  of  his  eyen  in  his  hed 
They  gloweden  betwixeu  yelwe  and  red." 

Cltaucer:  C.  T.,  2,134. 

3.  To  burn  with  great  heat. 

"  From  their  nostrils  flows 

The  scorching  fire  that  in  their  entrails  glows." 

Addison:  Ovid;  Metamorphoses  ii. 

4.  To  feel  heat  of  body  ;  to  be  heated  or 
hot ;  to  burn. 

"  [I]  felt  my  blood 
Glow  with  the  glow  that  slowly  crimsoned  all 
Thy  presence."  Tennyson;  Tiihonus,  56. 

o.  To  assume  or  exhibit  a  strong,  bright 
colour  ;  to  be  red,  brilliant,  or  flushed,  as 
with  animation,  life,  blushes,  &c. 

"  Each  pleasing  Blount  shall  endless  smiles  bestow. 
And  fair  Belinda's  blush  for  ever  glow." 

Pope:  Epistle  iii  61. 

6.  To  feel  the  heat  of  passion  ;  to  be  ardent 
eager  in  any  passion  of  the  mind. 

"  I  feel  my  bosom  glmo  with  wontless  fires." 

Drummond  :  Hymn  on  the  Fairest  Fair. 

7.  To  rage  or  bum  as  a  passion  ;  to  be  vehe- 
ment or  hot. 

"  Love  slowly  bums  and  long  remains ; 
It  glaos."  Shadwell. 

boil,  bo^;  pout,  jdwl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph  =  f. 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.   -clous,    tious,  -sious  =  shiis.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  feel,  d$L 


glow— glue 

8.  To  be  animated  or  spirited  ;  to  be  full  of 
spirit  or  life. 

"  And  feelings,  roused  in  life's  first  day. 
Glow  in  the  line,  and  prompt  the  lay." 

Scott:  Marmion,  iiL     (Introd.) 

*  B.  Trans.  :  To  cause  to  glow  ;  to  make 
red  or  glowiug. 

"  On  each  side  her 
Stoud  pretty  dimpled  boys  like  smiling  Cupids, 
With  divers  coloured  fans,  whose  wind  did  seem 
Toglow  the  dehcite  cheeks  which  they  did  cool." 
Shakcsp. :  Antony  &  Cleopatra,  ii.  2. 

glow,  *glowe,  a.    [Glow,  v.] 

1.  A  shining  or  white  heat  without  flame ; 

2.  Brightness  of  colour,  redness  ;  a  rosy 
colour,  a  flush. 

"  If  you  will  see  a  pageant  truly  played 
Between  the  pale  complexion  of  true  love, 
And  the  red  glow  of  scorn  and  proud  disdain, 
Go  hence  a  little,  and  I  shall  conduct  you." 

Sliakesp. :  As  You  Like  It,  iii.  1 

3.  Vehemence  of  passion  ;  heat  of  mind ; 
excitement,  earnestness,  ardour. 

"  Such  as  suppose  that  the  simple,  grave,  and  ma- 
jestic dignity  of  Baflaelle  could  unite  with  the  glow 
and  bustle  of  a  Paulo,  or  Tintoret,  are  totally  mis- 
taken. "—Reynolds. 

i.  Heat  of  the  blood  produoed  by  exercise  : 
as,  He  was  all  in  a  glow  after  the  walk. 

If  Electric  glow: 

Elect. :  A  pale  blue  luminosity  appearing  at 
the  parts  of  an  electric  conductor  from  which 
electricity  of  high  tension  is  noiselessly  issu- 
ing, even  though  no  other  conductor  is  near. 

If  For  the  difference  between  glow  and  fire, 
see  Fire, 

glow-worm, «. 

Entomology : 

1.  Lampyris  noctilum.  A  beetle  of  which 
the  male  flies  and  does  not  shine,  while  the 
female  shines  and  does  not  fly.  It  is  from 
the  latter  sex,  therefore,  that  the  name  glow- 
worm has  been  derived.  Probably  the  phos- 
phoric light,  which  is  intermittent,  and  can 
be  displayed  or  withheld  at  the  will  of  the 
insectj  is  used  by  the  female  to  attract  the 
male.  It  is  displayed  at  the  tail  of  the  insect. 
The  glow-worm  is  common  in  parts  of  Eng- 
land ;  it  generally,  though  not  exclusively, 
frequents  moist  places,  as,  for  instance,  weed- 
choked  ditches  or  the  sides  of  tiny  streams. 

2.  The  genus  Lampyris  (q.v.). 

*'  Oft  has  she  taught  them  on  her  lap  to  play 

Delighted  with  the  glow-worm's  harmless  ray." 
Wordsworth ;  Evening  Walk. 

*glow'-bard,  o.    [Globard.] 

glo'w'-er,  v.i.      [Dut.  gluren  =  to  peep.]     To 
stare ;  to  gaze  intently. 

"  Monkbarn3  was  glowering  ower  a'  the  silver  yon- 
der."— Scott:  Antu/wari/,  ch.  xxiv. 

glo'w'-er,  s.    [Glower,  v.]   A  broad  stare  ;  an 
intense  gazing. 

gldw'-ing,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Glow,  v.] 

A.  As  pr.  par.  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective : 

1.  Shining  with  a  white  heat  without  flame ; 
incandescent ;  white  with  heat. 

2.  Bright  or  vivid  in  colour  ;  brilliant. 

*'  Till  Autumn's  fiercer  heats  and  plenteous  dewa 
Dye  them  at  last  in  all  their  glo wing  hues." 

Cowper :  Tirocinium,  48. 

3.  Red,  rosy,  or  flushed  :  as,  glowing  cheeks. 

4.  Ardent ;  animated  ;  full  of  life,  spirit,  or 

"The  lucid  amber  of  his  glowing  lines." — Walpole: 
Anecdotes  of  Painting,  vol.  iv.,  ch.  l 

5.  Hot,  heated,  fervid. 

6.  Full  of  praise  or  admiration :  as,  a  glow- 
ing description. 

C.  As  substantive : 

1.  A  glow ;  a  white  heat ;  incandescence. 

2.  Ardour,  zeal,  animation. 

gl6"w-ing-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  glowing;  -ly.]  In 
a  glowing  manner  ;  with  great  heat  or  bright- 
ness ;  with  heat  or  passion. 

glitfwr,  gl6"ur,  i 
glo"wr,  glour,  i 

.     [Glower.] 
[Glower,  s.] 

glQx-in'-i-a,  s.  [Named  after  P.  B.  Gloxin,  a 
botanist  of  "Colmar  in  the  eighteenth  century.] 
Bot.  :  A  genus  of  Gesneracea?.,  having  a  bell- 
shaped  corolla,  the  upper  lip  the  shorter  one, 
and  two-lobed,  the  lower  one  three-lobed,  with 
the  middle  lobe  the  largest.    The  species  are 

from  tropical  America,  and  are  very  orna- 
mental plants,  having  richly- coloured  leaves, 
as  well  as  fine  white,  violet,  red,  or  greenish 
yellow  flowers,  occasionally  variegated  with 

spots.  Paxton  enumerates  twenty-four  species 
as  having  been  introduced  into  British  green- 
houses.    Several  hybrids  have  also  arisen. 

*  gloze  (1),  v.t  &  i.     [Icel.  gldsa—  to  explain  ; 

A.S.  glesan  — to  explain,  to  flatter  ;  Sp.  glosar; 
Port,  glossar;  Fr.  gloser.]    [Glose,  Gloss.] 

A.  Transitive  : 

1.  To  explain  by  note  or  comment ;  to  gloss. 

"  Which  Salique  land  the  French  unjustly  glaze 
To  be  the  realm  of  France." 
,  Shatesp.  :  Eenry  V.,  i.  2. 

2.  To  flatter  ;  to  wheedle. 

B.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  comment ;  to  expound. 

"  A  while  he  glozed  upon  the  cause 
Of  Commons,  Covenant,  and  Laws." 

Scott :  liokeby,  i.  11. 

2.  To  flatter. 

"  For  he  could  well  his  glazing  speeches  frame 
To  such  vaine  uses."      Spenser;  F.  Q.,  ill.  viii.  14. 

gloze  (2),  v.t.     [Gloss.] 

gloze  (3),   v.i.      [Icel.   glossi  =  a  blaze.]      To 

"  Gudewtfe,  carry  up  a  glozin'  peat,  an'  kennel  a 
spunk  o'  fire  in  them  baith.  '—St.  Kathleen,  iii.  167. 

gloze,  s.     [Gloze,  v.] 

1.  Flattery,  wheedling,  adulation. 

2.  Specious  external  show. 

"  Now  to  plain  dealing ;  lay  these  glozes  by." 

Shakesp.  :  Love's  Labour's  Lost,  iv.  3. 

*  gloz'-er,  *  glos'-er,  $.     [Eng.  gloz(e)  (1),  v.  ; 

-er.  ] 

1.  A  glosser ;  a  commentator  or  annotator. 
"The  other  Master  de  Prato  a  solempne  prothono- 

tary.  his  [John  BouchetJ  prating  gloser,  wrote  of  this 
treaty  and  composicion. — Ball :  Henry  V.  (an.  8). 

2.  A  flatterer ;  a  wheedler. 

"  For  some  said,  he  was  a  Samaritan,  that  he  had 
a  devil  within  him,  a  gloser,  a  drinker,  a  pot  com- 
panion."—  Latimer:  Sermons  Preached  before  King 

*  glub,  v.t.     [A  variant  of  Gulp  (q.v.).]     To 
gulp  down  or  swallow  voraciously. 

*  glub'-ber,  s.     [Eng.  glub ;  -er.]    A  glutton  ; 
a  gormandizer. 

"  That  ben  glotons  glubberes." 

P.  Plowman,  5,274. 

glu'-ClC,  a.    [Eng.,  &c.  gluc(ose) ;  suff.  -ie.] 
Chem.  :  Contained  in,  derived  from,  or  in  any 
manner  connected  with  Glucose  (q.v.). 

glucic-acid,  s. 

Chem.  :  C12H22O1?  An  acid  obtained  along 
with  saccharumic  acid,  by  boiling  cane  sugar 
with  dilute  sulphuric  acid ;  by  boiling  glu- 
cose with  baryta  water,  the  precipitate  of  the 
barium  salt  of  saucharumic  acid  is  filtered  off, 
and  the  glucic  acid  precipitated  by  means  of 
basic  lead  acetate,  and  the  lead  salt  decom- 
posed by  H2S.  Glucic  acid  is  a  honey-like 
mass  easily  soluble  in  alcohol  and  water  ;  it  is 
decomposed  by  boiling  with  water,  or  with 
dilute  acids  into  formic,  acetic,  and  apoglu- 
cinic  acids.  When  boiled  with  strong  acids  it 
is  converted  into  humic  acid  :  some  chemists 
consider  !;his  acid  to  be  identical  with  levu- 
linic  acid  (q.v.). 

glu-Ci'-na,  s.     [Gr.  vAukus  (glukus)  =  sweet.] 
Chem. :  Oxide  of  beryllium  (q.v.). 



glu'-cin-um,  s. 


Chem.:  A  metallic  element.  [Beryllium.] 
The  salts  of  glucinum  have  a  sweet  taste,  hence 
the  name. 

glu-cdn'-lC,  a.     [Eng.,  &c.  gluco{se),  n  connec- 
tive, and  suff.  -ic] 
Cliem. :  (For  def.  see  etym.  and  compound). 

gluconic  acid,  s. 

Chem. :  CgH^Cv.  An  organic  acid  obtained 
by  the  oxidation  of  glucose  with  chlorine,  or 
with  bromine.  Gluconic  acid  is  a  syrup  ;  its 
alkaline  salts  are  amorphous,  and  its  barium 
and  calcium  salts  are  crystalline.  It  is  in- 
soluble in  strong  alcohol,  and  does  not  reduce 
Fehling's  solution. 

glti-CO-san',  s.     [JEng.,  &c.  glucos{e),  and  an- 
hydride) (q.v.).] 

[Eng.,   &c.   gluc(ose) ;   -inic] 
[Gr.    y\vKvs    (glukus)  = 

Chem.  :  C6A10Og. 
Obtained  by  heating  glucose  to  170°.  Gluco 
san  is  colourless,  with  a  faint,  sweet  taste  ;  ii 
is  soluble  in  water  and  in  alcohol ;  it  does  nol 
ferment  with  yeast.  By  the  action  of  dilute 
acids,  glucosan  is  converted  into  glucose.  & 

glu'-cose,  5.    [Gk.  yKvicvs  {glukus)  =  sweet] 

Chem.  :  Glucose,  glycose,  CgHiaOg.  A  fer- 
mentable sugar,  which  occurs  in  two  modifica- 
tions, called  Dextro-glucose,  or  Dextrose  (q.v.), 
andLsevo-glucose,or  Levulose  (q.v.),  according 
as  it  turns  the  plane  of  polarization  to  the  right 
or  left.  A  solution  of  cane-sugar  warmed  with 
dilute  acids,  or  left  in  contact  with  yeast  01 
pectase,  is  converted  into  dextrose  and  levu- 
lose, C12H220n  +  H20  =  C6H1206  +  C6Hi206. 
These  modifications  can  be  separated,  thus— 
ten  parts  of  the  mixture  of  sugar  are  dissolved 
in  100  parts  of  water,  and  cooled  with  ice  ; 
then  six  parts  of  powdered  calcium  hydrate 
are  added,  the  calcium  compound  of  levulose 
is  precipitated  and  separated  from  the  soluble 
calcium  compound  of  dextrose  by  strong  pres- 
sure, washed,  and  decomposed  by  carbonic- 
acid  gas.  Levulose  is  more  soluble  in  alcohol 
than  dextrose.  Both  dextrose  and  levulose  in 
contact  with  yeast  undergo  vinous  fermenta- 
tion, and  when  added  to  a  solution  of  cupric 
sulphate,  rendered  alkaline  by  caustic  potash, 
gives  a  dark-blue  solution,  which,  when  boiled, 
is  reduced,  cuprous  oxide  being  precipitated 
as  a  red  powder. 

glu -co-side,  s.     [Eng.,  &c.  glucos(t)  (q.v.); 

Chem.  :  A  name  given  to  compounds  which 
occur  naturally  in  plants  from  which  they  are 
extracted  by  water,  or  by  alcohol ;  they  can- 
not be  melted  without  decomposition,  and  are 
resolved  by  boiling  with  dilute  acids  into  a 
saccharine  substance,  as  glucose,  and  another 
substance  which  has  generally  neutral  pro- 
perties. The  glucoside  can  be  obtained  from 
the  aqueous  or  alcoholic  extract  of  the  plant, 
by  precipitating  the  other  substances  by  lead 
acetate,  treating  the  filtrate  with  H2S  gas,  and 
evaporating  the  filtrate.  Glucosides  are  mostly 
solid  and  crystalline  substances.  They  give  a 
red  colour  when  heated  to  70°,  with  a  dilute 
solution  of  gall,  and  a  little  concentrated  sul- 
phuric acid.  [Phloroglucide,  Gummides, 

glu-cos-iir'-i-a,  s.    [Gk.  yAvievs  (glukus)  = 
sweet,  and  oftpo'v  (puron)  =  urine.] 

Pathol.  :  A  form  of  diabetes  (q.v.).  The 
name  has  reference  to  the  fact  that  the  urine 
of  persons  affected  with  this  disease  contains 

glue,  *  glu,  *  glew,  *  glewe,  s.     [0.  Fr. 

glu,  from  Low  Lat.  glutem,  accus.  of  glus  — 
glue.     Allied  to  Lat.  gluten,  glutinum  =  glue, 
from  a  verb  *  gluo  =  to  draw  together.] 
I.  Literally : 

1.  A  viscous  substance  made  of  the  chip- 
pings  of  hides,  horns,  and  hoofs,  which  are 
washed  in  lime-water,  boiled,  skimmed, 
strained,  evaporated,  cooled  in  moulds,  cut 
into  slices,  and  dried  upon  nets. 

"  Great  cunning  there  is  in  making  strong  glew,  and 
in  the  feat  of  joyning  with  it." — P.  Holland.-  Pliny, 
bk.  xvi.,  ch.  xliii. 

2.  Any  sticky  or  viscous  substance. 

"For  what  glue  or  cement  holds  the  parts  of  hard 

matter  in  stones  and  metals  together." — H.  More  :  Im- 
mortality of  the  Soul,  hk.  i.,  ch.  vii. 

*  II.  Fig. :  Any  means  or  cause  which  unites 
or  tends  to  unite  bodies  ;  a  source  of  union  ;  a 

"The  body  of  priests  is  copious,  being  joined  to- 
gether  by  the  glue  of  mutual  concord,  and  the  bond  of 
unity."— Barrow  ;  Of  tlie  Pope's  Supremacy. 

If  (1)  Wlvite  fish-glue,  or  diamond  cement,  is 
made  of  isinglass  dissolved  in  alcohol. 

(2)  Marine  glue  of  shellac  and  caoutchouc, 
equal  parts,  dissolved  in  separate  portions  of 
naphtha,  and  then  mixed. 

(3)  Isinglass  glue,  of  isinglass  soaked  in  cold 
water ;  when  swelled,  put  in  spirits  of  wine  ; 
heated  in  a  bottle  plunged  in  a  bath,  with 
powdered  chalk  added. 

(4)  Waterproof-glue,  of  two  ounces  of  isin- 
glass boiled  in  a  pint  of  skim-milk,  until  the 
requisite  consistence  is  obtained. 

glue-boiler,  s. 

1.  A  convenient  apparatus  for  boiling  skins 
mto  glue. 

2.  One  whose  business  or  trade  is  to  make 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pot 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,    se,  ce  ^  e ;  ey  =  a.    qn  =  kw. 

glue— glutamic 

glue-can,  s.    [Glue-pot.] 

glue -cement,  s.  A  cement  to  resist 
moisture.  It  is  made  of  glue,  4  parts  ;  blank 
resin,  4  parts  ;  red  ochre,  1  part.  Or,  glue,  4 
parts  ;  boiled  oil,  1  part ;  oxide  of  iron,  1  part. 

glue-dryer,  s.  A  machine  or  closet  for 
drying  sheets  of  glue. 

glue-plant,  s. 

Bot. ?  Plocaria  tenax,  a  fucoid  sea-weed. 

Slue-pot,  s.  A  can  or  pot  with  a  can  to 
hold  the  glue,  which  is  melted  by  the  heat  of 
the  water  in  the  outer  vessel, 

"  Heart,  what  dost  thou  with  such  a  greasy  dish  1  I 
think  thou  dost  varnish  thy  face  with  the  fat  on't,  it 
looks  so  like  a  glue-pot." — Ben  Jonson :  Every  Man  out 
of  his  Humour,  v.  5. 

glue,  *glew,  *glwyn,  v.t.  &  i.    [Glue,  $.] 

A.  Transitive: 
~  I.  Lit.  :  To  join  or  unite  with  glue,  or  other 
viscous  substance. 

"  Their  bowes  are  of  woo:l  of  a  yard  long,  sinewed  at 
the  back  with  strong  sinewes,  not  glued  too,  but  fast 
girded  and  tied  on."— HacMuyt:  Voyages,  iii.  37. 
n.  Figuratively: 

1.  To  unite  ;  to  join  closely. 

"  Their  armies  ioynt  in  slaughters  vile  together 
glewed."  Phaer  :  VirgU;  sEnetdos  vii. 

2.  To  join,  to  fix,  to  rivet,  to  attach. 

*  B.  Irdrans.  :  To  become  firmly  or  closely 
united,  fixed,  or  attached.  {Thomson:  Winter, 

glued,  *  glewed,  pa.  par.  or  a.    [Glue,  v.] 

glu'e-lng,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Gluing.] 

glu'-er,  s.  [Eng.  glu(e);  -er.]  One  who  or 
that  which  glues  or  cements ;  one  who  ce- 
ments with  glue. 

glu'-e$r,  *glew-ey,  *glew-ie,  *gluw-y, 
glu-y,  a.  [Eng.  glue;  -y.]  Of  the  nature  of 
glue  ;  resembling  glue ;  viscous,  tenacious, 

"And  to  the  end  the  golde  may  couer  them,  they 
anoynt  their  bodieB  with,  stamped  herbs  of  a  glewey 
substance."— HacMuyt  ;  Voyages,  iii.  665. 

glu'-ejr-ness,  s.  [Eng.  gluey;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  gluey. 

*  glug,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  A  clod;  a  lump. 

"  Place  of  safyr  in  atones,  and  the  gluggis  of  hym 
gold."—  Wycliffe:  Job  xxviii.  6. 

glu'-ing,  glu'e-ing,  *  glu-ynge,  pr.  par., 
a.,  &  s.    [Glue,  v.] 

A.  &'B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst. :  The  act  or  process  of  cement- 
ing or  uniting  with  glue  ;  the  act  of  uniting 
cr  attaching  closely  and  firmly. 

glueing -machine,  s.  A  machine  for 
smearing  upon  an  applied  surface  a  thin  and 
even  coating  of  liquid  glue. 

glueing  press,  s.  A  contrivance  to  hold 
(irmly  together  a  number  of  parts  which  have 
buen  attached  by  glue  or  cement. 

glu'-lSh,  *  glew-ishe,  a.  [Eng.  glu(e);  -ish.] 
Having  the  nature  of  glue  ;  gluey,  glutinous. 
"And  consequently  be  fit  for  the  souls  of  the  de- 
ceased to  have  recourse  to,  and  replenish  their  vehicle 
with  such  a  cambium  or  glui&h  moisture,  as  will  make 
it  far  easier  to  be  commanded  into  a  visible  consist- 
ence."— H.  More:  Immortality  of  the  Soul,  bk.  ii., 
ch.  xvi. 

*  glum,  v.i.  [Sw.  dial,  glomma  —  to  stare  ; 
connected  with  Sw.  gl&mug  —  gloomy,  and 
Eng.  gloom  (q.v.).  (Skeat).]  [Glombe.],  To 
look  sullen  or  gloomy ;  to  gloom. 

glum,  *  glumme,  a.  &  s.     [Glum,  v.] 

A.  As  adj.  :  Sullen,  frowning,  gloomy. 

"  Thon  shouldste  not  take  me  vp  with  visage  sad 
and  glum." 

Drant :  Horace  ;  Ep.  to  Julius  Florus. 

B.  As  substantive : 

1,  Sullenness,  gloominess. 

2.  A  frown ;  a  sullen,  gloomy,  or  frowning 
■  look. 

"  She  looked  hautely,  and  gaue  me  a  glum." 

Skelton:  Crowne  of  Laurell. 

glu'-ma,  s.    [Glume.] 

*  gluma-exterior,  gluma-calyeina- 
lia,  s. 

Bot. :  The  same  as  Glume  (q.v.). 

*  gluma  -  interior,  gluma  -  corol  - 
lina,  s. 

Bot. :  The  same  as  Glumella  (q.v.). 

glu-ma  ce  ous  (or  ceous  as  shus),  a. 

[Eng.,  &c.  glumme)  (q.v.)  -aceous.] 

Bot. :  Possessed  of  glumes  resembling  the 
flowers  of  grasses. 

glu'-mal,  a.     [Mod.  Lat.  glumalis.] 

Bot. :  Of,  belonging  to,  or  characterized  by 
the  possession  of  a  glume  ;  pertaining  or  re- 
lating to  the  Glumales  (q.v.). 

glumal-alliance,  s. 

Bot.  :  The  English  name  given  by  Lindlcy 
to  the  alliance  Glumales  (q.v.). 

glu  ma -les,  s.  pi.  [Masc.  or  fem.  pi.  of 
Mod.  Lat.  glumalis,  from  Class.  Lat.  gluma 

Bot. ;  The  Glumal  Alliance.  It  consists  of 
Endogens  possessed  of  glumes.  [Glume.] 
Lindley  placed  under  it  the  orders  Gramin- 
aceee,  Cyperaceae,  Desvauxiaceae,  Restiaceas, 
and  Eriocaulacege; 

glume,  glu'-ma,  s.  [Lat.  gluma  =  a  hull  or 
husk,  especially"  of  corn  ;  glubo  —  to  deprive 
of  bark,  to  peel.] 

Bot. :  The  exterior  series  of  scales  consti- 
tuting the  flower  of  a  grass.     It  consists  of 

locusta  of  oat.    (Avena  saliva.) 

gl.  Glumes, 

empty  bracts.  The  name  was  given  by  Lin- 
naeus, and  adopted  by  Lindley. 

glu-mel'-la,  o.  [Fem.  dimin.  from  Lat.  gluma 

Bot. :  One  of  the  names  given  by  De 
Candolle  and  Desvaux  to  two  bracts  within 
the  glumes  of  a  grass ;  the  other  name  being 
pale.  In  one  of  the  bracts  the  midrib  quits 
the  blade  a  little '  below  the  apex,  and  is 
elongated  into  an  awn,  arista,  or  beard,  whilst 
the  other  bract  which  faces  the  fruit  has  its 
back  to  the  rachis,  is  bifid  at  the  apex,  has  no 
dorsal  veins,  and  has  a  rib  on  each  side  of  its 
inflexed  edges.  These  two  bracts  are  called 
by  Linnaeus  the  corolla  of  the  grass,  by  Jus- 
sieu  the  calyx,  by  Robert  Brown  the  perianth, 
and  by  Lindley  and  others  its  palese. 

glu-mel'-lu-la,  s.  [Fem.  dimin.  of  glumella, 
which  again  is*a  dimin.  of  gluma  (q.v.).] 

Bot.  :  The  name  given  by  Desvaux  and 
De  Candolle  to  either  of  two  minute  colourless, 
sometimes  connate,  hypogynous  scales  within 
the  glumes  of  grass.  They  are  the  nectarium 
of  Linnseus,  the  corolla  of  Micheli  and  Dumor- 
tier,  the  squamulae  (scales)  of  Jussieu,  Brown, 
and  Lindley. 

glu-mif'-er-se,  s.  pi.    [Lat.  gluma=a,  glume ; 
fero  =  to  bear,  to  produce,  to  bring  forth,  and 
Lat.  fem.  pl.suff.  -te.] 
Bot :  The  same  as  Glumales  (q.v.). 

glu-mif -er-ous,  a.  [Lat.  gluma  =  a  glume ; 
fero  =  to  bear,  to  produce,  to  bring  forth,  and 
Eng.  adj.  surf,  -ous.] 

Bot.  :  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  Glumiferse ; 
bearing  glumes. 

*  glum'-mish,  <*.  [Eng.  glum;  -ish.}  Dark, 
gloomy,  dismal. 

With  glummish  darkish  shade  bespreddes  the  same." 
Phaer  ■"   VirgU ;  *Eneid  xi. 

*  glum' -my,  a.  [Eng.  glum;  -y.]  Dark, 
gloomy,  dismal. 

"  Such  casual  blasts  may  happen,  as  are  most  to  be 
feared,  when  the  weather  waxeth  dark  and  glwmmy." 
—Knight :  Trial  of  Truth  (1580),  fo.  27. 

glum -ness,  s.  [Eng.  glum;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  glum ;  gloominess, 

t  glu'-mous,  a.    [Eng.  glum(e);  -ous.] 

Bot. :  Having  a  filiform  receptacle,  with  a 
common  glume  at  the  base. 

glump,  v.i.  [Glum,  o»]  To  look  sulky  or 
sullen  ;  to  show  sullenness  in  one's  manner. 

*glump'-y,  u.  [Eng.  glump;  -y.]  -Giam, 
sullen,  sulky. 

glunch,  u.  &  s.    [Etym.  doubtful.] 

A.  As  adj. :  Frowning,  gloomy,  sulky,  sullen. 

"  But  what's  the  use  of  looking  sue  glum  and  glunch 
about  a  pickle  banes "t"Scott:  Antiquary,  ch.  ix- 

B.  As  subst. :  A  sullen,  angry  look ;  a  frown ; 
a  look  of  disdain,  anger,  or  dislike. 

glut,  v.t.  &  i.  [Lat.  glutio,  ghdtio  =  to  swallow, 
to  gulp  down,  from  the  same  root  as  gula  = 
the  throat.] 

A.  Transitive: 

*  1,  To  swallow,  to  gulp  down. 

*  2.  To  swallow  up,  to  engulf. 

"  He'll  be  hanged  yet. 
Though  every  drop  of  water  swear  against  it, 
And  gape  at  wid'st  to  glut  him. " 

Shakcsjj.  :  Tempest,  i.  1. 

3.  To  cloy ;  to  fill  up  beyond  sufficiency  ;  to 
sate,  to  disgust. 

" Is  this  your  fate,  to  glut  the  doga  with  gore?" 
Pope  ;  Homer  ;  Hiad  xi.  050. 

4.  To  feast  or  delight  to  satiety ;   to  satiate. 
"  Go  glut  thy  eyes  with  thy  adored  Ianiena." 

Smith :  Phiedra  &  Hippol'Uus,  iii. 

*  5.  To  satm-ate. 

"The  menstruum,  being  already  glutted,  could  not 
act  powerfully  enough  to  dissolve  it.  '—Boyle. 

6.  To  overfill,  to  load  ;  to  fill  with  an  over- 
supply  of  anything. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  feast,  to  eat  to  satiety. 
"  Like  three  horses  that  have  broken  fence, 

And  glutted  all  night  long  breast-deep  in  corn. 
We  issued  gorged  with  knowledge." 

Tenn/json:  Pruiuess,  ii.  885. 

glut,  s.    [Glut,  v.] 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  That  which  is  swallowed. 

"  Deep-throated  engines  .  .  .  disgorging  fom 
Their  devilish  glut."         Milton:  l\  L.,  vi.  58ft. 

2.  Plenty,  even  to  loathing  or  disgust. 

3.  More  than  enough,  overmuch,  n  super- 

"An  abundance,  indeed  a  glut,  of  those  talents 
which  raise  men  to  eminence  in  sockties  torn  by 
internal  factions."— Maca-ulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xi. 

*  4,  Anything  which  fills  up  or  obstructs  a 

"The  water  some  suppose  to  pass  from  the  bottom 
of  the  sea  to  the  heads  of  springs,  through  certain  sub- 
terranean conduits  or  channels,  until  they  were,  by 
some  glut,  stopped,  or,  by  other  means,  arresteu  fn 
their  passage." — Woodward. 

5.  A  wooden  wedge  used  as  a  quoin,  a  chock 
in  splitting  timber,  or  as  a  fulcrum  to  a  lever. 
IL  Technically : 

1.  Arch.  :  An  arched  opening  to  the  ash-pit 
of  a  kiln. 

"The  nrex>Iaces  .  .  .  consist  of  mere  rectangular 
brick  chambers,  with  an  orifice  at  the  top  for  supply- 
ing the  fuel,  and  an  arched  opening  to  the  aah-pit, 
the  arch  itself  being  called  the  glut."S.  jV.  Redgrave, 
in  Cassell'a  Technical  Educator,  pt.  x.  p.  206. 

2.  Bricklaying :  A  small  brick  or  btock  in- 
troduced into  a  course  to  complete  it, 

3.  Comm,  :  An  oversupply  of  any  commo- 
dity in  the  market ;  a  supply  beyond  the 

4.  Naiitical: 

(1)  A  patch  at  the  centre  of  the  head  of  a 
sail,  having  an  eylet  for  the  becket-rope. 

(2)  A  choking,  as  by  throwing  the  fall  of  a 
rope  across  the  sheaves. 

glut-brick,  s.    The  same  as  Glut,  II.  2 


"The  fire  is  prevented  from  falling  out  of  the  flre- 
hole  by  means  of  a  rough  open  wall  of  brickbats, 
called  the  glut-bricks."— 0.  H.  Redgrave,  in  C'assell't 
Technical  Educator,  pt.  x.,  p.  20fi. 

glu'-tse-iis,  o.    [Gluteus.] 

glu'-ti&m-ate,  &    [Eng.  glutamj^ic) ;  -crte.j 
Chem. :  A  salt  of  glutamic-acid  (q.  v.). 

glu-tetm'-ic,  a.  [Eng.,  &c.  glut(en),  and  amic, 
an  acid  containing  the  radical  (NH.2).]  For 
def,  see  compound. 

glutamic  acid,  s. 

Chem. :  Glutamic-acid,  amido-glutaric  acid 

WH**  or  CH1<c^oYh°'OE 
Obtained  by  boiling  vegetable  gluten  with 
dilute  sulphuric  acid,  or  casein  with  hydro- 

boil,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  gell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;   go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  ^Cenophon,  exist,      ing. 
clan,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -  sion  =  shun ;  -(ion,  -sion  -  zhun.     -cious,  - tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble.  -die.  &c.  -  bel.  del. 

glutanate— gluttonous 

chloric  acid  and  stannous  chloride.  It  is  best 
prepared  by  boiling  the  gluten  with  82  per 
cent,  alcohol,  winch  extracts  the  mucin,  and 
boiling  for  twenty-four  hours,  with  an  in- 
verted condenser,  one  part  of  the  mucin  with 
three  parts  of  sulphuric  acid  and  six  parts 
of  water  ;  it  w  then  filtered,  saturated  with 
chalk,  filtered  and  evaporated  to  one-third 
of  its  bulk  ;  the  calcium  salt  is  decomposed 
by  oxalic  acid,  the  excess  of  oxalic  acid  is 
removed  by  carbonate  of  lead,  and  the  excess 
of  ri)U03  by  H2S  gas,  and,  the  filtrate  evapo- 
rated, ty rosin  crystallizes  out,  and  afterwards 
the  glutamic  acid,  which  crystallizes  out  of 
hot  water  in  tetrahedral  crystals,  which  are 
nearly  insoluble  in  alcohol  and  in  ether,  melt 
with  partial  decomposition  at  140°.  Glutamic 
acid  forms  crystalline  compounds  with  acids, 
and  also  forms  salts.  The  barium  salt  gives 
characteristic  needle  groups  like  "Wawellite. 

glu  tan   ate,  s.     [Bug.  glutan(ic) ;  -ate.] 
Ghem. .  A  salt  of  glutanic  acid  (q.v.). 

glu-tan'-ie,  a.     [Eng.  glutamic)  ;  n  connect- 
ive ;  -in,]     For  def.  see  compound. 

glutanic -acid,  s. 

Ghem.  :  Oxyglutaric  acid,  TJnsymmetrical 
hydroxypyrotartaric  acid. 

C5H803  or  CH(OH)"CO-OH 


Obtained  by  passing  nitrous  gas  into  a  solu- 
tion of  glutamic  acid  in  nitric  acid,  or  by 
acting  on  a  dilute  solution  of  glutamic  acid  in 
hydrochloric  acid  by  potassium  nitrite,  evapo- 
rating on  a  water  bath  a-nd  slaking  out  with 
ether.  It  forms  small  crystals,  which  melt  at 
72°.  When  heated  to  190°,  the  anhydride  is 
formed.  Heated  with  hydriodic  acid  to  120°, 
glutanic  acid  is  reduced  to  normal  pyrotar- 
taric  acid.  Glutanic  acid  forms  crystalline 
salts,  called  glutanates,  which  are  only  slightly 
soluble  in  cold  water. 

glu'-tar-ate,    s,     [Eng.   glutamic),  and  suff. 

Chem.  :  A  salt  of  glutaric  acid  (q.v.). 

glu-tar'-ic,  o.     [Eng.  gluta(mic);  r  connect- 
ive ;  -tc]    For  def.  see  compound. 

glutaric  acid,  s. 

Glmn,  :  Normal  pyrotartaric  acid.  C5H0OJ, 
or  HO-OC-OH3-CH2-CH2.CO-OH.  Obtained 
by  heating  glutanic  acid  with  hydriodic  acid 
to  120° ;  or  by  boiling  for  four  hours  one  volume 
of  normal  propylene  cyanide  CH2'(CH2"Cn)2 
with  a  volume  and  a  half  of  faming  hydro- 
chloric acid,  evaporating  on  a  water  bath  and 
extracting  with  absolute  alcohol ;  or  by  treat- 
ing ethyl  sodaceto-acetate  with  ethylic  £  iodo- 
propionate,  and  decomposing  the  resulting 
ethylic  aceto-glutanate  with  concentrated  al- 
coholic potash.  Glutaric  acid  crystallizes  out 
of  water  in  large  transparent  monoclinic  prisms, 
which  melt  at  97'5,  and  distil  at  304°;  it  is 
easily  soluble  in  water,  alcohol,  and  in  ether. 
It  forms  crystalline  salts  called  glutarates. 

Glutaric  anhydride,  C5H6O3,  is  obtained  by 
the  action  of  acetyl  chloride  on  the  silver  salt, 
or  by  slowly  heating  the  acid  at  230°  to  280°. 
It  forms  fine  needles,  which  melt  at  56°,  and 
are  only  slightly  soluble  in  cold  ether. 

glu'-te-al,  a.     [Lat.  gluteus;  Eng.  suff.  -at.] 
Antff. :  Pertaining  to,  or  connected  with, 
the   muscle-i  called  glutei,   or    to    the    but- 

glu'-te-i,     [Gluteus.] 

gluVten,  s.    [Lat.] 

Chew.  :  An  albuminous  substance,  obtained 
by  mixing  ten  parts  of  wheat-meal  with  eight 
parts  of  water,  and  allowing  it  to  stand  for 
half-an-hour ;  it  is  then  washed  with  water, 
and  kneaded,  till  all  the  starch  is  washed 
away,  and  the  gluten  thus  obtained  is  a  tena- 
cious, yellowish-grey,  elastic  mass,  which  dries 
into  a  horny,  semi-tiansparent  mass,  re- 
sembling glue.  Gluten  is  soluble  in  dilute 
acids,  but  is  nearly  insoluble  in  water.  Moist 
gluten  putrefies  when  exposed  to  the  air,  un- 
less it  is  quickly  dried.  Gluten  is  partly 
soluble  in  80  per  cent,  alcohol ;  the  poi-tion 
insoluble  in  alcohol  is  called  vegetable  fibrin. 
The  alcoholic  solution  contains  mucin  and 
glutin,  or  vegetable  gelatine  (q.v.). 

gluten-bread,  s.  Brend  containing  a 
large  quantity  of  gluten.     It  has  been  largely 

used  in  diabetes,  but  few  people  are  able  to 
eat  it  for  any  length  of  time. 

*  glut-en-ry,  *  glut-en-er-ie,  *.  [Glut- 
to  NRY.] 

*  glut-er-nes,  *  glut-err-nesse,  s.  [Icel. 
glutr  =  voracious.]    Gluttony. 

"  Gluterrnesse  waccnethth  all  Galnessess." 

Onrtulum,  11,653. 

glu'-te-iis,  *  glu'-tse-iis  (pi.  glu'-te-i),  * 

[Gr.  yAouTos  (gloutos)  =  the  buttock.] 

Anat.  {PI.):  Three  muscles  of  the  hip,  the 
Gluteus  via-ximus,  the  gluteus  meclius.  and  the 
gluteus  minimus.  The  first  is  a  very  large  and 
coarsely  fasciculated  muscle,  which  makes  the 
buttock  prominent  in  man  :  its  use  is  to  ex- 
tend the  thigh.  The  second  is  smaller  ;  it  is 
partly  covered  by  the  muscle  already  men- 
tioned, and  acts  when  one  stands.  The  third 
is  the  smallest ;  it  is  covered  by  the  second 
one,  and  acts  as  an  abductor  of  the  thigh. 

glu'-tin,  glu'-tine,  s     [Eng.,  &c.  glut(en) ; 

-in,,  -ine.] 

Chem.  :  Vegetable  gelatine.  Obtained  along 
with  mucin  by  heating  gluten  in  small  frag- 
ments, with  alcohol  of  80  per  cent.,  and  then 
with  alcohol  of  70  per  cent.  ;  the  alcoholic 
solutions  are  united,  and  the  half  of  the  alco- 
hol distilled  off.  On  cooling  it  deposits  a 
mixture  of  glutin  and  mucin.  The  deposit  is 
dissolved  in  50  per  cent,  alcohol,  and  filtered 
through  calico  whilst  hot,  and  then  agitated 
till  it  is  cold  ;  most  of  the  mucin  is  precipi- 
tated, the  filtered  liquid  is  evaporated  in  a 
water  bath,  and  the  glutin  dissolved  in  alcohol. 
Glutin  containing  water  is  a  fluid  resembling 
a  yellow  varnish.  Absolute  alcohol  precipi- 
tates it  as  a  solid  yellow-white  substance, 
which  can  be  dried  over  sulphuric  acid  ;  when 
rubbed  dry,  glutin  becomes  electric.  Glutin 
is  soluble  in  alkalis,  and  in  dilute  hydrochloric 
acid,  and  acetic  acid.  The  chemical  formula 
of  glutin  is  not  known.  The  analysis  gave : 
carbon  527,  hydrogen  7*1,  nitrogen  18"0,  and 
sulphur  0-9  per  cent. 

glu '-tin-ate,  v.t.  [Lat.  glutinatus,  pa.  par. 
of  ghithno  =  to  cement ;  gluten  (genit.  glutinis) 
=glue.]  To  cement  or  unite  with  glue  ;  to  glue. 

glu-tin-a'-tion,  s.  [Lat.  glutinatio,  from 
glutinatus,  pa.  par.  of  glutino  =  to  glue,  to 
cement.]  The  act  or  process  of  cementing  or 
uniting  with  glue. 

glu'-tin-a-tive,  a.  [Eng.  glvtinat{c);  -ive ; 
Fr.  glutinatif;  Ital.  glutinativo.  ]  Having  the 
quality  of  cementing  ;  glutinous;  viscous. 

glu'-tine,  *.     [Glutin.] 

*glu'-tm-ing,  a.  [Lat.  glutin(o)  =  to  glue,  to 
cement;  suff.  -ing.]  Glutinous,  viscid,  cement- 

"Leaving  an  aquatic  and  viscous  glut  ining  kind  of 
sweat  up&u  the  glass."—  Digby  :  Of  the  Symimthetic 

glu-tin'-i-iim,  s.    [Lat.  =  gluten.] 

Bot. :  The  flesh  of  certain  fungals.  (Treas. 

*  glu'-ti-ndse, «..    [Glutinous.] 

■  glu-tin-os'-i-ty,    *  glu-tin-os-i-tie,  5. 

[Fr.  glutinositc;  Sp.  glutinosidad ;  Ital.  glu- 
tinosita,  from  Lat.  glutinosus  =  glutinous.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  glutinous  ;  glu- 

glu  tin -oils,  a.  [Lat.  glutinosus,  from  glu- 
tinum  =  glixe  ;  Fr.  glutineux;  Sp.,  Port.,  & 
Ital.  glutinoso.] 

1.  Orel.  Lang.  :  Viscous  ;  viscid  ;  gluey ; 
tenacious  ;  having  the  quality  of  or  resembling 

"  All  these  threads,  being  newly  spun,  are  glutinous, 
and,  therefore,  stick  to  each  other  whenever  they  hap- 
pen to  touch."— Goldsmith :  The  Dee,  iv. 

2.  Bot.  :  Viscid,  glutinose,  adhesive,  gluey, 
covered  with  a  sticky  exudation. 

glu'-tin-oiis-ness, s.  [Eng.  glutinous;  -nvss.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  glutinous  ;  glu- 
tinosity ;  viscousness. 

"  In  good  spirit  of  wine,  whose  tenacity  and  glutin- 
ousness  is  far  lesa  than  that  of  water,  bubbles  rarely 
continue  on  the  liquor."— Doyle  :   Works,  vol.  v.,  p  205. 

glut-man,  s.    [Eng.  glut,  and  man,]    A  term 

used  in  the  Custom-house  for  an  extra  officer 
employed  when  there  is  a  glut  of  work. 

gluts,  s.  [Glut,  $.]  A  local  name  in  Oxford- 
shire for  the  broad  -  nosed  eel  (Anguilla 

glut-ting,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Glut,  v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  £  particip.  adj.  :  (See 

the  verb). 
C.  As  subst. :  The  act  of  swallowing  greedily, 

or  gulping  down  food. 

"Glutting  of  meals  which  weakeneth  the  body."— 
Sir  if.  C'hee'ke:  The  Uurt  of  SedilHn. 

glut-ton,  *•  glot-on,   •"  glot-one,  *  glot- 
oun,  *  glut-on,  "■  glut-ten,  s.  &  a.   [O.  Fr. 

gloton  (Fr.  glouton),  from  Lat.  gtutoncm,  aeons, 
of  gluts  =  a  glutton,  from  glutio  =  to  devour, 
to  gulp  down  ;  Sp.  gloton;  Port,  glotao  ;  ItaL 

A.  As  substantive : 

I.  Ordinary  Language  : 

1.  One  who  indulges  in  eating  or  drinking 
to  excess  ;  a  gormandizer ;  one  who  gorges 
himself  with  food. 

"  They  beeth  in  etynge  and  in  drynkynge  glotouns." 
— Trevisa,  ii.  171. 

2.  One  who  indulges  in  or  is  eager  for  any- 
thing in  excess. . 

"  Gluttons  in  murder,  wanton  to  destroy, 
Their  fatal  hearts  so  impiously  employ."     Granville. 

*3.  A  wretch  ;  an  epithet  of  contempt  and 

"  A  glotoun,  saide  the  emperer,  entempre  thou  beter 
thy  tonge  !"  Sir  Ferumbras,  104. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Zool. :  The  popular  name  for  the  Wol- 
verene or  Wolverine  (Gulo  luscus),  a  carnivorous 
mammal  of  the  family  Melidee  (Badgers).  It 
is  a  voracious  animal,  but  not  quite  meriting 
the  stigma  of  being  called  a  glutton.  The 
calumnies  seem  to  have  been  first  circulated 
by  Olaus  Magnus,  Buffon  following  in  his 
train.  The  English  residents  at  Hudson's 
Bay  call  it  Quickehatch,  or  what  Catesby  and 
Ellis  spell  Quickhatch,  and  Graham  Quiqui- 
hatch.  Its  length  is  from  two  to  three  feet. 
It  occurs  in  high  latitudes  in  Europe,  Asia, 
and  North  America.  Its  motions  are  slow, 
but  it  manages  to  feed  on  mice,  marmots,  and 
other  rodents,  and,  when  it  can  obtain  them, 
on  larger  quadrupeds  alive  or  dead.  Hence 
Buffon  formally  described  it  as  a  quadruped- 
vulture.  In  North  America  it  looks  out  for 
marten-traps,  set  in  connection  with  the  fur 
trade,  carefully  avoids  personally  entering 
them,  but,  standing  outside,  pulls  them 
asunder,  scattering  the  logs  about,  and  rends 
to  pieces  any  martens  that  may  have  been 
caught,  but,  instead  of  eating  them,  buries 
them  in  the  snow.  Its  fur  is  of  little  value. 
When  caught  it  emits  an  insupportable  stench. 
Its  footprints  iu  the  snow  resemble  those  of  a 
young  bear.     [Gulo,  Wolverene.] 

2.  Palceont. :  In  1871  Prof.  Boyd  Dawkins 
intimated  the  discovery  of  the  glutton  in  Galt- 
faenan  Cave,  near  Cefn,  St.  Asaph,  in  deposits 
"of  the  pleistocene  or  quaternary  age."  (Qaar. 
Jour.  Geo.  Sec,  xxviii.  406,  &c.)  It  has  siuce 
beeu  found  in  the  Norfolk  Forest  bed  (Ibid., 
xxxvi.  p.  99). 

B.  As  adj.  :  Pertaining  to  or  resembling  a 
glutton ;  gluttonous.  (Dryden ;  Eel.  Laid,  33.) 

*  glut-ton,  v.i.  &  t.    [Glutton,  s.] 

A.  Intnuis.  :  To  act  like  a  glutton;  to 
gluttonize  ;  to  gormandize. 

"Whereon  in  Egypt  gluttoning  they  fed."   Drayton, 

B.  Trans.  :  To  overfill ;  to  glut. 

"  Gluttoned  at  last,  return  at  home  to  pine." 

Lovelace  :  Lucasta  Posthuina,  p.  81. 

*  glut -ton  Ish,  a.    [Eng.  glutton;  -ish.]  Like 
a  glutton  ;  gluttonous. 

"Having  now  framed  their  gluttonish  stomachs  to 
have  for  food  the  wild  benefits  of  nature."— Sidney  ; 
Arcadia,  bk.  iv. 

*  gliit'-ton-ize,  v.i.    [Eng.  glutton;  -ize.]    To 
eat  as  a  glutton ;  to  eat  to  excess. 

"  What  reason  can  you  allege  why  you  should  glut, 
tonize  and  devour  as  much  as  would  honestly  suffice  ao 
many  of  your  brethren  ?  "—Marvell :   Works,  ii.  335. 

*  glut-  ton  -ly,    *  glut-oun-liche,   adv. 

[Eng.  glutton;  -ly.]  Like  a  glutton;  glut- 
tonously, voraciously. 

"That  thou  sselt  ete  zuythe  and  glotounlicTie."— 
Aycnbite,  p.  110. 

glut'-ton-ous,   *  glot-on-ous,  <.>,     [Eng. 
glutton;  -ons.] 

1.  Given  to  gluttony  or  excess  in  eating  and 
drinking ;  indulging  the  appetite  to  excess  ; 

"It  ia  rather ^to  pamper  your  gluttonous  ma.wea."— 
Bale :  English  Votaries,  pt  Ii. 

2.  Characterized  by  gluttony  or  excess. 
"  And  wantonness,  and  gluttonous  excess." 

Coiopcr:  Task,  1.  688. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  wXiat,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;   go,    pot 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son;  mute,  ciib,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     se,  oe  =  e.     ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

gluttonously— glycide 

glut'-ton-ous-ly,  *  glou-ton-ous-ly,  adv. 
[Eng.  gluttonous ;  -ly.]  In  a  gluttonous  manner ; 
like  a  glutton  ;  voraciously  ;  insatiably. 

"  Eclie  man  riotously  and  gloutonously,  not  lokyng 
for  other."—  Udal :  1  Cor.  xi. 

glut -ton-ous-ness,  s.     [Eng.  gluttonous; 
-ness.]    The  quality  or  state  of  being  glutton- 
ous ;  gluttony ;  insatiable  rapacity.    (Lit,  <0jhg.) 
*'  Penny-o-linine  gluttonousncis  is  doing  a  great  deal 
jf  harm."— Eclio,  Nov.  5,  1881,  p.  3. 

*  glut'-ton-ry,  *  glu-ten-er-iet  *.  [Eng. 
glutton;  -ry.]     Gluttony. 

glut'-ton-y,  *  glot-on-ie,  *  glot-on-y, 
*  glot-on-ye,  *  glot-en-y,  *  glot-un-ye, 

s.  [O.  Ft.  glotonie,  gloutonnie  ;  Fr.  glutonnie.] 
Excess  in  eating  or  drinking ;  excessive  or 
extravagant  indulgence  of  the  appetite  for 
food  ;  voracity  ;  gouvmandizing. 

"  Their  sumptuous  gluttonies  and  gorgeous  feasts." 
A  Milton:  P.  Ji.,  iv.  114. 

glu'-y;  a.    [Gluey.] 

gly9'-er-al§,  s.  pi.  [Eng.,  &c.  glycer(in),  and 

Chem. :  Compounds  analogous  to  acetals, 
obtained  by  heating  glycerin  with  aldehydes 
for  thirty  hours  at  a  temperature  of  170° 
to  180°  ;  as  aceto-glyceral  C5H10O3,  or 
H2C  \  H 

I      \        I 
HC—  OH.  O— C  It  boils  at  184°  to  188°. 

I  I      i 

H2C O    CH3. 

gly5-er-S,m'-lC,  a.  [Eng.,  &c.  glycerin),  and 
amic.]    (For  def.  see  etyni.  and  compound.) 

glycerainic  acid,  s. 

Chem. :  Serin.  C3H7N03  or  C2H3(OH)-NH2- 
CO'OH.  A  monobasic,  triatomic,  amido-acid, 
obtained  by  boiling  silk  with  water  and 
evaporating  the  filtered  solution,  adding  a 
quarter  of  its  volume  of  sulphuric  acid,  and 
boiling  for  twenty-four  hours  ;  then  it  is  neu- 
tralized with  excess  of  calcium  hydrate,  the 
filtrate  is  evaporated  and  a  little  H2SO4  added 
to  neutralize  it.  Tyrosin  and  calcium  sul- 
phate first  separate  out  on  evaporation,  then 
serin,  and  lastly  a  little  leuein.  The  serin  is 
dissolved  in  40  parts  of  cold  water,  filtered, 
the  filtrate  neutralized  by  ammonia,  and  the 
calcium  salt  is  then  decomposed  by  carbon 
dioxide.  It  forms  monoelinic  crystals  -dis- 
solving in  24  parts  of  water  at  20°.  It  is  in- 
soluble in  alcohol  and  in  ether.  It  forms  crys- 
talline compounds  with  acids  and  with  bases. 

gly^eV-a-mine,  5.  [Eng.,  &c.  glycer(ine), 
and  amine.] 

Chem.  :  C3H9N02  or  CH2(OH)'CH(OH)-CHo/ 
NH2.  A  base  obtained  by  passing  ammonia 
gas  into  a  solution  of  dibromhydrin  C3H5'" 
(OH)Br2  in  absolute  alcohol.  Glyceramine  is 
a  liquid  soluble  in  water  and  in  ether. 

gl^9'-er-ate,  s.     [Eng.,  &c.  glycer(in);  -ate.] 
Chem  :  A  salt  of  glyceric-acid  (q.v.). 

gly-9er'-l-a,  s.  [Gr.  vAv/eepos  (glukeros)  = 
sweet,  in  allusion  to  the  sweetness  of  the  grain.  ] 
Bnt.  ;  Manna  grass,  a  genus  of  grasses,  tribe 
Festuceae,  family  Bromidae.  The  glumes  are 
convex,  five  to  seven  nerved,  the  tip  acute  or 
obtuse.  Seven  species  occur  in  Britain — 
(1)  Glyceria  aquatiea,  (2)  G.  Jlidtans,  (3)  G. 
maritima,  (4)  G.  distans,  (5)  G.  2irocumbens, 
(6)  G.  rigida,  and  (7)  G.  loliacea.  No.  2  is 
abundant  in  ditches  and  stagnant  waters  ; 
No.  Ion  the  sides  of  rivers,  ponds,  and  ditches; 
No.  6  in  dry  rocks  and  walls  ;  the  rest  occur 
either  on  muddy  or  on  sandy  sea  shores. 
Ducks  and  other  aquatic  birds  eat  their  seeds. 
Those  of  No.  2  are  used  under  the  name  of 
manna-croup  as  a  light  nutritious  food  for 

gly^'-er-lC,  a.       [Eng.,  <fcc.  glycer(tn) ;  -ic] 
.    '  Contained  in  or  prepared  from  glycerine  (q.v.). 

V  "The  flower  is  dipped  in  glyceric  liquid  so  as  to  re- 
ceive Alms  in  the  petals  and  the  central  part."— Times, 
Nov.  4.  1831,  p.  4. 

glyceric-acid,  s. 

A  thick  syrup,  obtained  by  the  'slow  action 
of  fuming  nitric  acid  on  glycerin,  the  two 
liquids  being  separated  by  a  layer  of  water ; 
it  is  soluble  in  alcohol  and  in  water.  When 
boiled  with  concentrated  caustic  potash,  it 
yields  oxalic  acid  and  lactic  acid.  When 
fused  with  caustic  potash  it  is  decomposed, 

acetate  and  formate  of  potassium  being 
formed ;  by  the  action  of  concentrated  hydri- 
odic  acid  it  yields  0  iodopropionic  acid.  By 
the  action  of  PC15  it  is  converted  into  dichloro- 
propionyl  chloride,  CH2C1-CHC1-C0"C1.  Gly- 
ceric-acid yields  crystalline  salts  called  glycer- 
ates.  Glyceric-acid  heated  to  105°  for  ten  hours 
yields  an  anhydride  which  crystallizes  out  of 
water  in  thin  needles,  which  are  insoluble  in 
cold  alcohol.  They  decompose  at  250°  without 

gly9'-er-lde,  s.  [Eng.,  &c.  glycer(in);  -ide.] 
Chem. :  A  name  given  to  ethers  of  the  tri- 
atomic  alcohol  glycerol,  C3Hg'"(OH)3.  They 
have  generally  the  termination  -in.  One,  two, 
or  three  hydroxyls  (OH)  can  be  replaced  by 
acid  radicals.  Thus  acetic  acid  forms  with 
glycerin  ethers  called  acetins.  One  molecule 
of  acetic  acid  4-  one  molecule  of  glycerol  yields 
mono-acetin  +  H20.  Two  molecules  of  acetic 
acid  and  one  molecule  of  glycerol  yield  di- 
acetin  +  2H20,  and  three  molecules  of  acetic 
acid  and  one  molecule  of  glycerol  yield  tri- 
acetin  +  3HoO.  Glycerides  occur  in  the  fat 
of  animals  "as  tri-stearin,  C3H5(0*C8H350)3, 
and  in  vegetable  fixed  oils,  as  tri-olein, 
C3H5"'(OC18H;130)3,  &c.  Glycerides  are  in- 
soluble in  water,  slightly  soluble  in  alcohol, 
and  more  soluble  in  ether.  Glycerides  are 
saponified  by  heating  them  with  alkalies,  with 
calcium  oxide,  or  lead  oxide,  yielding  glycerin 
and  salts  of  the  respective  acids.  [Fats, 
Oils.]  Glycerides  are  also  decomposed  into 
their  acids  and  glycerin  by  distillation  in  a 
current  of  steam,  the  temperature  being  kept 
between  550°  and  600°  F.  Mixed  ethers  of 
glycerin  and  alcoholic  radicals  are  ob- 
tained by  heating  nlono-  and  di-chlorhydrine 
with   sodium    alcoholates,   as    mono-ethylin, 

C3H5"N  OH  boiling  at  230°;    di-ethylin, 


C3H5'"^  OCH5  boiling  at  191°.     By  heating 

\  OC2H5l 
di-ethylin  with  sodium,  and  ethyl-iodide,  it  is 

converted    into    tri-ethylin,    C3H£ 


boiling  at  185°. 

gly9'-er-in,  gly9'-er-ine,  5.    [Gr.  yKvuepos 

(glukeros),  ykvicvs  (glukus)  =  sweet ;  -in,  -ine.] 
1.  Chem.  &  Comm. :  A  triatomic  alcohol  of 
the  fatty  series,  more  properly  called  glycerol 
Glycerin  was  discovered  in  1778  by  Scheele, 
who  obtained  it  in  the  preparation  of  lead- 
plaster  by  saponifying  lard  with  oxide  of  lead. 
Glycerin  occurs  in  most  natural  animal  and 
vegetable  fats  in  combination  with  fatty  acids, 
from  which  it  can  be  obtained  by  saponifying 
with  alkalis.  (Preparation  of  Soap.)  It 
is  also  formed  during  the  alcoholic  fermen- 
tation of  sugar.  Pure  glycerin  is  obtained  by 
heating  neutral  fats  in  a  still,  with  a  conden- 
sing apparatus,  and  passing  steam  in  small 
jets  through  the  melted  fat,  the  temperature 
being  kept  below  600°  F.,  and  above  550°F.  ; 
the  fat  acids  separate  out  in  the  receivers 
from  the  glycerin  and  water ;  the  glycerin  is 
then  concentrated  by  evaporation.  Glycerin 
is  a  thick,  colourless,  inodorous,  neutral  syrup, 
which  has  a  very  sweet  taste ;  it  mixes  with 
water  in  all  proportions,  is  soluble  in  alcohol 
and  in  chloroform,  but  insoluble  in  ether.  It 
can  be  obtained  by  freezing,  in  deliquescent 
rhombic  crystals,  which  melt  at  17°.  Glycerin 
boils  at  290° ;  it  is  very  hygroscopic ;  heated 
to  150°  it  burns  with  a  bluish  flame.  Glycerin 
dissolves  iodine  and  many  metallic  oxides  and 
salts,  also  salts  of  the  alkaloids.  The  sp.  gr. 
of  glycerin  is  1'26  at  15°,  compared  with  water 
at  43.  Glycerin  distilled  with  phosphorus 
pentachlonde,  P2CI5,  yields  acrolein.  By  the 
action  of  a  mixture  of  equal  parts  of  concen- 
trated nitric  acid  and  sulphuric  acid,  it  is  con- 
verted into  nitroglycerin,  CHa'O-CNOsO'CH' 
0(N02)'CH2-0(N02)  (q.v.).  Glycerin  is  used 
for  preserving  fruits,  &c. ;  also  as  a  solvent 
for  various  salts,  and  in  preparing  copying- 
ink  ;  also  as  a  lubricator  for  machinery  and 
clockwork,  and  is  placed  over  water  in  gas- 
meters  to  prevent  freezing,  and  is  used  for 
filling  floating  compasses.  It  is  employed  in  the 
form  of  nitroglycerin  in  the  preparation  of 
dynamite,  and  for  mixing  with  soap  to  form 
glycerin  soap, "  which  tends  to  soften  the 
skin.  Glycerin  is  often  used  to  adulterate 
wine,  beer,  milk,  &c.  Its  presence  can  be 
detected  by  evaporating  the  liquid  to  dryness 

on  a  water-bath,  and  extracting  the  residue 
with  alcohol;  the  alcoholic  solution  is  then 
evaporated  and  caustic  soda  added  till  it  is 
slightly  alkaline;  a  little  of  this  solution 
placed  on  a  watch  glass  and  powdered  borax 
added,  glycerin,  if  present,  will  set  free  the 
boracic  acid,  which  gives  a  characteristic 
green  colour  when  introduced  into  a  flame  on 
a  platinum  wire. 

2.  Phar. :  Glycerin  is  used  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  Glycerinum  acidl  carbolici,  glycerin  of 
carbolic  acid  ;  Glycerinum  ucidi  gallici,  glyce- 
rin of  gallic  acid  ;  Glycerinum  acidi  tunnici, 
glycerin  of  tannic  acid,  in  which  four  fluid 
ounces  of  glycerin  are  mixed  with  one  ounce 
of  the  acid  ;  Glycerinum  amyli,  glycerin  of 
starch  ;  Glycerinum  boracis,  glycerin  of  borax. 
These  compounds  are  called  glycerina  or  gly- 
cerines. Glycerin  is  used  on  account  of  its 
physical  properties  as  an  adjunct  to  lotions  in 
skin  diseases  to  prevent  the  surface  becoming 
dry.  It  can  be  used  as  a  substitute  for  sugar 
in  the  diet  of  diabetic  patients.  It  is  often 
adulterated  with  glucose  and  cane  sugar, 
which  can  be  detected  by  expelling  the  water 
by  heat,  and  treating  with  chloroform,  which 
dissolves  the  glycerin  and  leaves  the  sugar  as 
an  insoluble  residue. 

gly9'-er-i-zine,  s.    [Glvcyrbhizin.] 

gly9'-er-6l,  s.     [Eng.,  &c.  glycer(in),  and 
(alcoh)ol  (q.v.).] 

Chem.  ;  The  chemical  name  for  glycerine 

T[  Synthesis  of  Glycerol:  Acetone,  CH3CO 
CH3,  is  converted  into  isopropyl  alcohol, 
CH3-CH(0H)-CH3,  by  the  action  of  sodium 
amalgam.  This  is  converted  into  propylene, 
CH2  =  CH'CH3.  By  heating  it  with  zinc 
chloride,  the  propylene  is  passed  into  a  con- 
centrated solution  of  iodine  chlorine  ;  the 
propylene  chloriodide  thus  produced  is  sus- 
pended in  water,  and  chlorine  gas  passed  into 
the  liquid  till  the  iodine  first  precipitated  is 
redissolved ;  the  pure  propylene  dichloride 
was  then  heated  with  dry  iodine  chlorine  in 
sealed  tubes  to  140°  for  eight  hours,  the  tubes 
being  opened  after  a  while  to  allow  the  escape 
of  the  hydrochloric  acid  gas,  then  again  sealed 
up,  and  heated  to  140°  for  eight  hours.  To 
remove  the  excess  of  iodine,  the  contents  of 
the  tubes  are  mixed  with  water,  and  chlorine 
passed  into  the  liquid  till  the  whole  of  the 
iodine  is  dissolved  in  the  water  as  iodine 
chloride  ;  the  product  is  separated  from  the 
water  and  dried,  and  fractionally  distilled.  An 
impure  trichlorhydrin,  CH2C1'CHC1-CH2C1,  is 
obtained,  which,  heated  with  water  to  180°, 
yields  glycerin.     (Watts:  Diet.  Chem.) 

gly9'-er-yl,_ s.     [Eng.,  &c.   glycer(in);  -yl  ~ 
Gr.  iJyrj  (hule)  =  matter.] 

Chem.  :  C3H5'".  The  triatomic  radical  of 
glycerin  and  the  glycerides. 

glyceryl-chloride,  i.  [Chlorbydrins.] 
glyceryl-oxide,  ^ 

Uiem.  :  Glyceryl  ether  (C3Hg)203.  Obtained 
by  distilling  glycerin  with  calcium  chloride.  It 
is  a  colourless  oily  liquid,  boilingat  172°.  It  mixes 
with  water,  alcohol,  and  ether.  Heated  with 
water  in  a  sealed  tube  at  100°  it  is  converted  into 
glycerin  ;  it  unites  with  bromine,  forming  di- 
bromhydrin. It  is  not  attacked  by  sodium 
amalgam ;  it  is  oxidized  by  chromic  acid 
mixture,  yielding  formic  acid  and  acetic  acid. 

gly-9id'-a-mine,  o.      [Eng.,  &a.  glycid(e)> 
and  amine.] 

Chem.  .  C3H7NO,  or  O^™^.^-  A 
base  produced  by  the  action  of  alcohol,  con- 
taining one  per  cent,  of  ammonia  or  dichlor- 
hydriu.  The  hydrochlorate  forms  hygro- 
scopic crystals,  C^^NO-HCl. 

gly9'-ide,  ,>.     [Eng.,  &c.  glyc(erin),  and  (anhy- 

Chem.  :  C3H«02,  or  O^  1    ,  an  alcohol  ob- 

tained  by  dissolving  glycidic  acetate  in  ether, 
adding  caustic  soda,  the  solution  being  cooled 
with  ice.  Glycide  is  a  liquid  boiling  at  163°. 
It  is  soluble  in  water,  alcohol,  and  ether ; 
heated  with  water  it  is  converted  into  gly- 
cerin ;  by  the  action  of  dilute  nitric  acid  it 
is  converted  into  mono- nitroglycerin  ;  it  re- 
duces an  ammoniacal  solution  of  silver  salts 
at  ordinary  temperatures. 

boll,  bo$;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  9M11,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist.     ph  =  f 
-cian.  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -tious,   -cious,   -sious  -  shus.     -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


glycidic— glycollic 

gly-cid'-ic,  a.  [Eng;,  &c,  glyeM(e);  4c.] 
Contained  in  or  derived  from  glycide  (q.v.)- 

glycidic-ethors,  s.  pi. 

Chem. :  Obtained  by  heating  epichlorhydrin 
(q.v.)»  with  alcohol  to  180°  as  ethyl  glycidic 

ether,  Or  |  boiling  at  128°,   and 



glycidic    acetate,     0<  |       obtained  by  heat- 


ing  epichlorhydrin  with  dry  potassium  acetate 
to  115°,  and  then  to  150".     It  boils  at  168°. 

gly'-^sln,  *.    [Glycocine.] 

glyc'-i-n§,  s;  [Gr.  ykvKvs  (gluktis)  =  sweet, 
because  the  leaves  and  roots  of  some  species 
are  sweet.] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  sub-tribe 
Glycines  (q.v.),  the  species,  all  but  one  of 
which  are  decumbent  if  not  even  twining, 
have  alternate  leaves  with  axillary  racemes  or 
fascicles  of  yellow  flowers.  Locality,  the 
warmer  parts  of  the  Old  World.  Glycine  Soja, 
the  erect  species  alluded  to,  is  cultivated  in 
the  East  Indies  for  its  beans.  From  these  the 
Japanese  make  a  sauce  called  sooja  or  soy. 
The  garden  plant  called  Glycine  is  now  re- 
moved to  Milletia. 

gly-Cin'-e-se,  s.  pi.  [Lat.  glycine,  and  fem. 
pi.  adj.  snff.  -cce.] 

Bot. !  A  sub-tribe  of  papilionaceous  plants, 
tribe  Phaseoleee. 

gly-CO-,  pre/.  [Gr.  yKvitvs  (glukus)  =  sweet.] 

gly-CO-chS -late,  s.   [Eng.  glycochol(ic) ;  -ate.] 
Cliem. ;  A  salt  of  glycocholic-acid  (q.v.). 

gly'-CO-Cho-Hc,  a.  [Bng.,  &c.  glycogen),  and 
clutlic  (q.v.).]    (For  def.,  see  compound.) 

glycocholic-acid,  «. 

Ohem. :;  C26H43NOfj.  An  acid  occurring  as  a 
sodium,  salt  in  the  bile  of  most  animals.  It  is 
obtained  by  covering  fresh  bile  in  a  tall  glass 
cylinder  with  a  layer  of  ether,  and  adding 
1  c.c  of  strong  HC1.  to  every  50  c.c.  of  bile  ; 
in  a  few  days  a  crystalline  mass  is  formed, 
which  is  filtered,  washed  with  cold  water, 
and  crystallized  out  of  boiling  water ;  it 
forms  fine  needles,  which  melt  at  100°,  and 
are  soluble  in  alcohol ;  when  boiled  with 
baryta  water,  it  is  decomposed  into  cholic 
acid  and  glycocine,  C26H43NO6  4-  H20  = 
C24H4oOfl  +  C2H5NO2.  On  adding  to  a  solu- 
tion of  an  alkaline  glycocholate  a  few  drops 
of  a  solution  of  sugar,  then  a  drop  of  strong 
sulphuric  acid,  a  red  to  a  violet  colour  is  pro- 
duced. Glycocholic  acid  forms  salts  which 
are  called  Glycocholates  ;  the  glycocholates 
of  the  alkalis  and  earth  metals  are  soluble  in 
water  and  in  alcohol.,  Glycocholate  of  sodium 
is  precipitated  from  its  alcoholic  solution  by 
ether;  acetate  of  lead  gives  a  precipitate 
which,  is  soluble  in  alcohol. 

gly'-co-clne,  s.  [Gr.  y\vn6$  (glukos)  =  sweet ; 

Chem. :  Glycocine,  glycine,  glycoeol,  amido- 
acetic  acid,  glycollamic  acid,  amido-glycollic 
acid.  C2HsN"02,.or  CH2(NH2)-CO'OH.  Gly- 
cocine can  be  obtained  by  boiling  gelatin 
with  baryta,  neutralizing  with  sulphuric  acid, 
evaporating  and  extracting  with  alcohol ;  by 
boiling  one  part  of  hippuric  acid  with  four 
parts  of  fuming  HC1,  filtered  when  cold  from 
the  benzoic  acid,  evaporating  to  expel  the 
excess  of  HC1,  washing  the  residue  with 
ammonia,  then  with  absolute  alcohol ;  by 
passing  cyanogen  gag  into  a  boiling  concen- 

trated  solution  of  hydriodic  acid,  |  +  2H20  + 

5HI  =  NH4I  +  2I2  +  I  ;  also  by  the 

reduction  by  zinc  and  HC1  of  cyan-carbonic 
ether  in  an  alcoholic  solution,  CN'CO'OC->H5-|- 
4H'-H20  +  CH2'NH2-COOH-[-C2H6-OH;  by 
heating  bromaeetic  acid  with  ammonia ;  also 
by  heating  to  600,  dry  ammonium  carbonate 
with  monochloracetic  acid.  It  has  a  sweet 
taste,  and  melts  at  170° ;  at  higher  tempera- 
tures it  is  decomposed.  It  gives  a  deep  red 
colour  with   ferric   chlorides,  which    is    de- 

stroyed by  acids,  but  restored  by  ammonia ; 
with  phenol  and  hypochlorite  of  sodium  it 
gives  a  beautiful  blue  colour.  Glycocine 
forms  crystalline  compounds  with  acids,  also 
salts  with  bases.  Glycocine  heated  with 
caustic  baryta  gives  off  methylamine  ;  heated 
with  sulphuric  acid  and  manganese  dioxide 
glycocine  is  decomposed  into  hydrocyanic 
acid,  water  at  C02.  Glycocine  heated  with 
nitrous  acid  is  converted  into  glycollic  acid, 
with  liberation  of  nitrogen. 

gly'-CO-col,  s.      [Gr.  yAufcu's  (glulais)  =  sweet, 
and  K6\\a  (kolla)  =  glue.]    [Glycocine.] 

gly-cd-cy-am'-i-dlne,  s.    [Eng.,  &c.  glyco- 
cyam(ine)  ;  -idene.] 
Chem.  .-    C3H5N3O,    or    HNC^^"^ 

A  base  obtained  by  heating  the  hydrochlorate 
of  glycocyamine  to  160°,  and  treating  the  hydro- 
chlorate  with  Pb(OH)2.  It  crystallizes  in 
deliquescent  plates,  which  are  very  soluble  in 
water,  having  an  alkaline  reaction. 

gly-co-cy'~a-mine,  s.   [Eng.,  &c.  glyco(cine); 
and  cyamine.] 

Cliem. :  Guanidacetylic  acid.  C-iH7N302,  or 
HN"  =  C(NH2XNH-CH2CO-04).  boiled  with 
water  and  dilute  sulphuric  acid,  it  is  resolved 
into  oxalic  acid,  guanidine,  and  carbonic  acid. 

gly-co-dru'-pose,  s.     [Eng.,   &c.  glyco(se), 
and  drupose.] 

Chem.  :  C2_iH3gO]fi.  The  strong  concretions 
in  pears,  produced  by  thickening  and  harden- 
ing of  the  cell  walls,  consists  of  this  substance, 
together  with  a  small  quantity  of  mineral 
matter,  which  is  removed  by  digesting  them 
with  dilute  acetic  acid.  Glycodrupose  is  in- 
soluble in  water,  alcohol,  and  ether  ;  boiled 
with  dilute  nitric  acid  it  yields  cellulose  and 
oxalic  acid,  boiled  with  dilute  hydrochloric 
acid  it  yields  drupose  and  glucose. 

gly'-co-gen,  s.  [Eng.,  &c.  glyco(se);  -gen.] 
Chem.  :  C^IIaoOio+I^o.  Glycogen  occurs 
in  the  liver  of  mammals,  and  iu  mollusca.  It 
is  a  white  powder,  which  dissolves  in  water, 
forming  an  opalescent  fluid,  which  is  four 
times  more  dextrorotary  than  a  solution  of 
dextrose  of  the  same  strength.  It  is  insoluble 
in  alcohol ;  it  gives  a  red  colour  with  iodine 
solution,  and  does  not  reduce  an  alkaline 
solution  of  cupric  oxide.  "When  boiled  with 
dilute  sulphuric  or  dilute  hydrochloric  acid, 
it  is  converted  into  glucose.  In  the  liver  of 
an  animal  that  has  been  long  dead  the  gly- 
cogen has  been  converted  into  glucose. 

gly'-co-gen-ate,  s.     [Eng.  glycogenic);  -ate,] 
Chem.  :  A  salt  of  glycogenic-acid  (q.v.). 

gly-co-gen'-ic,  a.     [Eng.,  &c.  glycogen;  -ic] 
Pertaining  to  or  derived  from  glycogen  (q.v.). 

glycogenic-acid,  s. 

Cliem. :  C6H1207.  An  acid  produced  by  the 
action  of  bromine  and  silver  oxide,  or  glyco- 
gen ;  it  is  a  syrup.  Its  salts  are  crystalline, 
soluble  in  water  and  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

gly'-col,  s.   [Eng. ,  &c.  glycerin),  and  (alcoh)ol] 
Cliemistry : 


1.  Sing. :  Ethene  glycol,  C2HgOo  or  | 

A  diatomic  alcohol  of  the  glycol  series ;  ob- 
tained by  distilling  ethene  diacetate  with 
caustic  potash.  Glycol  is  a  liquid  having  a 
sweet  taste,  boiling  at  197° ;  soluble  in  alcohol 
and  in  water,  only  slightly  soluble  in  ether. 
It  is  oxidized  by  nitric  acid,  forming  glycollic 
acid,  glyoxalic  acid,  and  oxalic  acid.  Heated 
to  250°  with  solid  caustic  potash,  it  yields 
potassium  oxalate,  and  gives  off"  hydrogen 
2KOH  +  C2H602=  K2C204+  SH.  Heated  with 
zincchloride,  ZnClo,  ityields aldehyde,  an  atom 
of  water  being  eliminated  ;  with  PC15  it  forms 
ethene  dichloride,  C2H4CI2 ;  by  the  action  of 
hydriodic  acid,  HI,  it  is  reduced  to  ethyl 
iodide,  C2H5I.  Metallic  sodium  can  replace 
either  one  or  two  atoms  of  hydrogen  in  the 
hydroxyl  radicals,  forming  sodium  ethenate, 

I  ,  and  disodium  diethenate,    | 

CH2ONa  CH2ONa. 

Glycol  dissolves  KHO-  aud  Ca(OH)2. 

2.  PI. :  Diatomic  alcohols  of  the  fatty  series, 
of  which  glycol  is  the  first  member.  They 
may  be  regarded  as  derived  from  hydro- 
carbons of  tne  paraffin  series,  CnH2n-r-2,  by 
the  substitution  of   two  hydroxyl  radicals, 

(OH)',  for  two  atoms  of  hydrogen,  attached 
to  different  carbon  atoms ;  or  from  ole tines, 
CnH2n,  by  the  union  with  two  hydroxyls. 
Glycols  are  obtained  by  combining  an  olefine 
with  two  atoms  of  bromine,  C2H4  +  Br2  = 

j  ,   and  converting  the  dibromide   into 


diacetate,  by  means  of  an  alcoholic  solution 
of  potassium  acetate,  and  decomposing  the 
diacetate  by  caustic  potash  ;  also  obtained  by 
combining  an  olefine  with  hypochlorous  acid, 
ClOH,   and  acting  on  the  chlorhydrin  thus 

obtained    by  moist    silver  oxide,     I  + 


AgOH  =  AgCl  +  I  ■      The  glycols  are 

colourless,  inodorous,  neutral  liquids,  having 
a  sweet  taste,  and  are  intermediate  compounds 
between  monatoinic  alcohols  and  glycerols. 
They  are  soluble  iu  water  and  alcohol,  bur 
only  slightly  soluble  in  ether.  By  the  action 
of  hydrochloric  acid  they  are  converted  into 
monatomic  alcohols. 

gly-cdl'-ic,  a.      [Eng.,  &c.  glycol;  -ic]     De- 
rived from  or  pertaining  to  glycol. 

glycolic-ethers,  s.  pi. 

Cliem.  :  The  ethers  of  diatomic  alcohols 
or  glycols,  the  hydrogen  in  the  hydroxyl 
radical  being  replaced  by  an  acid  radical,  as 

c2h<oh>  eiycoi,  c2H4<g^2H3Oj  glycol 

acetate,    or    monoacetate    of   ethylene, 
C2H4<^q.q^3q.  glycol  diacetate,  or  diacetate 
of  ethylene,    or  by    an   alcohol  radical,  as, 
C^H^q^2115,     glycol    monoethylate,     and 

C2H4<^;£i2**5,  glycol  diethylate. 

gly-co-lig'-nose,  s.     [Pref.  glyco-,  and  Eng., 
&c.  lignose-(q.v.).\ 

Cliem. :  C3oH4COii.  A  yellowish  white  sub- 
stance, obtained  by  exhausting  the  wood  of 
the  spruce  fir,  Abies  ezcelsa,  with  dilute  acetic 
acid,  alcohol,  and  ether.  It  is  decomposed 
by  boiling  with  hydrochloric  acid,  yielding 
glucose  and  lignose,  CisE^eHn.  Glycolignose 
fused  with  caustic  potash  yields  potassium 
salts  of  oxalic  and  succinic  acids,  and  pyro- 
catechin,  C6H4(OH)2-(l-2). 

gly-col'  -la-mide, 


[Eng.  glycoll(ic),  and 

Cliem.  :  C2H5N02,  or    |  The  amide 

of  glycollic  acid.  Obtained  by  heating  ammo- 
nium tartronate  till  no  more  C02  is  given  off, 
and  recryst  alii  zing  from  water ;  also  by  the 
action  of  ammonia  on  ethyl  glycollate.  Gly- 
collamide  is  soluble  in  water,  and  slightly 
soluble  in  alcohol.  It  melts  at  120°.  By  the 
action  of  alkalis  or  dilute  acids  it  is  converted 
into  ammonia  and  glycollic  acid. 

gly '-col-late,  s.    [Eng.  glycolUic);  -ate.] 
Chem. :  A  oalt  of  glycollic  acid  (q.v.). 

gly-coT-lic,  a.  [Eng.,  &c.  glycol,  I  connective, 
-ic]  Derived  from  or  pertaining  to  glycol 

glycollic-acid,  5. 

Chem.;    Oxyacetic     acid,     oxacetic     acid, 

C2H403,  or   I  A  diatomic  monobasic 

fatty  acid,  containing  an  alcohol  and  an  acid 
radical.  It  occurs  in  sour  grapes  and  in  the 
leaves  of  Ampelopsis  hederaeea.  Glycollic  acid 
can  be  obtained  by  the  oxidation  of  glycol, 
by  the  action  of  nitric  acid  on  alcohol,  by 
heating  a  solution  of  oxalic  acid  to  100°  for  a 
week  with  granulated  zinc,  the  oxalic  acid 
being  reduced  by  the  nascent  hydrogen,  but 
it  is  best  obtained  by  boiling  in  a  flask  con- 
nected with  a  condenser  a  mixture  of  one 
part  of  chloracetic  acid,  CH2Cl'COOH,  with 
twenty-four  parts  of  water,  some  hours ;  the 
product  is  then  evaporated  on  a  water-bath. 
Glycollic  acid  crystallizes  out  of  water  in 
needles,  which  melt  at  80°.  It  is  soluble  in 
alcohol  and  in  ether ;  by  the  action  of  con- 
centrated nitric  acid  it  is  oxidized  into  oxalic 

acid,  I  Glycollic  acid  forms  crystalline 

salts  called  glycollates. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;  go,  pdt, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  wh6\  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     se,  ce-e;    ey  =  a.    qu=»kw. 

glycollide— glyptodon 

glycollic- anhydride,  s. 

CUvi.;    C4H605,    or    0<g^COOH^     A 

white  powder,  insoluble  in  alcohol,  ether,  and 
cold  water ;  when  boiled  with  water  it  is 
converted  into  glycollic  acid.  It  melts  at 
130",  and  is  obtained  by  heating  glycollic  acid 
for  a  long  time  on  a  water-bath. 

glycollic-ethers,  s.  pi. 

Chem.  :  Ethers  formed  by  replacing  the 
H  in  the  (CO'OH)  group  of  glycollic  acid 
by  alcohol  radicals,  as  methyl  glycollate, 

gly'-col-llde,  s.     [Eng.  glycolc(ia) ;  -Me.] 

Cliem.  :  An  anhydride  of  glycollic  acid, 
C2H2O3,  or  ^q^O,  obtained  by  heating  gly- 
collic acid  between  250°  to  280",  also  by  heating 
dry  potassium  chloracetate  to  110° — 120°,  or 
heating  tartronic  acid  to  180°.  It  is  a  powder 
insoluble  in  cold  water;  it  melts  at  220°. 
When  warmed  with  ammonia  it  is  converted 
into  glycollamide  (q.v.). 

gly'-co-lyl,  s.     [Eng.,  &c,  glycol  (q.v.) ;  -yl  - 
Gr.  vAtj  (hide)  =  matter.] 
Chem.  :  (For  def.,  see  etym.  and  compound). 

gly  colyl-gu  ani  din 



glycolyl-urea,  s.    [Hydantojn.] 

gly-co'-ni-an,  gly-con'-ic,  a.    [Gr.  yavkw- 
i/eios  (glulcoheios),  from  its  inventor  Glykon.] 

Pros. :  A  name  given  to  a  certain  kindof  verse 
in  Greek  and  Latin  poetry.  It  consists  of  three 
feet,  a  spondee,  a  choriamb,  and  a  pyTrhic : 
—  j-uu-]vw;  or  it  may  be  scanned  as  a 
spondee  and  two  dactyls  :  -  -  I 

-  U  V  [  -  u  u, 



gly-cds'-a-mme,  s.     [Eng.,  &c,  giucos(e\ 
and  amine.] 

Chem. :  CgHisNOs.  The  hydrochlorate  of 
this  base  is  obtained  by  boiling  chitin  for 
half  an  hour  with  concentrated  hydrochloric 
acid.  Glycosamine  crystallizes  from  alcohol  in 
needles  ;  it  reduces  cupric  solution. 



gly'-co-slde,  s     [Glucoside.] 

gly'-co-sine,  s.     [Eng.,   &c,  glyco(l),  s  con- 
nective, and  -me.] 

Chem. :  CgHgN4.  An  organic  base  obtained 
by  the  action  of  ammonia  on  glyoxal.  It  is  a 
colourless  crystalline  powder,  almost  insoluble 
in  water ;  it  sublimes  in  needles  without  melt- 
ing, dissolves  in  acids,  and  forms  crystalline 

gly-cos'-mis,  s.    [Pref.  glyco*,  and  Gr.  6(77177 
(osme)  =  smell.] 

Bot. :  A  genus  of  Aurantiacese.  Glycosmis 
citrifolia  bears  fruits  of  a  delicious  flavour. 

gly-cyr-rhe'-tin,     s.      [Eng.    g]ycyrrli(iza) ; 


Chem.  :  A  brown  brittle  resin,  obtained  by- 
boiling  glycyrrhizin  with  dilute  acids  ;  insolu- 
ble in  water,  soluble  in  alcohol  and  alkalis.  It 
dissolves  in  concentrated  sulphuric  acid,  form- 
ing a  red  solution,  which  changes  to  purple. 

gly-cyr-rhiz-a,  5.     [Gr.  yXvievs  (giukus)  = 
sweet,  and  pifja  (rhlza)  =  a  root.] 

1.  Bot. :  Agenusof  papilionaceous  plants,  sub- 
tribe  Galegese.  It  has  a  tubular,  five-cleft 
and  two-lipped  calyx,  and  an  ovate  com- 
pressed one  to  four-seeded  pod.  Glycyrrhiza 
glabra  is  said  to  furnish  the  Spanish  liquorice. 
[Liquorice.]  The  roots  of  G.  echinata  and 
G.  glandulifera  are  alleged  to  have  the  same 

2.  Pharm.  :  Liquorice-root.  The  recent  and 
dried  root  or  underground  stem  of  Glycyrrhiza 
glabra,  cultivated  in  England,  especially  at 
Pontefract,  in  Yorkshire.  [Pomfret  Cake.] 
It  occurs  in  cylindrical-branched  pieces, 
brown  on  the  surface  and  yellow  within, 
tough  and  pliable,  sweet  and  mucilaginous  to 
the  taste.  It  contains  a  substance  called 
Glycyrrhizin  (q.v.),  also  asparagine,  gum 
mucilage,  &c.  It  is  used  as  a  powder  in  pills, 
and  also  to  form  Extrartum  Glycyrrhizce,  ex- 
tract of  liquorice,  which  is  obtained  bymaeera- 
tion  and  percolation  of  the  root,  and  evapo- 
ration to  a  proper  consistence.     It  is  a  sweet 

demulcent,  useful  to  relieve  coughing  and  to 
sheathe  the  mucous  membrane.  It  is  often 
given  with  powdered  senna. 

gly-cyr-rhiz'-In,    0.     ■  [Eng.    glycyrrMz{a) 

Chem. :  C44H63NO18.  A  crystalline  sub- 
stance obtained  by  boiling  the  root  of  Glycyr- 
rhiza glabra  in  alcohol,  and  evaporating  the 
alcoholic  solution  to  dryness.  It  is  decom- 
posed by  boiling  with  dilute  acids  into  glucose 
and  glycyrrhetin.  When  fused  with  caustic 
potash  it  is  converted  into  para-oxybenzoic 
acid,  C6H4-OH*COOH.  (1—4). 

*glyn,  *glynne,  s.  [Irish.]  A  glen.  (It 
occurs  frequently  in  compound  names  of 
places  in  Ireland,  as  Glen  does  in  Scotland.) 
"  Though  he  could  not  beat  out  the  Irish,  yet  lie  did 
shut  them  up  within  those  narrow  corners  and  glyns 
under  the  mountain's  foot." — Spenser:  State  of  Ireland. 

gly-ox'-al,  5.      [Eng.,  &c.  gly(col)  ;  ox(alic), 
and  al(dehyde).~] 

Cliem. :  The  diatomic  aldehvde  of  glycol  and 

of  oxalic  acid,  C2H2O2  or  j  Obtained  by 

the  gradual  oxidation  of  ethyl-alcohol  by 
nitric  acid,  the  liquids  being  separated  by  a 
layer  of  water.  Glyoxal  is  a  transparent,  deli- 
quescent, amorphous  substance  ;  it  is  oxidized 
by  dilute  nitric  acid  into  glyoxalic  acid,  and 
by  concentrated  nitric  acid  into  oxalic  acid. 
It  reduces  an  ainmoniacal  solution  of  a  silver 
salt,  forming  a  metallic  mirror  ;  by  the  action 
of  alkalis  it  is  converted  into  glycollic  acid. 
A  very  dilute  solution  of  glyoxal,  when 
warmed  with  a  little  potassium  cyanide, 
KCN,  turns  a  dark  red  colour. 

gly-ox'-a-late,  *.    [Eng.  gloxal(ic);  -ate.] 
Chem. :  A  salt  of  gloxalic-acid  (q.v.). 

gly-ox-al'-lC,    a.      [Eng.,    &<;.    gly(col),   and 
oxalic]    (For  def.  see  compound.) 

glyoxalic-acid.  s. 

Chem.  :  Also  called  glyoxylic-acid,  C2H2O3 
or  prJ.QH  '  a  ^va(*  compound,  containing  an 
aldehyde  and  an  acid  radical.  Obtained  along 
with  glyoxal  by  oxidation  of  ethyl-alcohol 
with  nitric  acid  ;  also  by  heating  at  140°  one 
part  of  dichloracetic  acid,  CHCl2'COOH, 
with  ten  parts  of  water  for  twenty-four  hours. 
Glyoxalic  acid  is  a  thick  syrup,  which  can  be 
crystallized  over  H2S04.  It  is  very  soluble  in 
water,  and  can  be  distilled  in  a  current  of 
steam.  It  is  a  monobasic  acid,  forming  crys- 
talline salts  called  glyoxalates.  By  oxidizing 
agents  it  is  converted  into  oxalic  acid  ;  by 
nascent  hydrogen  it  is  reduced  to  glycollic 
acid.  It  has  also  the  properties  of  an  alde- 
hyde, reducing  aminoniacal  solutions  of  silver 
salts,  forming  a  metallic  mirror ;  also  unites 
with  alkaline  bisulphites.  Glyoxalic  acid, 
when  boiled  with  excess  of  limewater,  yields 
calcium  glycollate  and  calcium  oxalate. 

gly-6x'-a-line,  s.     [Eng.,  &c.  glyoxal;  -inc.] 
Chem. :  C3H4N0,  or  N^cH'C  H        Obtained 



by  treating  glyoxal,  kept  cool  by  ice,  with  a 
slight  excess  of  ammonia,  glycosine  separates 
as  a  powder,  the  filtered  liquid  is  boiled  with 
milk  of  lime,  evaporated  to  a  syrup,  and  ex- 
tracted with  alcohol,  and  distilling  the  alco- 
holic solution.  Glyoxaline  crystallizes  in  white 
prisms,  which  melt  at  89°,  and  boil  at  255°. 
It  is  soluble  in  water,  alcohol,  and  in  ether. 
It  unites  with  acids  to  form  crystalline  com- 

gly-ox-yl'-ic,  u.    [Glyoxalic] 

glyph,  s.  [Gr.  ykviftrj  (gluphe),  from  y\.v<poj 
(ghtpho)  =  to  carve.] 

Arch.  &  Sculpt. :  A  perpendicular  fluting  or 
channelling,  used  as  an  ornament. 

gly'-phae-a,  s.  [Gr.  y\v^  (gluphe)  =  carving, 
carved  work.] 

1.  Bot. :  A  genus  of  Tiliacese. 

2.  Palajont. :  A  genus  of  Macrurous  Crusta- 
ceans. Prof.  Morris  enumerates  one  species 
from,  the  Lias  and  two  from  the  Oolite. 

glyph'-Ic,  a.  [Gr.  yAu$uc6?  (gluphikos),  from 
yAv'$(u  (glupho)  =  to  carve.]  Pertaining  to 
carving  or  sculpture  ;  of  or  pertaining  to  a 
glyph  or  glyphs. 

gly' -phi-dee,  s.  pi.    [Mod.  Lat.  glyph(is),  and 

Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idee.] 

Bot.  .  A  family  of  Lichens,  tribe  Idiotha- 
lam  ete. 

glyph-ip-ter-yg'-i-dse,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat. 
glyphiptei-yx  (genit.  glyphipterygis),  and  Lat. 
fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idai.] 

Entom.  :  A  family  of  Moths,  group  Tineina. 
The  imago  has  the  head  generally  smooth ; 
the  labial  palpi  variable ;  the  maxUlary  palpi 
very  short,  the  anterior  wings  oblong  or  elon- 
gate ;  the  posterior  ones  ovate  or  lanceolate  ; 
the  flight  diurnal.  The  larva  has  sixteen  legs 
or  is  apodal.  It  generally  mines  in  leaves. 
Twenty-eight  British  species  are  known,  some 
of  them  very  small.    (Stainton.) 

glyph-ip'-ter-yx,  s.     [Gr.  y\v$L$  (gluphis) 

=  an  arrow-head,  and  7rrepv£  (pterux)  =  wing.] 

Entom. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family 

GlyphipterygidEe   (q.v.).     The  species  fly  in 

the  bright  sunshine. 

Sly'-Phis,  s.  [Gr.  y\v<f>ls  (gluphis)  =  a  notch 
of  an  arrow,  an  arrow.] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family  Gly- 
phidffi  (q.v.). 

glyph-6-graph,  v.t.  [Glyphograph,  s.]  To 
engrave  by  the  system  of  glyphography. 

glyph'-6-graph,  s.    [Gr.  yKv^rj  (ghtphe)  =  a 
carving ;  ypd<pu>  (grapho)  =  to  write,  to  draw.] 
Engrav.  :    A    plate    prepare*  by   glypho- 
graphy ;  an  impression  taken  from  such  a  plate. 

glyph-fig1- ra-pher,  s.  [Eng.  glyphograph); 
-er.]      One    who    is    skilled    in  or  practises 


glyph-o-graph'-ic,  a.  [Eng.  glyphograph; 
-ic]    Of  or  pertaining  to  glyphography. 

glyph-og'-ra-phy,  5.  [Gr.  ykv^  (gluphe)  = 
a  carving,  and  ypatfxo  (grapho)  =  to  write,  to 
draw.]  A  name  given  by  Mr.  Palmer  to  his 
relief  line  engraving.  A  thin  ground  of  wax 
is  spread  upon  the  plate ;  this  is  etched  or 
cut  away  so  as  to  give  the  design  in  intaglio. 
The  ground  is  now  covered  with  a  film  of 
graphite,  after  which  metal  is  precipitated 
upon  the  metal  in  an  electro-bath,  giving  a 
metallic  plate  with  the  design  in  relief.  The 
copper  shell  is  backed  with  lead  and  used  as 
an  ordinary  printing  surface. 

glyp'  -  tic,  a.  .[Gr.  yKvnTiK6<;  (gluptiko?)  = 
carving;    y\v<f>ut  (ghtpho)  =  to  engrave;    Fr. 


1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  Pertaining  or  relating  to 
engraving  on  precious  stones. 

2.  Min. :  Figured. 

glyp'-tics,  s.  [Glyptic,  a.]  The  art  of  en- 
graving on  precious  stones. 

glyp-td-,  pre/.  [Gr.  y\virr6s  (gluptos)  =  fit  for 
carving,  carved.]  Carved  or  looking  as  if  it 
were  so. 

glyp-to-cii'-ni-dss,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  glypto~ 
crin(us),  and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idas.] 

Palozont.  ;  A  family  of  Crinoidea.  It  has  no 
parabasals,  but  five  basals  with  six  inter- 
radials  in  each  inter-radial  space.  The  plates 
are  usually  ornamented  with  radiating  ridgea, 
as  if  they  had  been  carved  for  ornament,  whence 
the  name. 

glyp-td-cri'-nus,  s.  [Pref.  glypto-,  and  Gr. 
Kpwov  (krinon)  =  a  lily.]    [Glyptocriwid^e.] 

Palceont. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family 
Glypto crinidte  (q.v.).  Glyptocrinus  basalis  is 
figured  by  Murchisonfrom  the  Lower  Silurian 

glyp-to-dip-ter-i'-ni,  s.  pi.  [Pref.  glypto-; 
Gr.  Sinrepos  (dipteros)  =  with  two  wings, 
here  =  with  two  fins,  and  Lat.  masc.  plr  adj. 
suff.  -ini.] 

Palaiont. :  In  the  classification  of  Protessor 
Huxley,  a  family  of  fossil  ganoid  fishes,  sub- 
order Crossopterygidai.  There  are  two  dorsal 
fins,  the  scales  are  sculptured,  the  pectoral 
fins  acutely  lobate,  dentition  dendrodont. 
There  are  two  sub-families,  the  one  with  rhom- 
boidal,  and  the  other  with  cycloidal  scales. 
Under  the  latter  family  fall  the  genus  Holop- 
tychius,  &c. 

glyP'-to-don,  s.    [Pref.  glypto-,  and  Gr.  6Sov'« 
(odovs),  genit.  686ctos  (odontos)=  a  tooth.] 
Palceont. ;   A  huge  fossil  mammal,   family 

boil,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,      ing. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.     -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.      cious.  -tious,  -sious  =  sfaus.    -ble.  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


glyptograph— gnathodon 

Dasypodidae  (Armadillos).  It  was  encased  in 
armour,  there  being  bony  plates  on  the  head, 
and  nearly  hexagonal  bony  scutes  on  the  body 


It  belongs  to  the  Post-pliocene  of  South 
America.  Including  the  tail,  Glyptodon 
clavipes  was  more  than  nine  feet  long. 

glyp-  to  -graph,  s.  [Pref.  glypto-,  and  Gr. 
ypd<p<*  (graplw)  ~  to  write,  to  draw.]  An  en- 
graving on  precious  stones  or  gems. 

glyp-tSg'-ra-phei\  s.  [Eng.  glyptograph  ; 
-er.]  One  who  is  skilled  in  or  practises  glyp- 
tography ;  an  engraver  on  precious  stones. 

glyp-tO-graph'-lC,  a.  [Eng.  glyptograph  ; 
-ic]  Of  or  pertaining  to  glyptography,  or  the 
art  of  engraving  on  gems  or  precious  stones. 

glyp-tog'ra-phy,  s,  [Pref.  glypto-,  and  Gr. 
7pa0ij  (grapiw)  =  a  writing,  a  drawing.] 

1,  The  art  of  engraving  on  gems  or  precious 

2.  A  description  of  the  art  of  engraving  on 
gems  or  precious  stones. 

glyp-to-lse'-mus,  s.  [Pref.  glypto-,  and  Gr. 
Aaiju-d?  (laimos)  ~  the  throat.] 

Palmont. :  A  genus  of  Fossil  Ganoids,  family 
Glyptodi  pterin! ,  and  the  section  or  sub-family 
of  it  with  rhomboidal  scales.  It  has  been 
found  only  in  the  Devonian  rocks. 

glyp-to-saur'-i-dse,  s.  pi  [Mod.  Lat.  glyp- 
tosaur(us)  (q.v.),  and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  sulf. 

Palmont.  :  A  family  of  Lacertilia  (Lizards). 
The  skin  had  ornamented  osseous  scales.  It 
is  found  in  the  Tertiary  deposits. 

gljrp-to-saur -us,  s.  [Pref.  glypto-,  and  Gr. 
aaupos  (sauros),  o-avpa.  (saura)  =  a  lizard.] 

Palmont. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family 
Glyptosaurida?  (q.v.). 

glyp-to-the'-ca,  s.  [Pref.  glypto-,  and  Lat. 
t!ieca,;*Gr.  0tjio)  (theke)  —  a,  box,  a  chest.] 

Arch.,  dx.  :  A  box,  room,  or  building  for 
the  preservation  of  sculpture. 

*  glys'-ter,  s.     [Clyster.] 

gme-li'-na  (g  silent),  s.  [Named  after  John 
George  Gmelin,  a  celebrated  German  natural- 
ist, who  travelled  to  Siberia,  and  published  a 
flora  of  that  region.] 

Bat. :  A  genus  of  Verbenacese,  tribe  Viticese. 
The  leaves  of  Gmelina  parvijlora  render  water 
mucilaginous.  It  may  then  be  employed  as  a 
ptisan  for  the  cure  of  ardor  urince.    (Lindley.) 

gmel'-in-ite  (g  silent),  s.  [Named  after  Prof. 
Charles  Gmelin,  of  Tubingen.] 

Min.  :  A  colourless,  yellowish-white,  green- 
ish-white, or  reddish-white,  fresh,  transparent 
to  translucent  brittle  mineral,  crystallizing  in 
rhombohedrons.  Hardness,  4'5  ;  sp.  gr.,  2"04 
to  2*17.  Compos.  :  silica,  46'37  to  53*71 ; 
alumina,  17-63  to  21 '48;  lime,  367  to  11-48; 
soda,  3-10  to  7-29;  potassa,  0-39  to  1*87; 
water,  8*5*fcT  to  20*41.  Sarcolite,  Lederevite, 
and  Hydrolite  are  varieties.  Found  abroad  at 
Andreasberg,  in  the  Harz  ;  at  Montecchio, 
Maggiore,  and  Castel,  in  the  Vincentine ;  in 
Cyprus ;  near  Cape  Blomidon,  in  Nova  Scotia, 
&c. ;  at  home,  near  Glenarm  and  Portrush,  in 
Antrim  ;  in  the  isle  of  Magee  ;  at  Taiisker,  in 
Skye,  &c.    (Dana.) 

*  gnac-chen,  *  gnach-yn,  v.i.    [Gnash.] 

gnap  (g  silent),  v.t.     [Etym.  doubtful.]    To 
gnaw,  to  eat. 

"  Sum  gnapped  here  fete  and  haudes."— JIS.,  in  Hal- 
llwell,  p.  405. 

gna-phal'-i-ese  (g  silent),  s.  pi.  [Lat.  gna- 
phali(um),  and  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -cat.] 

Bot.  :  A  tribe  of  composite  plants,  sub-order 
or  series  Tubulifloraa.      The  flowers  are  all 

tubular,  the  outer  ones  very  slender.  Genera 
'represented  in  Britain— Gnaphalium,  Anten- 
naria,  and  Filago. 

gna-pha'-li-um  (g  silent),  s.  [Lat.  gnapha- 
Uum,  gnaphalion ;  Gr.  yva<t>d\LOv  (giutphalion) 
=  either  the  cudweed  or  the  lavender  cotton- 

Bot. :  Cudweed.  The  typical  genus  of  the 
tribe  Gnaphaliea?  (q.v.).  The  heads  are  bi- 
sexual, the  receptacle  flat  and  naked.  About 
100   species    are    known.       These    occur    in 

1,  Details  of  Flowers.       2.  Single  Flower. 

Britain— (1)  Gnaphalium  luteo-album  (2)  G. 
sylvaticum,  (3)  G.  idiginosum,  and  (4)  G.  su- 
pinitm.  No.  3  is  the  most  common.  No.  1  is 
confined  to  the  south.  The  others  increase  in 
frequency  towards  the  north.  What  was 
once  called  G.  dioicum  is  now  termed  Anten- 
naria  dioica. 

■  gnar    (g    silent),    *  gnarre,     *  knarre, 

knur,  *  knurr,  s.  [Cf.  O.  Dut.  knor; 
Dut.  Jcnorf  =  a  knot ;  Dan.  knort  =  a  knot,  a 
gnarl ;  lcnortet  =  knotty,  gnarled;  Sw.  knorht 
=  a  curl,  a  ringlet;  Icel.  gnerr  —  a  knot,  a 
knob  ;  Ger.  knorren  =  an  excrescence,  alump; 
knorrig  =.  gnarled.    (Skeat.y] 

1.  Lit..  A  knot  in  a  tree. 

2.  Fig. :  A  tough,  thickset,  rough  fellow. 

'"gnar,  *gnarr  (g  silent),  v.i.    [An  onomato- 
poetic  word.]    To  snarl,  to  growl,  to  murmur. 

"  When  he  'gan  to  rear  his  bristles  strong, 
And  ielly  gnar."  Spenser :  F.  Q.,  I.  v.  34. 

*  gnare,  s.    [Etym.  doubtful.]    A  snare,  a  trap 

"There  wenten  before  me  the  gnaris  of  deeth."— 
Wycliffe;  2  Kings  xxii.  6. 

gnarl  (g  silent),  v.i.      [A  freq.  from  gnar,  v. 
(q.v.).]     To  snarl,  to  growl. 
"Wolves  are  gnarling  which  shall  gnnrw  them  first." 
Shakesp. :  2  Henry  VI.,  iii.  1. 

gnarl  (g-  silent),  s.     [A  dimin.  from  gnar,  s. 
(q.v.).]    A  gnar,  a  knot  in  wood  ;  a  snag. 

gnarled  (g  silent),  a.     [Eng.  gnarl,  s.  ;  -ed.] 

1.  Lit.  :   Full  of  knots  or  snags;   knotty, 

"  Thou  rather  with  thy  sharp  and  sulphurous  bolt, 
Split'st  the  unwedgeable  and  gnarled  oak." 

Shakesp.  :  Measure  for  Measure,  ii.  2. 

2.  Fig. :  Cross-grained,  peevish,  perverse. 

gnarl'-y  (g  silent),   a.     [Eng.   gnarl,  s. ;  -y.] 
Having  knots  ;  gnarled,  knotty. 

"  Till  by  degrees  the  tough  and  gnarly  oak 
Be  rived.'         Marston  :  Antonio's  Uevenge,  iv.  2. 

*  gnarre  (g  silent),  v.i.    [Gnar,  v.) 

*  gnarre  (g  silent),  o.    [Gnar,  s.] 

gnar'-ry  (g  silent),  u.      [Eng.  guar,  a.  ;  -y.} 
Knotty,  gnarly. 

"Like  spring's  green  bloom  on  boughs  all  gaunt  and 
g/tarry.'  A.  C.  Swinburne:  Athens. 

gnash  (g  silent),  v.t.  &i.  [A  modification  of  Mid. 
Eng.  gnasten  =  to  gnash  the  teeth.]    [Gnast.] 

A.  Trans. :    To     strike    together,    as    the 
teeth  ;  to  clash. 

"He gnasJied  his  teeth,  his  eyeballs  flashed  with  fire." 
Hoole:  Orlando  Furioso,  bk.  xxx. 

B.  Intrans.  :   To  grind  or  clash  the  teeth 
together,  as  in  rage,  despair,  &c.  ;  to  rage. 

"  The  monster  fell,  and  gnashing  with  huge  tusks 
Ploughed  up  the  crimson  earth." 

Smith :  Phadra  &:  Jlippolitus,  i 

gnash  -Irig  (g  silent),  *gnash-ynge,  pr. 

par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Gnash,  v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  £  partlcip.  adj.  :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  sub^t  :  The  act  of  grinding  <»'  '-''i^h- 
ing  the  teeth  together,  as  in  rage,  despair,  &c. 

"And  the  children  of  the  kyngedoine  shal  be  caste 
oute  into  utter  darknes  ;  there  shal  be  wepynge  ana 
gnashynge  of  teeth.'" — Bible  (1551),  Matt.  viiC 

gnash'-lhg-ly  (g  silent),  adv.  [Eng.  gnash- 
ing; -ly.]  In  a  gnashing  manner;  with 
gnashing  of  teeth. 

*'  gnast,  *  gnaste,  s.  [A.S.  gnmt  =  a  spark  ; 
Sw.  gnista;  Dan.  gnist ;  Icel.  gneisti.]  An 
ash  ;  the  wick  of  a  candle. 

"  As  a,  gnast  passendi."—  Wycliffe :  Isaiah  xxix.  5. 

*  gnast,  gnaist,    gnast-en,  *  gnast-yn, 

v.i.  [Sw.  knastra  =  to  crush  between  the 
teeth :  Icel.  gnastan  =  a  gnashing :  gnista  = 
to  gnash  the  teeth  ;  gnesta  =  to  crack ;  Ger. 
knastern  =  to  gnash  ;  Dut.  knarsen.  Prob.  a 
mere  variant  of  cros7t  (q.v.).  (Skeat.)]  To  grind 
or  gnash  the  teeth  together,  as  in  rage,  de- 
spair, &c. 

"  Thai  gnaisted  ouer  me  with  tnaire  tethe." 

E.  Eng.  Psalter,  Pa  xxxiv.  16. 

"  gnast-ere,  s.     [Eng.  gnast,  v.  ;  -ere  =  -cr.] 

One  who  gnashes  his  teeth  ;  one  who  rages  or 

"  Gnastere.    Fremitor."— Prompt.  Parv. 

gnast  ing,    gnaist-ing,    x  gnast-yng, 

gnast-ynge,  s.  [Eng.  gnast,  v. ;  -ing.} 
Gnashing  of  the  teeth. 

"tTher  endeles  gnaisting  is  of  toth." 

Cursor  Mundi,  26,760 

gnat  {g  silent),  *  gnatte,  * gnaytt,  s.  [A.S. 
gncct;  cf.  Sw.  gnet  —  a  nit.] 

I.  Ord.  Lang.  :  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  1,  2.    ' 

"  We  made  wreathes  of  greene  grasse,  which  we 
wound  about  our  bodies,  to  keepe  vs  from  the  sunne 
and  gnats  of  that  country." — Hackluyt :  Voyages,  iii.  491. 

II.  Technically  : 

1.  Entomology : 

(1)  Sing.  :  Cvlex  pipiens  and  some  other 
species  of  the  genus  Culex  (q.v.). 

(2)  PI.  :  The  family  Culicidse  (q.v.). 

2.  Script.:  The  rendering  of  the  Greek  word 
Kuiviaip  (konops),  which  seems  to  be  correct. 

If  To  strain  at  [an  old  misprint  for  out]  « 
gnat  and.  swallow  a  camel  (Matt,  xxiii.  24, 
Authorised  Version).  To  strain  out  the  gnat 
and  sivallow  the  camel  (Revised  Version)  :  Al- 
ludingto  the  care  with  which  the  Jews  strained 
small  insects  out  of  the  liquor  they  were 
about  to  drink.  To  be  punctilious  about 
trifles,  and  with  the  grossest  inconsistency 
to  allow  one's  self  violations  of  moral  prin- 
ciple in  matters  of  great  moment. 

t  gnat-flower,  s. 

Bot. :  Ophrys  apifera,  more  commonly  called 
the  Bee-flower  or  Bee-orchis. 

gnat-net,  s.  A  fine  gauze  net  to  keep  off 
gnats,  mosquitoes,  &c.  ;  a  mosquito-net. 

"  To  omit  the  ancient  conopeion,  or  gnat-net  of  the 
-Egyptians,  the  inventors  of  that  nitirice."— Browne; 
Cyrus'  Garden,  ch.  ii. 

A  gnat-strainer,  s.  One  who  attaches, 
too  great  importance  to  little  matters,  while 
neglecting  others  of  greater  moment  (Matt, 
xxiii.  24.). 

t  gnat-worm,  s.     The  larva  of  a  gnat. 

"He  that  wuuld  behold  a  very  anomalous  motion. 
may  observe  it  m  the  fertile  and  tirmg  stroaka  of 
gnat-worms."— Browne     Garden  ff  Cyrus,  ch.  iv. 

gnath'-lte  (g  silent),  s.     [Gr.  yv6.9o<;  (gnathos), 
and  Eng.  su'if.  -ite.] 
Zool.  ;  One  of  the  mouth  appendages  in  the 


gna-thi'-tls  (g  silent),  s.    [Gr.  yvd6o<;  (gnathos) 

=  the  jaw,  and  suff.  -itis  (Med.)  (q.v.).] 
Pathol. :  Inflammation  of  the  jaw. 

gnath'-6-don  (g  silent),  s.  [Gr.  yvaBa 
(gnathos)  =  a  jaw,  and  6Soiis  (odous),  genit. 
oSoVtos  (odontos)  =■  a  tooth.] 

1.  Ornith. :  A  genus  of  birds,  called  also 
Didunculus  (q.v.). 

2.  Zool.  <£  Palceont.  :  A  genus  of  conchiferous 
molluscs,  family  Mactridte.  It  is  so  called 
because  one  of  the  lateral  teeth  connected 
with  the  hinge  has  a  certain  resemblance  to  a 
jaw-bone.  Recent  species,  one  certain  and 
three  doubtful ;  fossil  three,  from  the  Chalk 
onwards.  The  best-known  recent  species  is 
Gnathodon  cuneatus,  which  was  formerly  eaten 
by  the  Indians.  It  is  found  with  Cyrena 
carolinensis  at  Mobile,  on  the  Gulf  of  Mexico, 

fate,  fat,  tare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;   go,  pot, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  sin ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,     se,  oe  =  e ;  ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw- 

gnathonie— gnomometry 

which  is  built  on  a  shell-bank  consisting 
chiefly  of  the  two  species. 

*gna-thon'-ic,  gna-thon'-ic-al  (g  silent), 
a.  [Gr.  yvdQtov  (gnatlion),  genit.  yvadu)vo<;  (gna- 
tko)ws)  =  a  full  mouth,  a  lat  cheek;  Eng.,  &c, 
sutf.  -ical  (q.v.)-]     Flattering,  deceitful. 

*  gna-thon'-ic-al-ly  (g  silent),  axle.  [Eng. 
gnathonical;  -ly~)  in  a  servile,  parasitical, 
or  flattering  manner. 

tgna-thop'-6-dlte(<7  silent),  s.  [Gr.  yvd&os 
(gnatltos)  =  a  jaw  ;  ttous  (pons),  genit.  ttoSos 
(podos)  =  a  foot,  and  Eng.  &c.  sufT.  -its.  (q.v.).] 
ZooL;  A  jaw-foot — i.e.,  a  foot  modified  into 
a  jaw,  more  generally  called  maxillipedes 
(q.v  ).     Such  limbs  exist  in  the  Crustacea. 

gna-thos  to-ma  (g  silent), -s.  [Gr.  yvddos 
(gnathos)  —  the  "jaw,  and  o-To/xa  (stoma)  = 

Zool.  :  A  genus  of  nematoid  Entozoa,  found 
by  Prof.  Owen  in  the  stomach  of  the  tiger, 
the  leopard,  and  other  Felidee. 

gnat  ling  (initial  <j  silent),  s.  [Eng.  gnat; 
dimin.  sutf.  -ting..}    A  little  gnat. 

"  But  if  some  man,  more  hardy  than  the  rest, 
Should  dare  attack  these  finatlings  in  their  nest ; 
At  once  they  rise  with  impotence  of  rage," 

Churchill  ■  Jtosciad. 

gnat  -snap-per  (g  silent),  s.  [Eng.  gnat, 
and  snapper.]  A  bird  which  lives  by  catching 

"  They  deny-that  any  bird  is  to  he  eaten  whole,  hut 
only  the  gnatsnapper." — Hakewill :  On  Providence 

gnaw  (g   silent),   *  gnawe,   *  gnaw  -  en, 

*gnaw-yn,  v.t.  &  i.  [A.S.  gnagan;  cogn. 
with  Dut.  knagen  ;  O.  Icel.  guaga  ;  Ioel.ttapa; 
Dan,  gnave  ;  Sw.  gnaga.  The  g  is  a  mere  pre- 
iix  =  A.S.  ge-.  The  simple  verb  appears  in  Icel. 
naga  ;  Dan.  nage;  Ger.  nagen  -  to  gnaw  ;  Sw. 
iwgga  =  to  nibble  ;  Eng.  nag  -  to  tease,  to 
worry.    (Skeat.)] 

A.  Transitive : 
I.  Literally : 

1.  To  bite  or  eat  away  by  degrees,  or  by 

"  Of  her  herbs  and  flowers. 
It  seemed  the  better  part  were  gnawed  away." 

Wordsworth  :  Excursion,  bk.  i. 

2.  To  bite  in  agony,  despair,  or  rage. 

"  They  gnawed  their  tongues  for  pain."— flevchtt ion 
xvi.  10. 

*  3.  To  eat  away  by  corrosion  ;  to  corrode 

I.  To  wear  away  by  continued  biting. 

"  Gnawing  with  lny  teeth  my  bonds  asunder." 
Shafcesp.  :  Comedy  of  Errors,  v. 

II.  Fig-  :  To  consume  or  wear  away  by 
degrees  ;  to  waste  away  ;  to  fret. 

"  Vile  disdaine  and  rancour,  which  did  gnaw 
Hib  heart  in  twaiue  with  sad  melancholy." 

Spenser:  F.  Q.,  II.  viii.  50. 

B.  Intransitive : 

I,  tit.  :  To  use  the  teeth  in  biting  ;  to  bite 
into  anything,  so  as  to  wear  it  away  by  degrees. 

"  I  might  well,  like  the  spaniel,  gnaw  upon  the 
chain  that  ties  ine." — Sidney :  A  rcadia. 

II.  Figuratively : 

1.  To  cause  a  fretting,  consuming,  or  wast- 
ing away  :  as,  a  gnawing  pain. 

*  2.  To  be  affected  with  a  continuous,  severe, 
and  wasting  pain  :  as,  A  tooth  gnaws. 

*  gnaw  (g  silent),  x.  [Gnaw,  v.]  A  gnawing  ; 
a.  fretting  or  wearing  away. 

"  The  gnaw  of  anguish,  and  the  waste  of  life." 

lioyse:   Written,  in  the  Palace  of  Falkland. 

gnawed  (g  silent),  pa.  par.  &  a.     [Gnaw,  v.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  (See  the  verb). 

2.  Bot. :  Erose,  having  the  margin  irregu- 
larly toothed,  as  if  bitten  by  some  animal. 

gnaw'-er  (g  silent),  s.     [Eng.  gnaw ;  -erJ] 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  One  who  or  that  which 
gnaws  or  corrodes. 

2.  Zool.  :  A  rodent. 

gnaw  -ing  (g  silent),  *  gnaw-yng,  *  gnaw- 

yuge,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Gnaw,  v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. ;  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  --Is  substantive : 

1.  Lit.  :  The  act  of  eating  away  by  degrees. 

"By  dreinea,  by  chirking  of  dores,  or  cracking  of 
houses,  by  gnawing  of  ratles,  and  swiche  uianer  of 
wretcheduesse."— Chaucer :  Persones  Tale. 

2.  Fig.  :  A  continuous  or  severe  pain,  or 
feeling ;  as  of  remorse. 

"ThiB  composition  is  good  for  those  that  have  weak 
and  feble  stomachs,  or  be  troubled  with  gnawing  and 
pain  there."—/'.  Holland:  Pliny,  bk.  xx.,  ch.  ix. 

*  gnawn  (g  silent),  pa.  par.  or  a.     [Gnaw.] 

*  gnede,  a.    [A.S.  gnedth.] 

1.  Stingy  ;  mean  ;  sparing  ;  miserly. 

"  Off  gyfft  he  was  he  never  gnede." 

Degrcvant,  1,159. 

2.  Sparing  ;  small  in  quantity  ;  scarce. 

"  Thaire  money  wex  ham  gnede." 

Cursor  Mundi,  5,392. 

*  gnede,  v.  t.    [Gnede,  a.)    To  fail ;  to  run 
short  for. 

"  Non  that  day  schal  the  gnede." 

Poem  on  Freemasonry,  670. 

gnede-ly,  *  gnede-liche,  adv.    [A.S. 
gnethelice.]    Sparingly  ;  meanly  ;  stingily. 

"  Heo  mei  gnedelichc  leden  hise  lif."—  A  ncre-n  Riwle, 
p.  202. 

gned-y,  a.     [Eng 
stingy ;  sparing. 


-y.]    Mean  ; 

gneiss  (g  silent),  s.      [Ger.    gneiss,    gneus,   a 
German  mining  term  given  by  geologists,  who 
have  given  it  world-wide  currency.] 
Geology  &  Petrology : 

1.  Spec. :  A  metamorphic  rock,  consisting 
of  orthoclase,  quartz,  and  mica.  It  is  akin  to 
mica  sehist,  which,  however,  is  distinguished 
by  having  less  orthoclase  and  more  mica.  It 
lias  exactly  the  same  materials  as  granite,  but 
is  stratified  or  foliated.  Sometimes  hand  spe- 
cimens are  found,  in  which  lamination  is  so 
little  traceable,  that  they  might  pass  for 
granite.  There  are  cases  also  in  which  gneiss, 
in  position,  does  not  consist  of  thin  laminae, 
but  is  divided  into  thick  beds,  in  which  the 
mica  has  only  a  slight  degree  of  parallelism  to 
the  planes  of  stratification.  Sometimes  it  is 
penetrated  from  below  by  granitic  veins. 
(Lgell,  &e.)    [Metamorphic] 

2.  Gen.  :  A  formation  in  which  gneiss  [No. 
1]  prevails,  but  not  exclusively,  there  being 
present  also  hornblende-schist  and  other 
metamorphic  rocks.  These  latter  are  con- 
sidered as  subordinate  to  the  gneiss. 

^  Fundamental  gneiss,  Laurentian  gneiss  : 
Geol.  :  The  name  given  by  Sir  Roderick 
Murchison  to  the  oldest  stratified  rock  in 
Scotland.  It  is  found  in  the  north-west  of 
Ross-shire,  and  in  Sutherlandshire,  besides 
forming  the  whole  of  the  adjoining  island 
of  Lewis  in  the  Hebrides.  It  has  a  strike 
from  N."W.  to  S.E.,  nearly  at  right  angles  to 
the  metamorphic  strata  of  the  Grampians. 
The  Lower  Cambrian  and  various  metamorphic 
rocks  rest  on  it  un conformably. .     (Lyell,  &c.) 

gneis'-sic  (<?  silent),  a.   [Ger.  &c.  gneiss;  Eng., 
&c.  suff.  -ic] 

Geol. :  Consisting  of  gneiss. 

"  The  old  gneixsic  rocks  of  Nova  Scotia  "—Hind,   in 
Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  xxvi.  471. 

gneis'-soid  (g  silent),  a.     [Ger.,  &c,  gneiss, 
and  Gr.  el&os(eido$),  form,  appearance.] 
Geol.  :  Resembling  gneiss. 

"The  unconformable  contact  of  the  Lower  Silurian 

gold-bearing  strata  with  the  underlying  gneissoid  and 

i  .4. —  „„„:„=  -     m.,,i    i„     Quar.   Jour.   Geol.    Soc., 

schistose  series."— Hind, 
xxvi.  474. 

gneis-sose'  (g  silent),  a.  [Ger.,  &c,  gneiss; 
Eng.,  &c.  sutf.  -ose  (q.v.).] 

GpoJ.  :  Properly,  abounding  in  gneiss ;  but 
used  also  simply  for  gneissic  (q.v.). 

"  The  Eastern  gneissose  rocks  of  Sutherland  and  Ross," 
— Murchison  in  Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc.,  xvi.,  p.  237. 

gne-ta' -ce-a?  (g  silent),  s,  pi.  [Mod.  Lat. 
gnet(um)  (q.v.),  and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff. 

Bot. :  Joint-firs ;  an  order  of  Gymnogens, 
with  repeatedly-branched  jointed  stems  and 
simple  net-veined  leaves,  opposite  and  entire, 
sometimes  very  minute  and  scale-shaped ; 
flowers  in  catkins,  or  heads  ;  the  males  with  a 
one-leaved  calyx,  transversely  slit  at  the  end ; 
a  monadelphous  filament,  with  one-celled 
anthers  opening  by  pores  ;  females,  altogether 
naked  or  sheltered  by  a  false  calyx,  consisting 
of  two  scales,  each  surrounding  two  flowers  ; 
ovary,  none ;  ovule  with  a  style-like  process. 
Known  genera,  two— viz.,  Gnetum  and  Ephe- 
dra (q.v.) ;  species,  fifteen,  scattered  over  the 

gne -turn  (g  silent),  s.     [Corrupted  from  Gne- 
inon,  the  name  given  to  the  plant  in  the  is- 
land of  Ternate.] 
Bot :  The  typical  genus  of  the  order  Gnetacese 

-  (q.v.).     The  species  are  found  in  the  hottest 

parts  of  India  and  Guiana.  In  Amboyna  the 
seeds  of  Gnetum  Gnemon  ai-e  eaten  boiled, 
roasted,  or  fried,  and  the  green  leaves,  though 
tasteless,  are  used  as  spinach. 

*gnide,    *gnid-en,    *gnyde,    v.t.    &   i. 

[A.S.  gnidan  ;  O.  H.  Ger.  gnitan  ;  M.  H.  Ger. 
gniten ;  Sw.  gnida;  Dan.  gnide.] 

A.  Trans.  ;  To  break  or  grind  to  pieces  ;  to 

"  Heo  broken  the  eares  bitbj;weie  and  gniden  the 
cornes  uts."— A  ncren  Riwla,  p.  2eD. 

B.  Intrans.  :  To  be  brought  to  nothing  ;  to 
be  destroyed  utterly. 

"Gold  and  seolver,  but  schal  gnyde  to  nouht."— 
0.  Eng.  Miscell..  p.  114. 

gni'-dl-a  (g  silent),  s.  [Lat.  Gnidlus  =  per- 
taining to  Gnidus  or  Cnidus,  a  town  of  Caria.] 

Bot. :  A  genus  of  Thymelaccte  (Daphnads). 
The  known  species,  about  fifty  in  number, 
are  pretty  heath-like  plants,  several  of  which 
have  been  introduced  into  British  greenhouses 
from  the  warmer  parts  of  Eastern  Africa., 
Gnidium  Daphnoides  is  manufactured  into 
ropes  in  Madagascar  ;  most  species  of  the 
genus  can,  moreover,  be  used  in  cutaneous 
"  gnit,  *  gnytte,  o.    [Gnat.] 

gnof,  *  gnoff,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful ;  perhaps 
connected  with  gnaw  (q.v.).]  A  miser ;  a 
Stingy,  mean  fellow. 

"  Whilom  ther  was  dwelling  in  Oxenforde 
A  riche  gnof,  that  gestes  helde  to  borde, 
And  of  his  craft  he  was  a  carpenter." 

Chaucer:  C.  T.,  3.18B. 

gnome  (1)  (g  silent),  s.  [Fr.  ;  prob.  from  Gr. 
yvtiifiri  (gnome)  =  intelligence,  from  the  belief 
that  the  gnomes  could  furnish  information  as 
to  secret  treasures  in  the  earth.] 

1.  An  imaginary  being,  a  kind  of  sprite. 
Gnomes  were  supposed  by  the  Rosicrucians  to 
inhabit  the  inner  parts  of  the  earth,  and  to  be 
the  guardians  of  mines,  quarries,  &c. 

"The  gnomes  or  daemons  of  earth,  delight  In  mis- 
chief."— Pope:  Ep.  Dedic.  to  Mrs.  A.  Ferinor. 

2.  A  dwarf ;  a  goblin  ;  a  person  of  small  or 

misshapen  figure  or  features. 

gnome  (2),  gno'-me  (g  silent),  s.  [Gr.  yimfirj 
(gnome)  =  intelligence,  a  maxim,  from  yvutvat 
(gnonai)  =  to  know.]  A  maxim,  an  aphorism, 
a  saw,  a  reflection. 

"  Gnome  [is]  a  saying  pertaining  to  the  manners  and 
common  practices  of  men,  which  declareth  by  an  apte 
brevity,  what  in  this  our  lyfe  ought  to  be  done  or  not 
dime."— Peachum  :  Garden  of  Eloquence.    (1577.) 

*  gnomed  (g  silent),  a.    [Eng.  gnome  (1);  -ed.] 

Haunted  by  gnomes. 

"  Empty  the  haunted  air  and  the  gnomed  mine." 

Keats ;  Lamia,  ii. 

*  gno'-mic  (1),  *  gno'-mic-al  (1)  (g  silent),  a. 

[Gr.  7va)/j.iK05  (gnotnikos)=  dealing  in  maxims, 
sententious  ;  Gr.  yvutfxr)  (gnome).']  [Gnome  (2).] 
Dealing  in  maxims  ;  sententious  ;  didactic  ;  a 
term  applied  to  Greek  didactic  poets,  such  as 
Solon,  Phocylides,  Theognis,  &c,  and  to  their 

"  A  city  long  famous  as  the  seat  of  elegiac  and  gnomic 
poetry." — G.  If.  Lewes  :  HiMtory  of  Philosophy,  i.  30. 

-  gno'-mic  (2),  gno'-mic-al  (2)  (g  silent),  a. 
[Catachrestic  for  gnomonical  (q.v.).]  Per- 
taining to  a  dial  or  the  art  of  dialling. 

"A  dial  furnished  with  a  magnetic  needle,  rather 

than  an  ordinary  gnomical  dial." — Boyle:  Works,  v.  427. 

*  gno'-mic-al-ly  (0  silent),  adv.  [Eng.  gnomi- 

cal ;  -ly.]  In'a  gnomic,  didactic,  or  sententious 

gno  -  mo  -  log'  -  ic,  *  gno  -  mo-log^~ic-al 

(initial  g  silent),  a.  [Gr.  y^wjiLoXoyiKd?  (gno- 
mologikos),  from  yi/w|U.oAoyew  (gnomologeo)  =  to 
speak  in  maxims.]  [Gnomology.]  Of  or  per- 
taining to  gnomology, 

gnd-mol'-o-gy  (initial  g  silent),  s.  [Gr. 
yvuipr)  (gnome)  =  a  maxim,  and  Aoyos  (logos)  = 
a  word,  a  discourse ;  Gr.  \4yo  (lego)  =  to 
collect,  to  speak  ;  Fr.  gnomologie.']  A  treatise 
on,  or  collection  of,  maxims  or  sententious 
reflections  or  sayings  ;  the  knowledge  of  or 
literature  relating  to  such  maxims  or  sayings. 

"Which  art  of  powerfull  reclaiming,  wisest  men 
have  also  taught  in  their  ethical  precepts  and  gnomolo- 
gies." — Milton :  Tetrachordon. 

*  gno-mom'-e-try  (g  silent),  s.  [Gr.  yvutvg 
(gnome)  =  a  maxim,  and  ixerpov  (metron)  =  a 
measure.]    A  dividing  or  arraying  according 

to  subject. 

"We  can  touch  but  lightly  on  the  intricate  question 

of  stichoinetry  as  opposed  to  gnomometry."— Athe- 
naiim,  July  6,  1882,  p.  43. 

boil,  1)6^;  pout,  jo"\rt;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph  -  f. 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious.  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble.  -die.  <fcc  =  bel.  del 


gnomon— go 

gno-mon  (g  silent),  s.  [Lai,  from  Gr.  yv&ti.w 
(gnomon)  =  one  who  knows,  an  interpreter; 
from  Gr.  yvuixu  (gnonai)  =  to  know.] 

1.  Astron. :  A  rod,  style,  or  pillar  erected 
perpendicularly  to  the  horizon,  from  whose 
shadow  the  altitudes,  declinations,  &c.,  of  the 
sun  and  stars  may  be  determined.  Such 
styles  were  in  use  in  ancient  Egypt,  in  China, 
and  similar  contrivances  were  found  at  Quito 
by  the  invading  Spaniards. 

"  Comparing  thelheight  of  a  gnomon  or  pillar  with 
toe  length  of  the  solstitial  shadow."— Elton :  Oriiim 
of  English  History,  p.  14. 

2.  Dial:    The  style  or  pin,  which,  by  its 


shadow  on  the  dial-plate,  shows  the  hour  of 
the  day. 

"The  shadow  of  the  style  iu  the  dyall  which  they 
call  the  gnomon,  in  Egypt,  at  noonetide.  in  the  eqm- 
noctiall  day,  is  little  more  in  length  than  halfe  the 
gnomon."— P.  Holland :  Plinie,  bk.  li.,  ch.  lxxii. 

3.  Geom. :  The  figure  made  up  of  the  two 
complements  of  a  parallelogram,  together 
with  either  of  the  parallelograms  about  the 
diameter.     Thus  in  the  parallelogram  abcd. 

. .     • 


the  two  complements  b  f  and  f  d,  together 
with  the  parallelogram  f  k  c  h,  form  tlie 
gnomon  d  k  g  or  e  h  b.  In  the  second  figure 
one  of  the  parallelograms  about  the  diameter 
has  been  removed,  so  as  to  form  a  gnomon. 
4.  The  index  of  the  honr-circle  of  a  globe. 

gno-mon'-ic,  gnomon  -fc-al  (g  silent),  a. 
[Lat.  gnomonicus,  from  Gr.  yvu>fx.ovit<6s  (gno- 
monikos)  —  pertaining  to  a  gnomon  ;  17  ww- 
p.oviKri  (Te'xfi])  he  gnomonike  (techne)  —  the  (art) 
of  dialling  ;  Fr.  gnomonique.] 

1.  Dial. :  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  art  of  dial- 

"  One  of  those  curious  gnomonic  instruments,  that 
show  at  once  the  place  of  the  suu  in  the  zodiac,  Mb  de- 
clination from  the  equator,  the  day  of  the  month, 
the  length  of  the  day,  &c." — Doyle :   Works,  v.  398. 

2.  Bot. :  The  term  applied  by  Link  to  the 
embryo  when  bent  at  right  angles. 

gnomonic-projection,  s.  The  projec- 
tion of  the  lines  of  a  sphere  upon  a  xdane  tan- 
gent to  the  surface  of  the  sphere,  the  point  of 
sight  or  the  eye  being  taken  at  the  centre  of 
the  sphere.  In  this  projection  all  great  circles 
of  the  sphere  are  projected  into  straight  lines  ; 
all  small  circles,  whose  planes  are  parallel  to 
the  plane  of  projection,  into  concentric  circles, 
having  their  common  centre  at  the  point  of 
■contact;  and  all  other  small  circles  into 
ellipses.  Gnomonic  projection  is  also  called 
horologiographic  projection,  on  account  of  its 
use  in  dialling. 

gnomon -ic-al-ly  (0  silent),  adv.  [Eng. 
gnomonical ;  -ty.]  In  a  gnomonical  manner  ; 
according  to  the  principles  of  gnomonic  pro- 

gnd-mon'-ics,  gno-mon'-icks  (g  silent), 

s.  [Gnomic]  The  art  or  science  of  dialling, 
or  of  constructing  dials  to  show  the  hour  of 
the  day. 

"  The  elevations  of  the  pole,  and  the  azimuths,  sun- 
dials of  all  sorts,  enough  to  make  up  an  art  called 
gnomonicks." — Boyle:   Works,  vi.  776, 

*  gno'-mon-ist  (g  silent),  s.  [Eng.  gnomon; 
-1st.']    One  versed  in  gnomonics. 

"The  sun  enables  the  gnomonist  to  make  accurate 
dials,  to  know  exactly  how  the  time  passes." — Boyle  : 
Works,  vi  418. 

"gno-mon-ol-o-gy  (initial  g  silent),  s.     [Gr. 

yvuijj.uiv  (gnomon)  =  a  gnomon,  and  A.6yos  (logos) 
=  a  treatise ;  a  discourse.]  A  treatise  on  gno- 
monics or  dialling. 

gnoph'-ri-a  (g  silent),  s.  [Gr.  yvofapoi;  (gno- 
pheros),  6Vo"0epo?  (dnopheros)  =  dark,  dusky  ; 
yed^os  (gnophos),  6Vd0os  (dnophos)  =  darkness.] 
Eiitom.:  A  genus  of  moths,  family  Litho- 
sidae.  Gnophria  rubricollis  is  the  Black  Foot- 
man. The  front  part  of  the  thorax  is  red,  the 
rest  black,  as  is  the  abdomen,  except  the  four 
or  five  last  segments,  which  are  yellow ;  all 
the  wings  of  a  dull  smoky  black.  The  larva 
feeds  on  various  lichens ;  the  perfect  insect 
appears  in  June.    (Statnton.) 

gnd'-sis  (g  silent),  s.  [Gr.  yiwis  (gnosis)  =  (1) 
an  inquiry,  a  judgment/especially  of  a  judicial 
kind,  (2)  knowledge,  spec,  of  the  deeper  kind  ; 
yiyvuxTKoi  (gignosko),  fut.  (gnosomai) 
=  to  know :  from  the  root  gno  —  to  know.] 
"Whatis  considered  as  science— i.e.,  knowledge, 
through  it  may  be  chiefly  a  series  of  hypothe- 
ses ;  gnosticism,  which  professes  to  restore  to 
mankind  the  lost  knowledge  of  God. 

"  But  the  supposition  that  the  Alexandrian  gnosis 

first  formed  that  of  Palestine  is,  in  our  opinion,  quite 
erroneous."—  Tholuck  :  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews  (1842),  i. 

gnos'-tic  (g  silent),  a.  &  s.      [Gr.  yvuio-TiKos 

(gnostilcos),    as  adj.  =  good    at   knowing  ;  as 
subst.  =  the  power  or  faculty  of  knowing.] 

A.  As  adjective : 

*  1.  Ord.  Lang. :  Knowing,  shrewd,  worldly- 

' '  I  said  you  were  a  gnostic  fellow,  and  I  laid  you  have 
not  always  been  professional." — Scott:  St.  Ronan's 
Well,  ch.  v. 

2.  Hist,  £  Phil.  :  Of  or  belonging  to  the 
belief  called  gnosticism  (q.v.),  or  to  its  pro- 

"  According  to  some  the  apostasy  referred  to  was  the 
Gnostic  heresy." — Leurin  :  St.  Paul,  i.  288. 

B.  As  subst.  :  An  adherent  of  gnosticism 


"  The  3ystem  of  the  Gnostics  was  compounded  of 
many  heterogeneous  materials." — Lewin:  St.  Paul, 
ii.  249. 

*  gnos'-tic-al-ly  (g  silent),  adv.  [Eng.,  &c. 
gnostic  (q.v.)";  -al,  -ly.] 

1.  After  the  manner  of  the  gnostics. 

2.  Properly,  suitably,  becomingly. 

"He  was  tog'd  gnostieaUy  enough,  and  cast  twelve 
■-■''"  —Scott ;   St.  flonan's 

gnos'-ti-cism  (gr  silent),  s.    [Eng.,  &c.  gmstir, ; 
-ism.  ] 

Hist.  &  Phil.,  etc.  :  A  system  of  philosophy 
professedly  Christian,  devised  to  solve  the 
great  questions,  such  as  the  origin  of  evil, 
which  have  perplexed  the  ablest  minds  in 
every  age.  Gnosticism  accepted  beliefs  in  an 
eternal  God  of  infinite  power,  wisdom,  and 
goodness.  The  granting  of  this  postulate  at 
once  brought  the  gnostic  face  to  face  with  the 
question,  why  then  did  this  Great  Being  allow 
evil  to  arise  in  the  universe,  when  it  was  in 
his  power  to  have  prevented  it?  If  he  did 
not  prevent  it,  was  he  not  to  a  certain  extent 
responsible  for  its  existence?  The  same  diffi- 
culty had  centuries  before  created  the  dualist 
system  of  Zoroastrianism,  which,  denying  the 
omnipotence  of  the  one  Supreme  Being,  as- 
sumed the  existence  of  two,  a  good  and  a  bad 
one,  about  equal  in  power,  and  in  continual 
conflict.  This  view,  derived  from  Persia,  was 
partially  adopted  by  some  gnostics,  whilst 
others  of  the  sect,  or  aggregation  of  sects, 
drew  on  the  later  Platonism  of  Alexandria  for 
their  inspiration.  There  were  then  two  classes 
of  them  :  the  Syrian,  and  the  Alexandrian  or 
Egyptian  gnostics.  In  certain  tenets,  both 
agreed.  Matter  was  eternal,  and  from  the 
first  essentially  evil ;  there  was  then  no  by- 
gone time  when  "the  origin  of  evil "  took 
place.  Nor  was  the  world  created  by  the 
Supreme  Being  ;  it  was  framed  by  an  exalted 
spirit,  called,  in  consequence,  the  Demiurge 
(q.v.),  whom  many  identified  with  the  God  of 
the  Jews.  He  had  shining  qualities,  but  was 
selfish  and  arrogant.  He  wished  men  to  wor- 
ship, not  the  Supreme  Being,  but  himself. 
The  former  was  the  purest  Light,  and  pervaded 
that  boundless  space  which  the  Greeks  called 
ir\ripH}[j.a  (pltroma).  He  did  not  remain  for 
ever  alone,  but  brought  into  existence  two 
holy  and  happy  spirits  of  different  sexes, 
called  ^Eons,  from  whose  marriage  came  others 
of  the  same  order,  till  there  was  a  whole  family 
of  them  in  the  pleroma.  The  chief  of  these 
iEons  was  Jesus  Christ,  who  was  sent  to  the 
world  to  win  it  back  from  the  Demiurge  to  its 
proper  allegiance.  Many  gnostics  held  what 
were  called  Docetic  views.  [Docetae.]  The 
germs  of  gnosticism  existed  iu  the  first  century; 

it1  did  not,  however,  reach  maturity  till  the 
reign  of  Adrian  in  the  second.  Of  the  Syrian 
gno.stiL'S  there  were  Saturninus  of  Antioch, 
Cerdo,  Marcian,  Lucian,  Severus,  Blastes, 
Bardesanes,  Tatian,  &c.  ;  of  the  Egyptian 
Basilides  of  Alexandria,  Valentinus,  &-c.  The 
system  had  a  good  deal  declined  by  the  third 
century,  but  was  not  extinct  till  about  the 
sixth.  It  has  been  disputed  whether  there  are 
allusions  to  either  nascent  or  fully  developed 
gnosticism  iu  the  New  Testament.  Some 
writers  profess  to  find  them  in  such  passages 
as  Col.  ii.  8 ;  1  Tim.  i.  4,  vi.  20 ;  2  Tim.  ii.  16, 
17 ;  Titus  iii.  0 ;  and  there  appears  to  be  one 
to  Doceticism  in  1  John  i.  1-3. 

"  To  this  strange  mixture  was  added  no  inconsider- 
able portion  of  Christianity,  into  which  gnosticism  had 
been  imported  by  that  father  of  neresy  Simon  Magus." 
—Lewin :  St.  Paul,  ii.  250. 

*  gno  we.  pret.  of  v.    [Gnaw.] 

gnu  (g  silent),  ~s.    [Hottentot  gn4,  gnoo  =  the 
name  of  the  animal ;  Fr.  gnou.] 

Zool. :  Catoblepas  Gn%  a  species  of  antelope. 
The  adult  male  is  about  5ft.  6in.  long,  and 
3ft.  lOin.  high  at  the  shoulder;  horns  dark, 
broad,  upon  the  summit  of  the  head,  tapering 
out  sideways  over  the  eyes,  and  turning  up 
into  a  pointed  hook.  Legs  long.  The  face  is 
covered  with  black  bristly  hair,  with  white 
ones  around  the  eye  and  on  the  legs ;  on  the 
neck  is  a  vertical  mane,  black  in  the  centre 
and  white  at  the  sides  ;  a  bushy  beard  on  the 
under-jaw  ;  general  colour  of  the  fur  deep 
brown,  with  long  white  hair  on  the  tail.  Fe- 
male smaller  ;  calves  pure  white.  But  for  the 
horns  and  the  cloveu  hoofs,  the  gnu  would 
resemble  a  horse  in  its  external  form ;  its 
gallop  also  is  that  of  a  horse.  The  gnu  lives 
in  small  herds  in  the  karroos  of  Southern 
Africa.  When  alarmed  it  flings  up  its  heels 
and  capers  like  a  restive  horse  ;  then  the  herd 

go  off.  in  single  file,  following  a  leader,  with 
amazing  speed.  A  gnu  brought  to  bay  or 
wounded  turns  on  its  assailant.  It  is  believed 
that  the  kokoon  is  not  distinct  from  the  gnu. 
"  Where  the  gnu,,  the  gazelle,  and  the  hartebeest 
graze."       Thomas  Pringle :  Afar  in  the  Desert. 

go,  *  ga,  *  gan,  *  ganne,  *  gon,  *  gonne, 

v.i.  &  t.  [A.S.  gdn,  a  contracted  form  of  gan- 
gan =  to  go;  cogn.  with  Dut.  gaan;  Icei. 
ganga,  gd;  Dan.  goat;  Sw.  gH ;  Goth,  gaggan 
(for  gangan);  Ger.  gelien ;  O.  H.  Ger.  kankan, 
gangan,  gdn,  gen;  6.  Fris.  gdn.  Went,  which 
is  now  used  as  the  pa.  t.  of  go,  is  from  the 
verb  to  ivend  (q.v.).] 

A.  Intransitive  : 

1.  To  move,  to  proceed,  to  pass ;  to  be  iu 
motion  from  any  cause  or  in  any  manner ;  to 
walk,  to  travel. 

*  2.  To  pass,  to  flow,  to  run. 

"  That  other  ryvere  .  .  .  that  gothe  be  Ethlope."  — 
Slaundeville,  p.  304 

3.  To  move  ;  not  to  stand  still. 

"Rise,  let  us  be  going."— Matthew  xxvi.  46. 

4.  To  be  moved  by  mechanism. 

"  Clocks  will  go  as  they  are  set ;  but  man, 
Irregular  man  'a  never  constant,  never  certain." 
Otway:  Venice  Preserved,  ii.  3. 

5.  To  walk  or  move  step  by  step ;  to  pro- 
ceed slowly  or  leisurely. 

"  '  And  must  I  go  to  him  ? '—  ■  Thou  must  run  to  him  : 
for  thou  bast  staid  so  long,  that  going  will  scarce  serve 
the  turn.' '  —Shakesp. :  Two  Gentlemen,  iii.  l, 

6.  To  depart ;  to  leave  a  place  ;  opposed  to 

"  I  will  let  you  go,  that  ye  may  sacrifice,  only  ve 
shall  not  go  very  far  away." — Exodus  viii.  28. 

7.  To  escape. 

"  Timotheus  himself  fell  into  the  hands  of  TJositheiw 
and  Sosipater,  whom  he  besought  with  much  craft  to 
let  him  go  with  his  life."— 2  Maccabees  xii.  24 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pot, 
or.  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     ee,  ce  -  e;   ey-  a.    qu  =  kw. 



*  8.  To  lead,  to  extend,  to  reach. 

"He  .  .  .  Jd uile  perforce  stoppe  the  pas. 
That  goth  fro  Taracounte  to  Capias. ' 

Alisaunder,  6,260. 

9.   To  pass  or  be  passed  from  one  to   an- 
other ;  to  be  circulated. 
"  Stretched  at  their  length,  they  press  the  grassy 
They  laugh,  they  sing;  the  jolly  bowls  go  round." 
Drydvn  :  Virgil;  ^Eneid  ix.  20B. 

*  10.  To  be  spread,  distributed,  or  dissemi- 

"Profaneness  is  gone  forth  into  all  the  land."— Jer. 
xxiii.  16. 

11.  To  be  carried; 

"So  long  goys  the  pott  to  the  water." 

Toumeley  Mysteries,  p.  106. 

12.  To  depart ;  to  pass  away. 

"  Away,  and  with  thee  .90  the  worst  of  woes. 
That  seek'Bt  my  friendship,  and  the  gods  thy  foes." 
Chapman,    (Johnson.) 

13.  Of  time,  to  pass. 

"  Gone  is  the  day"  Towneley  Mysteries,  p.  276. 

14.  To  pass ;  to  be  placed  or  set. 

"  Whatever  remains  in  story  of  Atlas,  or  his  king- 
dom of  old,  is  so  obscured  with  age  or  fables,  that  it 
may  go  along  with  those  of  the  Atlantic  islands."  — 

15.  To  be  distributed  or  regulated. 

"Laws  must  make  common  smalle  offices  to  gohy 
lot." — Hooker :  Eccles.  Polity. 

16.  To  And  the  way  in  ;  to  pass  in. 

"  Love  is  to  myn  herte  gon."        Lyric  Poems,  p.  92. 

17.  To  frequent,  to  haunt ;  to  pass  one's  life. 
"  He  goeth  in  company  with  the  workers  of  iniquity, 

and  walketh  with  wicked  men."— Job  xxxiv.  8. 

*  18.  To  proceed  in  any  course  of  life. 

"And  the  Levites  that  arc  gone  away  far  from  me, 
when  Israel  went  astray,  which  went  astray  away 
from  me  after  their  idols,  they  shall  even  hear  their 
iniquity."— Ezekiel  xilv.  10. 

19.  To  follow  in  teaching  or  example. 

"  They  have  gone  in  the  way  of  Caiu." —J  ude  11. 

20.  To  be  guided  or  regulated  in  the  course 
of  conduct  or  action  ;  to  act. 

"  We  are  to  go  by  another  measure."— Sprat, 

21.  To  change  state  or  condition  for  better 
or  worse. 

"  All  those  goodly  things,  which  went  so  to  wreck,  to 
be  lightly  accounted  of  m  comparison  of  their  lives 
and  liberty."— Knolles:  Historic  of  the  Turkes. 

22.  To  have  recourse  to  ;  to  apply  oneself  to. 
"Dare  any  of  you,  having  a  matter  against  anothert 

go  tu  law  before  the  unjust,  and  not  before  the  saints  ? ' 
— 1  Corinthians  vi.  1. 

23.  To  apply ;  to  be  applicable  or  pertinent. 

24.  To  tend  to  any  act  or  result. 

"There  be  some  women,  Silvius,  had  they  marked 
In  parcels,  as  I  did,  would  have  gone  near 
To  fall  in  love  with  him." 

Shakesp.  :  As  You  Like  It,  iv.  E. 

25.  To  have  a  tendency  < 

"Athenians,  know, 
^  Against  right  reason  all  your  counsels  go." 

Dryden  :  Persiua,  sat.  iv. 

26.  To  move  in  any  direction  ;  to  act. 

"  Doctor,  he  is  a  curer  of  souls,  and  you  a  curer  of 
bodies  ;  if  you  should  fight,  you  go  against  the  hair  of 
your  professions." — Shakesp. :  Merry  Wives,  ii.  3. 

27.  To  be  in  party,  accord,  or  agreement ;  to 
work  together. 

**  They  with  the  vanquished  prince  and  party  go. 
And  leave  their  temples  empty  to  the  foe.' 

Dryden.    [Johnson.) 

28.  To  decline ;  to  tend  towards  death  or 

"  He  is  far  gone,  and,  truly,  in  my  youth, 
I  suffered:  much  extremity  for  love. 
Very  near  this  "         Shakesp. :  Hamlet,  ii.  2. 

29.  To  pass  away,  to  depart;  not  to  remain. 
"  His  strength  went  from  him,"— Judges  xvi.  19. 

30.  To  be  talked  of ;  to  be  known. 

"  It  has  the  greatest  town  in  the  island  that  goes 
under  the  name  of  Auo-Caprea,  and  is  in  several  places 
covered  with  avery  fruitful  soiL"— Addison  :  On  Italy. 

*  31.  To  be  expressed  in  words. 

"Thus  itfiroes."  Shakesp. :  As  You  Like  It,  ii.  5. 

*  32.  To  pass ;  to  be  received. 

"  Clipping  should  be  finally  stopped,  and  the  money 
which  remains  should  go  according  to  its  true  value. 
— Locke. 

*  33.  To  be  in  circulation  ;  to  be  current ; 
to  pass  from  hand  to  hand. 

"Clipt  and  washed  money  goes  about,  when  the 
entire  and  weighty  lies  hoarded  up."—  Waller. 

34.  To  be  used,  spent,  or  expended. 

"  Our  money  must  go  to  pay  for  them." — Locke. 

35.  To  extend  to  consequences. 

"It  is  not  one  master  that  either  directs  or  takeB 
notice  of  these :  it  goes  a  great  way  barely  to  permit 
them." — L' Estrange:  Fables, 

36.  To  have  effect ;  to  produce  effects  ;  to 
have  power  or  value. 

"Considering  the  cheapness,  so  much  money  might 
go  farther  thrs.  a  sum  ten  times  greater  could  now.  '— 

37.  To  be  reckoned,  valued,  or  rated ;  to  be 
of  weight. 

"Whatever  appears  against  their  prevailing  vice 
goes  for  nothing,  being  either  not  applied,  or  passing 
for  libel  and  slander."— Swift. 

38.  To  extend  in  meaning. 

"  His  amorous  expressions  go  no  further  than  virtue 
may  allow."— Dryden  :  Ovid.    (Pref.) 

39.  To  last,  to  reach,  to  extend. 

"  Whose  flesh,  torn  off  by  lump3,  the  ravenous  foe 
In  morsels  cut,  to  make  it  farther  go." 

Tate  ■  Juvenal,  sat.  xv. 

40.  To  contribute,  to  conduce,  to  concur,  to 
form  an  ingredient. 

41.  To  proceed,  to  fare  ;  to  be  in  any  state. 

"  When  violence  was  ceased,  and  war  on  earth. 
All  would  have  gone  well."     Milton  :  P.  L.,  xi.  7B0. 

42.  To  fall  out ;  to  terminate ;  to  succeed  ; 
to  result. 

"  However  the  business  goes,  you  have  made  fault 
In  the  boldness  of  your  speech." 

Sliakesp. :  Winter's  Tale,  iii.  2. 

43.  To  be  about  to  do ;  to  be  on  the  point 
of.    (Used  as  an  auxiliary  verb.) 

'"We  shall  do  it  now,'  said  Lochiel ;  'that  is  not 
the  cry  of  men  who  are  going  to  win.'  ' — Macaulay : 
Hist  Eng  ,  ch.  xiii. 

44.  To  be  in  order  of  place  or  time. 

*  45.  To  be  pregnant. 

"The  fruit  she  goes  with, 
I  pray  that  it  good  time  and  life  may  find." 

Shakesp.  :  Henry  VIII.,  v.  1. 

46.  To  have  animation,  spirit,  life,  or  in- 
terest ;  as,  A  play  goes  well. 

47.  To  become  ;  to  come  into  a  state. 

"  The  prince  will  go  mad." 

Shakesp. :  Troilus  <£  Cressuta,  iv.  2. 

48.  To  be  regulated  so  as  to  suit. 

"It  .  .  .  goes  to  the  tune  o'-^'Two  Maids.'"— 
Shakesp. :  Winter's  Tale,  iv.  4. 

49.  To  fail  in  business  ;  to  become  bank- 
rupt :  as,  He  went  for  £10,000.  (Commercial 

B.  Transitive .  [Although  go  appears  to  be, 
and  may  be,  treated  as  transitive  in  such 
phrases  as  to  go  one's  way,  to  go  an  errand,  &c, 
it  is  really  intransitive,  the  following  preposi- 
tion being  omitted :  as,  To  go  a  journey  =  to 
go  on  a  journey.] 

%  Special  phrases: 

1.  To  go  a  begging  :  To  be  in  no  demand  ;  to 
be  neglected  or  despised. 

2.  To  go  about  : 

(1)  Ordinary  Language : 

(a)  To  take  a  circuitous  course  in  accom- 
plishing anything ;  to  go  in  different  directions. 

(b)  To  set  one's  self  to  do  anything ;  to  at- 
tempt ;  to  exert  oneself. 

"  They  went  about  to  Blay  him."— Acts  ix.  29. 

(2)  Naut. :  To  turn  the  head  of  a  ship  ;  to 
tack  ;  to  wear. 

3.  To  go  abroad  : 

(1)  To  leave  one's  own  country  for  a  foreign 

(2)  To  go  out  of  doors. 

(3)  To  be  published  or  made  public ;  to  be 

"  There  went  this  saying  abroad  amongst  the 
brethren." — John  xxi.  28. 

4.  To  go  against : 

(1)  To  go  to  attack ;  to  invade ;  to,  march 

(2)  To  be  in  opposition  to  ;  to  be  disagree- 

5.  To  go  ahead  : 

(1)  To  go  or  proceed  in  advance  ;  to  push 
forward  or  in  advance. 

(2)  To  make  rapid  progress. 

6.  To  go  aside : 

(1)  Lit. :  To  withdraw  apart  from  others. 

"  And  he  took  them  and  went  aside  privately  into  a 
desert  place."— Luke  ix.  10. 

(2)  Fig. :  To  go  wrong  ;  to  deviate  from  the 
right ;  to  err. 

"  If  any  man's  wife  go  aside,  and  commit  a  trespass 
against  him." — Hunibers  v.  12. 

7.  To  go  astern: 

Naut. :  To  move  astern  or  backwards. 

8.  To  go  astray : 

(1)  Lit. :  To  wander  from  the  right  path  ;  to 

(2)  Fig.  ;  To  wander  from  the  paths  of 

9.  To  go  away : 
(1)  To  depart. 

*  (2)  To  die. 

10.  To  go  back  : 

(1)  To  return,  to  retire ;  to  move  backwards. 

(2)  To  recede  in  value,  price,  or  condition. 

11.  To  go  back  on:  To  break ;  not  to  keep ; 
as,  To  go  back  on  one's  word. 

12.  To  go  between  :  To  interpose  ;  to  mediate 
between ;  to  attempt  to  reconcile  two  parties. 
(Usually  in  a  bad  sense.) 

"I  did  go  between  them,  as  I  said;  but  more  than 
that,  he  loved  her ;  for,  indeed,  he  was  mad  for  her."— 
Shakesp. :  All's  Well  That  Ends  Well,  v.  3. 

*  13.  To  go  beyond :  To  cheat,  to  outdo,  to 

"  That  no  man  go  beyond  and  defraud  his  brother  in 
any  matter." — 1  Thessalonians  iv.  6. 

14.  To  go  by: 

(1)  To  pass  by  or  near  to. 

(2)  To  pass  beyond. 

*  (3)  To  pass  away  unnoticed  or  disregarded. 
"  So  much  the  more  our  carver's  excellent, 

Which  let3  gobyaome  sixteeu  years,  and  makes  her 
As  she  lived  now."    Shakesp, .'  Winter's  Talc,  v  3. 

*  (4)  To  come  by  ;  to  meet  with. 

"  He's  sure  to  go  by  the  worst  that  contends  with 
an  adversary  that  is  too  mightyforhim." — L'Estrange: 

15.  To  go  by  the  board  : 

(1)  Lit.  &  Naut.  :  To  go  or  fall  overboard : 
as,  The  mast  went  by  the  board. 

(2)  Fig. :  To  be  utterly  lost  or  ruined. ' 

16.  To  go  down : 

(1)  Literally : 

(a)  To  descend  in  any  manner  from  a  higher 
to  a  lower  place.  \ 

(b)  To  set :  as,  The  sun  goes  down. 

(c)  To  founder,  to  sink. 

"  Like  ships  that  have  gone  down  at  sea, 
When  heaven  was  all  tranquillity." 

Moore :  Light  of  the  Harem. 

(2)  Figuratively  : 

*  (a)  To  fall ;  to  come  to  nothing. 

(b)  To  be  swallowed,  accepted,  or  received  ; 
to  be  admitted,  to  be  acceptable. 

■'Nothing  so  ridiculous,  nothing  so  impossible,  but 
it  goes  down  whole  with  him  for  truth  and  earnest." — 
L' Estrange :  Fables. 

17.  To  go  far  : 

(1)  To  go  to  a  distance. 

(2)  To  have  much  weight,  effect,  or  influ- 

18.  To  go  for  : 

(1)  To  go  to  fetch. 

(2)  To  represent ;  to  pass  for. 

(3)  To  support  or  be  in  favour  of. 

(4)  To  proceed  to  attack  violently.    (Amer.) 

(0)  To  fetch  ;  to  be  sold  for  ;  as,  The  horse 
went  for  so  much. 

19.  To  go  for  nothing :  To  be  of  no  value, 
weight,  or  influence. 

20.  To  go  forth: 

(1)  To  issue  or  depart  out  of  a  place. 

(2)  To  be  published,  divulged,  or  spread 

21.  To  go  halves,  sluxres,  or  snacks:  To  divide 
either  evenly  or  otherwise. 

22.  To  go  hard  with :  To  cause  great  trouble, 
danger,  or  difficulty  to  escape. 

23.  To  go  in ;  To  proceed  to  action  ;  to  take 
an  active  part. 

24.  To  go  in  for : 

(1)  To  be  in  favour  of ;  to  attach  oneself  to 
the  pursuit  or  acquisition  of ;  to  practise. 

(2)  To  enter  into  competition  for.  (See 
example  under  Great-go.) 

25.  To  go  in  and  out :  To  have  perfect  liberty. 

"He  shall  go  in  and  out,  and  find  pasture."— John 
x.  9. 

26.  To  go  in  to  : 

(1)  Ord.  Lang. :  To  enter  the  presence  of. 

(2)  Scrip.  :  To  have  sexual  intercourse  with. 

27.  To  go  into  : 

(1)  To  enter  upon  :  as,  To  go  into  a  business. 

(2)  To  enter  upon,  to  speak  of;' to  discusss  : 
as,  To  go  into  a  matter, 

28.  To  go  large : 

Naut. :  To  sail  with  the  wind  crossing  the 
direction  of  the  vessel's  course  in  such  a 
way  that  the  sail  feels  its  full  force. 

29.  To  go  off: 

(1)  To  depart ;  to  go  away. 
"  The  leaders  having  charge  from  you  to  stand, 
Will  not  go  off  until  they  hear  you  speak." 

Shakesp. :  2  Henry  IV.,  iv.  2. 

b6il,  bo"^;  pout,  jo\rt;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    -ing. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.     -tion,  -sion=shun;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhiin.   .-tious,  -sious.  -cious  =  shiis.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  beL  del. 

(2)  To  depart ;  to  cease  :  as,  The  pain  went  of. 

(3)  To  die ;  to  decease. 

"  I  would  the  friends  we  miss  were  safe  arrived  : 
Sonieinustf/o  off."  Shakesp.:  Macbeth,  v.  7. 

(4)  To  explode;  to  be  discharged  or  exploded. 

(5)  To  be  sold  or  disposed  of ;  to  be  bought 

(6)  To  take  place  ;  to  be  carried  out ;  to  pass 

"  The  wedding  went  off  much  as  such  affairs  do."— 
Mrs.  Gaskell:  Wives  &  Daughters,  ch.  xiv. 

30.  To  go  on  : 

(1)  To  proceed  ;  to  advance  further. 

(2)  To  continue;  to  proceed;  not  to  leave 
off' :  as,  To  go  on  reading. 

v  (3)  To  make  attack. 

(4)  To  be  put  on  as  a  garment,  &c. ;  to  (it. 

31.  To  go  on  all  fours  with  anything:   To 
agree  exactly. 

32.  To  go  on  a  wind  : 
Naut. :  To  sail  to  windward. 

33.  To  go  out : 

(1)  To  issue  forth  from  a  place. 

(2)  To  go  upon  any  expedition. 

"  You  need  not  to  have  pricked  me :  there  are  other 
men  fitter  to  go  out  than  l."—Shakesp.  :  2  Henri/  IV., 
iii.  2. 

(3)  To  become  public ;    to  be  divulged  or 

(4)  To  be  extinguished ;  to  become  extinct : 
as,  A  candle  or  a  tire  goes  out. 

(5)  Univ.,  :  To  proceed  regularly  to  an 
academical  degree. 

(0)  To  leave  or  vacate  office  :  as,  A  ministry 
f/OCS  out. 

34.  To  go  over : 

(1)  To  pass  from  one  side  of  to  the  other  ;  to 
cross  ;  to  pass  over. 

(a)  Transitive  : 

' '  I  must  not  go  over  Jordan."— Deut.  iv.  22.  ; 

(b)  Intransitive  : 

"Let  me  go  over  and  see  the  good  land  that  is 
beyond  Jordan."—  Dent.  iii.  25. 

(2)  To  revolt ;  to  desert  from  one  side  to 
another  ;  to  change  sides. 

(3)  To  read,  to  peruse,  to  study,  to  view  or 
review  ;  to  examine. 

"If  we  170  over  the  laws  of  Christianity,  we  shall 
find  that  excepting  a  few  particulars,  they  enjoin  the 
same  thing." — "Filiation. 

(4)  To  think  or  meditate  over. 

(5)  To  transcend,  to  bear,  to  surpass. 

35.  To  go  over  to  (or  join)  the  majority:  To 
die,  to  decease.     [Majority.] 

36.  To  go  the  whole  figure:  To  go  to 'the 
fullest  extent  in  gaining  a  point  or  obtaining 
an  object.     (Amcr.) 

37.  To  go  the  whole  hog  :  To  go  to  the  fullest 
extent ;  to  be  out-and-out ;  to  stick  at  nothing. 

38.  To  go  through  : 

(1)  To  pass  through  any  substance. 

(2)  To  perform  thoroughly  ;  to  accomplish  ; 
to  fin  ml)  ;  to  bring  to  a  completion. 

(3)  To  suffer,  to  endure,  to  undergo,  to  put 
up  with  :  as,  The  troubles  he  has  gomthrough, 

(4)  To  waste;  to  spend  completely;  to  run 

(5)  To  bungle  a  business.    (Scotch.) 

((5)  To  strip  of  valuable  property.  (Amcr. 

39.  To  go  through  with: 

(1)  To  perform  thoroughly  ;  to  bring  to  a 

"He  much  feared  the  Earl  of  Antrim  had  not 
steadiness  of  mind  enough  to  go  through  with  such  an 
undertaking."— Clarendon  :  Civil  War. 

(2)  To  persevere  in  to  the  end. 

"Finding  Pyrocles  every  way  able  to  go  through 

with  that  kind  of  life,  he  was  as  desirous  for  his  sake 
as  for  his  own  to  enter  into  it."— Sidney :  Arcadia. 

40.  To  go  to  ground  : 

(1)  Lit.  &  Hunt.  :  Said  of  a  fox  when  he 
succeeds  in  escaping  the  hounds  by  taking 
refuge  in  an  earth  or  a  hole. 

"Saved  his  brush  by  going  to  ground  in  a  drain."— 
Field,  Jan.  28,  1882, 
*(2)  Fig.:  To  fall  or  die  in  battle;  to  be  slain. 

"la  a  battle  where  so  many  before  our  eyes  go  to 
the  ground,  paying  the  debt  to  nature  daily." — Ch. 
Sutton  :  Learn  to  Die  (1634),  p.  IT. 

41.  To  go  to  naught:  To  come  to  nothing  ; 
to  fail. 

go— goal 

42.  To  go  to  work :  To  set  to  work  ;  to  start 
at  any  work  or  pursuit. 

"  Because  this  atheist  ooe.i  mechanically  to  work,  he 
will  not  offer  to  affirm  that  all  the  parts  of  the  ein- 
bryun  could,  according  tu  hi*  explication,  he  formed 
at  a  time."— Dent  ley:  Doyle  Lectures. 

43.  To  go  under  : 
*  (1)  To  set. 

"  Nou  is  the  sarnie  gon  undar."      Alisaunder,  6,830. 

(2)  To  be  submerged  or  ruined ;  to  perish  ; 
to  sink.     (American.) 
"(3)  To  die. 
v  (4)  To  undergo. 

44.  To  go  upon: 

'■  (I)  To  attack,  to  go  against. 
(2)  To  take  or  act  upon  as  a  principle,  basis, 
<>r  foundation. 

45.  To  go  with  : 

(1)  To  accompany. 

(2)  To  side  or  agree  with  in  views  or  design. 

(3)  To  agree  with,  to  suit,  to  harmonize. 

46.  To  go  ill  (or  well)  with  :  To  meet  with  ill 
(or  good)  fortune  ;  to  fare  ill  (or  well). 

47.  To  go  witlwut:  To  be  or  remain  desti- 
tute or  unprovided. 

48.  To  go  wrong : 

(1)  Lit. :  To  take  a  wrong  way  or  road  ;  to 
wander  from  the  road. 

(2)  Figuratively : 

(a)  To  go  astray  from  the  paths  of  virtue. 

(b)  To  fail  m  business. 

(c)  To  fall  out  unluckily  or  unfortunately  : 
as,  Tilings  went  wrong  with  him. 

(i?)  Tu  become  unsound  or  tainted,  as  meat 
fruit,  &c. 

49.  Let  go  :  To  loose  one's  bold  of ;  to  release. 

"  Let  go,  slave,  or  tlum  diest."— Shakesp. :  Lear,  iv.  G. 

'  50.  Go  to :  Come,  move.  (A  phrase  of  ex- 
hortation ;  often  used  ironically.) 

"  Go  to!  go  to!  thou  art  a  foolish  fellow  ; 
Let  me  be  clear  of  thee." 

Shakesp.:  Twelfth  Night,  iv,  1. 

go,  s.     [Go,  v.] 

1.  A  going  on  ;  act,  operation,  doing,  inci- 

"  This  is  a  pretty  go,  is  this  here  !  an  uncommon 
pretty  go." —Dickens  .    Nicholas  Niekleby,  ch.  lxii. 

2.  A  fashion  or  mode. 

3.  A  noisy  jollification  ;  a  spree. 

4.  A  drink  of  liquor,  especially  of  gin  ;  a 

"Sipping  whiskey-and- water  until  the  go<-n  were 
both  gone."— Dickens :  Sketches  by  Doz;  Making  a 
Night  of  it 

5.  Stamina  ;  power  of  endurance  or  staying ; 
bottom ;  spirit. 

''This  mishap  knocked  all  the  go  out  of  him."— 
Field,  Jan.  28,  1882. 

6.  Spirit,   life,  animation,  fire  ;  unflagging 


"An  individual  without  animation,  without  that 
essential  which  lor  want  of  a  better  term  we  call  go  is 
in  comic  opera,  an  interloper,  a  blot,  a  hindrance. " — 
Era,  Nov.  17,  1883. 

II  (1)  Great-go,  Little-go:  University  slang 
terms  for  the  final  and  preliminary  or  previous 

examinations  for  degrees. 

"The  little  gentleman  was  going  in  for  his  degree, 
alias  Great-go,  alias  Greats ;  and  our  hero  for  his  first 
examination  in  Uteris  humanioribus,  alias  Respon- 
sions,  alias  Little-go,  alias  Smalls." — Cuthbert  Jiede : 
Verdant  Green,  pt.  ii.,  ch.  ii. 

(2)  No  go :  Of  no  use ;  not  to  be  done ;  a 
complete  failure. 

"I  tell  you,  flare,  it  is  no  go.    I  will  never  let  her 

marry." — Thackeray:  Miscellanies,  i,  483. 

go  ahead,  a.  Characterized  by  progress, 
energy,  and  enterprise ;  enterprising,  energetic, 

go-between,  s.  One  who  acts  as  an 
intermediary  between  two  parties,  as  agent 
or  mediator.    (Usually  in  a  bad  sense.) 

"  Even  as  you  came  into  me,  her  assistant,  or  170- 
hetween,  parted  from  me. "— Shakesp. :  Merry  Wives  of 
Windsor,  ii,  2. 

go-by,  $. 

1.  The  act  of  passing  without  notice ;  hence 
an  intentional  omission  or  failure  to  notice. 

2.  An  evasion,  a  deception. 

' '  Except  an  apprentice  is  instructed  how  to  adulte- 
rate and  varnish,  and  give  you  the  go-by  upon  occasion, 
his  master  may  be  charged  with  neglect."— Collier  ■  On 

go-cart,  s.  A  small  framework  without 
a  bottom,  and  running  on  castors,  for  teaching 
infants  to  walk. 

"The  ladies  now  walk  as  if  they  were  in  a  go-cart." 

—Steele:  Spectator,  No.  109. 

go -harvest,  go-har'st,  s.    Tlw  ^J1. 

when  the  summer  season  declines,  or  is  aooivc 
to  go  away  ;  including  tin*  time  from  the  in- 
gathering of  the  crop  till  the  commencement 
of  winter.    (Scotch.) 

"  Other  parts  of  it  bear  .1  thin  grass,  and  in  the  go- 
harvest  and  winter  season  is  of  a  yeilowibh  culoiir.  — 
— Maxwell :  Select  Transactions,  p.  10. 

go-out,  S. 

Hydr.  Engin.:  A  sluice  in  an  embankment 
for  allowing  water  to  escape  from  tidal  lands 
when  the  tide  is  out ;  a  gowt. 

go-summer,  s.  The  latter  end  of  summer, 
towards  the  beginning  of  autumn.     (Scotch.) 

"The  go-summer  was  matchless  fair  in  Murray, 
without  winds,  wet,  or  any  storm."— Spalding: 
Troubles,  i.  31. 

*  go,  pa.  par.     [Go,  v.] 

goad,  -  gdde,     goade,  ».    [  gad;  Icel. 
ga,ddr.]    [Gad.] 

1.  Lit.  ;  A  pointed  instrument  used  to 
stimulate  oxen  to  move  faster. 

"A  pointed  goad  he  brought,  with  which  he  drew 
From  every  limb  the  streams  of  sanguine  hue." 

Boole  :  Orlando  Farioso,  xxvii. 

2.  Fig.  :  Anything  which  urges  or  stimu- 
lates. In  the  sixteenth  century  the  word  was 
used  to  designate  a  horse-chanter. 

"  They  that  stand  by  and  conycatche  the  chapman 
cither  with  out-bidding,  false  praises,  &c,  are  called 
goades." — Dekker :  Lanthornc  £■  Candle-tight,  ch.  x. 

*  goad-groom,  *.     A  carter ;  a  driver ;  a 


goad,  v.t.  &  i.     [Goad,  s.] 

A.  Transitive: 

1.  To  prick,  drive,  or  urge  on  with  a  goad. 

"  Thy  nurse  will  bear  no  loid  ; 
And  woe  to  them  that  shear  her, 
And  woe  to  them  that  goad." 

Maeaalay  :  Prophecy  of  Capys,  xvii. 

2.  To  stimulate,  to  incite,  to  instigate,  to 
drive  forward. 

'"  He  carefully  avoided  every  act  which  could  goad 
them  into  open  hostility."— Macuulay :  Jlist.  Fug., 
ch,  xni. 

3.  To  excite,  to  arouse,  to  drive  by  words 
or  actions  of  an  irritating  or  inflammatory 

B.  Intrans.  :  To  act  as  a  goad,  stimulus, 
or  incentive. 

"  It  was  a  goading  thought — his  stride 
Hied  hastier  down  the  mountain  side." 

Scott :  Lady  of  f/te  Lake,  iii.  30. 

goad'-loup,  s.  [Sw.  gatlopp.]  The gantelope, 
or  gantlet,  a  military  punishment,  in  which 
the  criminal,  running  between  the  ranks, 
receives  a  lash  from  each  man.     [Gantlet.] 

"  Because  I  refused,  they  threatened  in  their  anger, 
that  whosoever  gave  me  a  drink  of  water  should  get 
the  goadloap."—  Wodrow :  Hist.  I.  (Append.,  p.  102). 

goad$'-man,  s,  [Eng.  goad, and  uwii,]  One 
who  drives  oxen  with  a  goad  ;  a  gadsmau. 

goad'-Ster,   s.     [Eng.   goad;    stiff,    -dr,.]     A 

goadsinan  or  gadsman. 

"  Goadstcrs  in  classical  costume  with  fillets  ami 
wheatears  enough." — Carlyle :  French  Jicvol.  pt.  ii., 
bk.  iii.,  c.  vii. 

goaf  (1),  s.     [Etym.  doubtful.] 

Mln. .'  The  waste  place  in  a  colliery ;  the 

refuse  that  is  left  behind  when  the  work  is 

completed ;    the  space  from  which  the  coal 

has  been  removed,  and  in  which  the  roof  has 

been  permitted  to  fall  in  ;  also  called  gob. 

"  Should  the  ventilation  be  defective,  some  of  the 

gas  will  be  filtered  into  the  open  goafs,   and  remain 

there  until  forced  or  drawn  out  by  some  of  the  influ- 

'  "  -Colliery  Guardian,  Nov.  0, 

goaf  (2),  s.     [Goff  (2).]     A  rick  of  hay. 

goaf-flap,  s.  A  wooden  beater  to  knock 
the  ends  of  the  sheaves,  and  make  the  goaf 
more  compact. 

goaf-ladder,    *  gofe-ladder,   $       A 

ladder  for  carrying  hay  on  to  the  rick. 

goaf-stead,  s.  A  division  of  a  barn  in 
which  a  goaf  is  placed. 


*  goaf  (3),  a.  [Goff  (1),  s.] 

oaf  ish.  *  gof-lsh,  *  gof  fish,  *  goof 

sh,  a.      [CI.  Sp.   170/0 ;  ital.   goffo;  Fr.  gaffe 
—  a  fool,  a  simpleton.]    [Goff.] 

"  For  to  be  war  of  goojtih  peplca  speulie." 

Chaucer  :  Troilus,  iii.  535. 

goal  (1),  gole,  s.  [Fr.  gaitU  =  a  pole  or  big 
rod;O.Fr.  waule;  cogn.  with  Icel.  voir  =  a 
stick,  a  staff ;  Goth,  walus  ;  O.  Fris.  wain.'] 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;  go,  pot, 
or.  wore.  wolf.  work,  whd,  son ;   mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  fuU ;  try,  Syrian,    se,  oe  =  e ;  ey  =  a.     qu  =  kw. 

goal— goatskin 


I,  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  The  winning-post  in  a  race  ;  the  point  or 
mark  set  to  bound  a  race. 

"  Else,  though  unequalled  to  the  goal  he  flies. 
A  meaner  than  himself  shall  gain  the  prize." 

Cowper  :  Truth,  15. 

2.  The  final  purpose  or  aim ;  the  end  at 
which  a  person  aims,  or  to  which  a  design  is 
directed ;  the  end. 

"  Day  and  night  my  toils  redouble ! 
Never  nearer  to  the  goal." 
Wordsworth  :  Song  for  the  Wandering  Jew. 

*■  3.  The  starting-post  of  a  race. 

"  So  self  starts  nothing,  but  what  leads  apace 
Hume  to  the  goal."  Cowper  :  tliarlty,  506. 

II,  Football : 

1.  The  space  marked  by  goal-posts  and  a 
cross-bar,  to  define  the  required  path  of  the 
ball  in  order  that  a  goal  [2]  may  be  scored. 
According  to  Rugby  rules,  the  ball  must  be 
kicked  over  the  cross-bar  ;  according  to  Asso- 
ciation lilies,  it  must  go  under. 

2.  The  act  of  kicking  the  ball  through  or 
©vet*  the  goal-posts. 

"  The  victory  of  the  home  team  by  two goalg  to  one." 
—Field,  Oct.  27,  1883. 

goal-keeper,  s.     In  football,  the  player 
in  charge  of  the  defence  of  the  goal. 

"  Both  goal-lceepers  played  in  very  cool  and  clever 
fashion,"— Field,  Oct.  27, 1683. 

goal-post,  s.     In    football,   one  of  the 
posts  forming  the  goal. 

"  goal  (2),  s.    [Gaol.] 


[GORE   (1),    8.] 

goare,  s.     [Gore  (1),  v.]    A  hurt,   a  wound. 
(Forbes:  Eubulus,  p.  152.) 

*  gdar'-Isll,  ft.     [Eng.  goar;    -ish.]     Patched 
up  ;  mean. 

"The  goar  ish  Latino  they  write  in  their  bonds.'— 
lieaum.  &  J'let. :  Ptiilaster,  v.  1. 

goat  (1),    *gaet,      gait,    *gat,    *gate, 
gatt,    *gayt,       geat,       geet,    *get, 

*  gett,    *  geyt,    *  geyte,    'r  goot,   *  got, 
gote,  s.    [A.S.  gat;  cogn.  with  Dut.  geit;  Sw. 

get ;  Dan.  ged;  Icel.  gett;  Ger.  geiss,  geisse ; 

Goth,  gaitsa;  O.  H.  Ger.  geiz;  Lat.  hcedus.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 
1.  Lit. :  In  the  same  sense  as  II. 
"  A  shaggy  goat's  soft  hide  beneath  him  Bpread." 

Pope:  Homer;  Odyssey  xiv.  50. 
*'2.  Fig.:  A  lecherous  person  ;  a  lecher. 

"At  dinner  he  never  fails  to  sit  next  to  her  .  .  .  and 
at  the  tea-table  I  have  seen  the  impudent  goat  most 
lusciously  sip  off  her  leavingB."— Cibbcr :  Non-juror,  L 1. 

%  In  Christian  art  the  goat  is  an  emblem  of 
impurity.  It  sometimes  occurs  in  the  carving 
under  seat  or  choir-stalls,  and  is  put  there  as 
a  mark  of  dishonour. 

Zoology : 

1.  Singular : 

(1)  Capra  Mrcus,  the  domestic  goat,  which 
exists,  in  a  wild  or  semi-wild  state,  in  all  the 
European  mountain  ranges.  It  is  generally 
supposed  that  it  may  be  a  descendant  of  the 
Paseng  of  Persia  (Capra  cegagrus).  Professor 
Boyd  Dawkins  considers  that  it,  with  various 
other  domestic  animals,  came  in  with  the 
neolithic  farmer  and  herdsman,  there  being 
no  trace  of  it  while  the  palaeolithic  hunter 
.constituted  the  highest  type  of  manhood  in 
Europe.  Semi-wild  goats  are  found  on  hills 
in  Britain.  These  show  wonderful  sureness 
of  foot  and  absence  of  fear  when  traversing 
places  where  a  false  step  would  he  fatal.  The 
males  fight  furiously  with  each  other  in  the 
rutting  time.     They  have  an  offensive  smell. 

(2)  The  genus  Capra  (q.v.). 

2.  The  family  Cnpridse  (q.v.). 

goat-board,  s.    [Goat's-beard.] 

"goat -buck,  *  goot -buck, ».  A  he- 

"  Neither  bl  blood  of  goot-buckis  orof  caluys."— Bible 
,(1551),  Hebrews  ix.  12. 

*  goat-chaffer,  s. 

Entoni.:  "A  kind  of  beetle."  (Bailey.)  The 
aame  chaffer  is  appropriated  to  the  geuus 
Melolontha  and  the  family  Melolonthidte. 
Melolontlia  (Rhizo tragus)  solstUialis  may  be  the 
■species  intended  by  Bailey.  It  is  smaller, 
narrower,  and  paler  than  the  Common  Cock- 
chafer (q.v.).  In  the  new  edition  of  Jamieson's 
Scottish  Dictionary  it  is  called  Ccrambyx  azdilis, 
which  has  no  close  affinity  to  Melolontlia. 

t  goat  fig,  s. 

Bot. :  The  fig-tree  in  its  wild  state. 

goat -fold,  s  A  fold  or  enclosure  fur 

goat-bouse,  s. 

1.  Lit. :  A  goat-fold. 
■'  2.  Fig. :  A  brothel. 

t  goat  marjoram,  s, 

Bot. :  The  same  as  Goat's-beard  (q.v.). 

t  goat-milker,  s. 

Ornith. ;  The  bird  called  the  goat-sucker 

goat-moth,  «. 

Entom.  :  Cossus  ligniperda,  a  large  moth 
belonging  to  the  family  Zenzeridae.  The  fore 
wings  are  pale  brown,  clouded  with  whitish, 
and  marked  with  numerous  short,  irregular 
transverse  wavy  black  lines  ;  hind  wings  pale- 
smoky,   with  similar  transverse  dark  lines, 

goat- MOTH. 

but  less  distinct ;  expansion  of  wings  three  to 
above  three  and  a  half  inches  ;  larva  reddish 
black  on  the  back,  sides  of  a  dull  yellowish 
or  flesh  colour ;  head  black ;  smell  offensive. 
It  is  very  common  in  the  south,  but  less  so  in 
the  north.  It  feeds  on  the  wood  of  willows, 
poplars,  and  oaks,  sometimes  perforating  the 
wood  in  all  directions.  It  is  said  to  be  three 
years  in  reaching  maturity.  The  perfect  in- 
sect comes  forth  in  July.    (Staintton.) 

goat-pepper,  s. 

Bot. :  Capsicum  fruticosum,  a  native  of  the 
East  Indies. 

goat-root,  s. 

Bot. :  Ononis  Natrix. 

goat  -  stone,  ».  For  def.  see  extract. 

"  The  disease  of  the  stone  was  supposed  to  be  cured 
by  the  stone  called  copra,  which  was  said  to  be  found 
in  the  bodies  of  some  Indian  goats.  Targioni  Tozzetti 
(Leztoni  di  Materia  Medica,  Florence,  1821)  seriously 
describes  the  goat-stones  as  follows :  'These  stones  are 
usually  clear  on  their  surface  and  dark-coloured  ;  they 
have  an  odour  of  musk  when  rubbed  and  heated  by 
the  hands.  In  thein,  analeptic  and  nlexiphannlc 
virtues  were  supposed  to  exist,  which  were  able  to 
resist  the  evil  effects  of  poison  and  contagious  diseases, 
thB  plague  not  excepted.' " — De  Gubernatis:  Zoological 
Mythology,  i.  422. 

goat-sucker,  s.    [Goatsucker.] 

goat-tree,  s. 

Bot. :  Lonicera  Periclymenum. 

goat-weed,  s. 

Botany : 

1.  Gen. :  The  genus  Capraria,  belonging  to 
the  Scrophulariacese.    (Loudon.) 

2.  Spec. :  Capraria  biflora.    (Paxton.) 

3.  JUgopodium  (q.v.),  and  specially  JEgo- 
podiwm  Podagraria.  The  resemblance  to  a 
goat's  foot  is  in  the  form  of  the  leaf.  Called 
also  Gout-weed,  Bishop's-weed,  Ash-weed, 
Herb-gerard,  and  Wild  Masterwort. 

4.  Stemodia  durantlfolia.    (Treas.  of  Lot.) 

goat-willow,  s. 

Bot. :  Salix  Caprosa. 

It  is  the  badge  of  the 

goat's-bane,  s. 

Bot. :  Aconitum  Tragoctonum. 

goat's-beard,  goat-beard,  a. 

Botany  ; 

1.  The  composite  genus  Tragopogon,  and 
especially  Tragopogon  pratense.  It  is  a  stout 
erect  plant,  one  or  two  feet  high,  with  flexu- 
ous  leaves  and  heads  of  yellow  flowers ;  oc- 
curring in  England,  and  more  sparingly  in 

■  Scotland  and  Ireland.  It  is  found  also  on  the 
continent  of  Europe  and  in  Western  Siberia. 
The  root  is  eatable.     (Loudon,  &c.) 

2.  Spircea  Aruncus.     (Paxton.) 

goats-bush,  *. 

Lot. :  Castela  Nkolsoni. 

goat's  foot.  a. 
Bot.:  Oxp lis  caprina. 

*  Goat's-foot  lever : 

Old  Arm.  :  A  contrivance  for  setting  a  cross- 
bow. It  was  so  called  because  it  bore  some 
resemblance  to  the  foot  of  a  goat. 

"  [A  latch]  of  the  time  of  Elizabeth,  bent  by  means 
of  the  goats-foot  lever.'—  Meyriek :  Ancient  Armour, 
vol.  LL,  i»L  xcv. 

goat's  horn,  goats-horned  milk- 
vetch,  s. 

Bot. :  Astragalus  JEglceras. 

goat's  leaves, 


goafs-origanum,  *. 

Bot. :  Thymus  tragoriganvm.    (Paxton.) 

goat's  rue,  ■>. 

Bot. :  (1)  Astragalus  gahgiformis.  (London.) 
(2)  The  geuus  Galega.    (Paxton.) 

goat's  thorn,  s. 

Bot.  :  Two  plants— viz.,  the  Great  Goat's- 
thorn,  Astragalus  Tragacantlia,  and  the  Small 
Goat's-thorn,  A.  Poterium.    (Loudon.) 

goats  wheat,  s. 

Bot. :  The  genus  Tragopyrum. 

goat  (2),  s.    [Icel.  gata  =  a  road.  ] 

1.  A  narrow  cavern  or  inlet,  into  which  the 
s<:&  enters. 

2.  A  small  trench. 

goat,  v.t.  [Goat  (2),  s.]  To  drive  into  a  trench  ; 
a  term  at  golf. 

goat   hush,  s.     [Eng.  goat,  and  bush.] 

Bot. ':  CaMela  Nicolsoni,  an  Ochnad.  It  is 
as  bitter  as  quassia. 

gda-tee',  s.  [Eng.  goat;  dim.  suff.  -ee.]  A 
beard  so  trimmed  that  a  part  of  it  hangs  down 
from  the  lower  lip  or  chin,  as  the  beard  of  a 


goat   fish,  s.     [Eng.  goat,  and  fish.] 

Ichthy.  :  Bvlhtes  capriscus,  a  fish  of  a  brown- 
ish-grey colour,  spotted  with  blue,  or  greenish. 
Its  flesh  is  little  esteemed.  Its  appropriate 
habitat  is  the  Mediterranean,  but  it  has  been 
found  in  the  British  seas.  It  is  called  by 
Yarrell  the  European,  Pile-fish.  [Balistes, 

goat' -foot,  s.  [Eng.  goat,  and  foot.]  A  satyr, 
so  called  from  the  fact  that  the  classic  poets 
described  satyrs  as  having  the  hindquarters 
uf  a  goat. 

"  Catcli  her,  goat-foot;  nay. 
Hide,  hide  them,  million-myrtled  wilderness." 

Tennyson :  Lucretius,  200. 

goat  herd,  *  gate-herd,  *  gate-heyrd, 
*  gote-herd,  *  goot-herde,  s.  [A.S.  gat 
=  a  goat :  heard  ~  a  herd,  heorde  =  a  keeper, 
a  herd.] 

'  1.  A  herd  or  flock  of  goats. 

"  Go  after  gateherden." — Ancren  Riwle,  p.  100. 

2.  One  who  is  employed  to  tend  goats. 

"  Thilk  same  goatherd  proud. 
That  site  on  yonder  bank." 

Spender  :  Hhepheards  Calender ;  July. 

goat  -ish,  a.    [Eng.  goat ;  -ish.] 

1.  Resembling  a  goat  in  form  ;  like  a  goat. 

"Oil's  shield  the  goatish  satires  dance  around. ' 

P.  Fletcher:  Purple  Island,  vii.  V0, 

2.  Resembling  a  goat  in  any  quality,  espe- 
cially in  rankness  of  smell  or  lustfulness. 

"  Give  your  chaste  body  up  to  the  embraces 
Of  goatish  lust." 

Massing er :  Virgin  Martyr,  iii.  I. 

g6at'-Ish-ly,  adv.     [Eng.  goatish;  ~ly.]    In 
a  goatish  manner  ;  lustfully,  lecherously. 

'"  goat'-ish-ness,  s.  [Eng.  goatish;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  goatish,  lustful, 
or  lecherous  ;  lustfulness. 

goat  like,  a.    [Eng. 
goat ;  goatish. 

and  like.]    Like  a 

goat   skin,  s.  &  a.     [Eng.  goot,  and  skin.] 

A.  As  subst. :  The  skin  of  a  goat,  dressed, 
especially  one  sewn  into  the  shape  of  a  bottle. 

"  Then  filled  two  goatskins  with  her  hands  divine  : 
With  water  one,  and  one  with  sable  tv-me." 

Pope :  Homer  ;  Odyssey  v.  .138. 

B.  As  adj. :  Made  of  the  skin  of  a  goat. 

IxTil,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph  =  f. 
-clan,  -tlan  =  shan.     -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,    sion  =  zhun.     -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c,  -  bol,  del. 


goatsucker—  G-od 

goat -sucker,  s,    [Eng.  goat,  and  sucker,} 

Ornithology  &  Ordinary  Language: 

1.  Sing. ;  One  of  the  English  names  of  a 
remarkable  migratory  bird,  Caprimidgus  Euro- 
pceus,  which  breeds  in  Britain  in  the  summer, 
and  winters  chiefly  in  Africa.  The  erroneous 
belief  that  it  sucks  goats  seems  to  have  arisen 
among  the  goatherds  in  ancient  Greece,  who 
called  it  alyo8-g\r}^  (aigotheles),  from  al%  (ait), 
genit.  atyds  (aigos)  =  a  goat,  and  6r}^n  (thele)  = 
the  nipple  ;  and  the  Romans,  falling  into  the 
same  error,  denominated  itCaprimulgus(q.v.). 

2.  PI. :  The  sub-family  Caprimulgina?,  or  the 
family  Caprimulgidse  (q.v.). 

goave,   v.i.     [Goif.]    To   look  round  with  a 
strange,  inquiring  gaze  ;  to  stare  stupidly. 

"Qoavan,  as  if  led  wf  branks, 
And  atiimiiiug  on  his  ploughman  shanks." 

Sums:  Interview  with  Lord  Dacr. 

goave,  s,     [Goave,  y.J    A  broad,  vacant  stare. 

gob,  s.    [Gael,   gob  =  the  beak  of  a  bird,  a 
mouth  ;  Irish  gob  =  the  mouth  ;  O.  Fr.  gob  = 
a  gulp,  gober  —  to  devour  greedily.] 
L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  A  mouth. 

2.  A  mouthful,  a  small  quantity,  a  little 

3.  A  mouthful,  a  single  swallow. 

"  That  little  laud  he  gave 
Throate  the  lawyer  swallowed  at  one  gob." 

Barry  ;  Ram  Alley,  i.  1. 

4.  Saliva,  spittle. 

II.  Min. :  The  same  as  Goaf  (q.v.). 
gob-lines,  s.  pi 

Saut,  :  A  term  for  the  martingale  back- 

*  gob'-bet,   *  gobet,  *  gob-ette,  s.    [Fr. 
gobet,  diinin.  of  O.  Fr.  gob  =  a  gulp.]    [Gob.] 

1.  A  mouthful,  a  morsel ;  a  little  quantity  or 

"  He  smot  him  on  the  helm  an  hegh,  aud  a  gobet 
away  a  bar."  Sir  Ferumbras,  614. 

2.  A  fragment. 

"Thei  token  the  relifis  of  broken  gdbetU,  twelve 
cofres  full."—  Wyclijfe  :  Matthew  xiv.  20. 

3.  A  block  of  stone. 

*gob'-bet,  v.t.     [Gobbet,  a.]    To  swallow  in 
large  mouthfuls  ;  to  gulp  down. 

"Down  comes  a  kite  powdering  upon  them,  and  gob- 
bets up  both  together."— L' Estrange. 

*  gobbet -meale,  *  gobet -mele,  adv. 

Bit  by  bit ;  in  little  fragments. 

"He  Blewe  Hamon  neare  toahauen  of  the  sea,  and 
threw  him  gobbet-meale  therein;  it  is  now  called 
South-hanipton." — Stow  :  The  Jtomans  (an.  21). 

*  gob'-bet-ly^  *  gob-et-liche,  adv.    [Eng. 

gobbet;  -ly.]    In  little  fragments  ;  in  pieces. 

"  His  fader  was  islawe  .  ,  .  and  ithrowe  out  gobet- 
liche." —Trevisa,  iv.  103. 

gob'-bing,  s.    [Gob,  s.  II.] 

Min.  :  The  refuse  thrown  back  into  the 
excavations  remaining  after  the  removal  of  the 
coal ;  packing  with  waste  rock. 

gob'-ble,  v.t.  &  i.     [A  freq.  from  Fr.  gober  = 
to  gulp  down.] 

A.  Transitive : 

L  To  swallow  down  hastily  or  greedily  ;  to 
gulp  down. 

"  The  time  too  precious  now  to  waste, 
And  supper  gobbled  up  in  haste. 
Again  afresh  to  cards  they  run. ' 

Swift:  Ladies'  Journal. 

2.  To  utter  like  a  turkey-cock. 

"  He  returns  to  his  female  train,  displays  his  plum- 
age around,  struts  about  the  yard,  and  gobbles  out  a 
note  of  self-approbation."  —  Goldsmith  :  Animated 
Nature :  Tlie  Tarkuy. 

B.  Intransitive, : 

1.  To  swallow  food  greedily  or  hastily. 

2.  To  muke  a  noise  in  the  throat,  as  a 
turkey- hoc  k. 

"He  nuver  roosts  for  two  successive  nights  upon  ihe 
same  tree,  and  rarely  gobbles  without  running  away 
from  the  sound  linuBell  has  made." — Daily  Telegraph, 
Sept.  20,  1883. 

*  gobble-gut,  s.    A  greedy  fellow. 

gob'-ble,  s.     [Gobble,  v.] 

1.  A  noise  made  in  the  throat,  as  that  of  the 


"  The    turkey-cock    is   another   unfortunate    bird, 

whose  strut  and  gobble  have  led  it  to  be  considered  an 
emblem,  of  .  .'.  Bumbledom."— Lindsay:  Mind  in  the 
Lower  Ailimalx,  i.  205. 

■  2.  A  turkey-cock. 
gobble-cock,  *.    A  turkey-cock. 

gob' -bier,  ».     [Eng,  gobbl{e);  -er.] 

1.  One  who  gobbles  or  swallows  food 
greedily  ;  a  gourmand,  a  greedy  eater. 

2.  A  turkey-cock. 

"In  the  hope  that  many  such  gabblers  as  we  have 
described  may  fall  before  their  auernng  bullets.  — 
Daily  Telegraph,  Sept.  29,  1883. 

gob-bo,  gdm'-bo,  gum-bo,  s  [A  West 
Indian  word.] 

Hot. :  The  fruit  of  Abelmoschus  esculentus, 
which,  used  as  an  ingredient  in  soup,  imparts 
to  it  a  mucilaginous  quality. 

go'be-lin,  a.    [See  clef.  1 

Fabric  :  A  term  applied  to  a  superior  kind 

of  French  tapestry,  deriving  its  name  from  the 
brothers  Gobelin,  the  first  manufacturers.  It 
was  ornamented  with  designs  in  colours. 
Under  Colbert,  the  celebrated  French  minister, 
the  different  tapestry-producing  ateliers  in 
France  were  centralised  and  united  with  the 
Gobelins',  which  factory  he  induced  the  king 
to  buy.  The  factory  still  continues  to  main- 
tain its  pride  of  place,  producing  the  finest 
tapestry  in  the  world. 

go  be-moughe,  s.  [Fr.,  lit.=  afly-swallower.] 
A  silly,  simple,  credulous  person,  who  will 
swallow  or  believe  anything.  The  name  is 
applied  to  such  persons  because  they  usually 
listen  open-mouthed  to  any  extraordinary 

go-bi'-i-dae,  go-bi-o'-i-dse,  s.  pi.  [Lat. 
gobi(us\  and  fern.  pL  adj.  suff.  -idee.] 

Ichthy.  :  Gobies.  A  family  of  Acanthopteri 
Veri.  The  edges  of  the  operculum  are  un- 
armed, and  its  aperture  small  ;  the  ventral 

■  tins,  whether  united  or  separated,  constitute  a 
sucker,  and  are  situated  on  the  breast ;  the 
pectoral  ones  are  large,  all  the  rays  of  the 
dorsal  and  anal  fins  soft  and  flexible  ;  the 
skin  is  either  naked  or  armed  with  large  finely 
ctenoid  scales.   Genera  represented  in  Britain  : 

'  Blennius,' Mui-ierioides,  Zoarces,  Anarrhichas, 
Gobius,  and  Callionymus.  Most  of  them  are 
small  fishes,  found  among  rocks  or  in  tidal 
livers.  They  sometimes  attach  themselves 
by  their  suckers  to  the  underside  of  stones. 

go'-bl-d,  s.  [Lat.  =  a  fish  of  small  value,  pro- 
bably the  gudgeon.]     [Gobius.] 

Ichthy. :  A  genus  of  soft-bodied  abdominal 
fishes,  family  Cyprinida:.  Though  anciently 
gobio  and  gobius  were  the  names  for  the  same 
fish,  yet  now  they  are  made  quite  distinct 
genera,  not  akin  to  each  other.  Gobio  re- 
sembles Cyprinus,  but  the  dorsal  and  anal 
fins  are  short  and  destitute  of  bony  rays. 
There  is  but  one  British  species,  Gobio  flu- 
victtiHs,  the  Gudgeon  (q.v.). 

go'-bl-us,  s.  _[Lat.  gobius,  cobius,  and  gobio; 
Gr.  kojjSlos  (kobios)  =  the  gudgeon.  (See  def. 
of  gobio.)]'  . 

Ichthy. :  Goby.  The  typical  genus  of  the 
family  Gobiicl*  (q.v.).  They  have  two  dorsal 
fins,  a  scaly  body,  and  a  disc  made  by  the 
ventral  fins,  which  enables  them  to  adhere  to 
rocks.  Yarrell  enumerates  six  species  in 
Britain :  (1)  Gobius  niger,  the  Black-goby, 
Rock-goby,  or  Rock-fish  ;  (2)  G.  bipunctatus, 
the  Doubly-spotted  Goby ;  (3)  G.  minutus,  the 
Freckled  or  Speckled  Goby  ;  (4)  G.  gracilis, 
the  Slender  Goby ;  (5)  G.  unipunctatus,  the 
One-spotted  Goby ;  and  (6)  G.  albus,  the 
White  Goby.     Some  build  nests. 

gob-let,  s.  [Fr.  gobelet  =  a  goblet,  dimta.  of 
O.  Fr.  gobet,  gobeau  =  a  mazer  or  great  goblet 
(Cotgrave)',  from  Low  Lat.  cupillus  =  a  cup, 
dimin.  of  cupa  =  a  vat ;  Sp.  cubilete.]  A  large 
cup  or  drinking- vessel  without  a  handle.  [Cup.  ) 

"  Drink  was  served  to  guests  iu  goblets  of  pure  gold." 
— Macaulay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  iii. 

goblet-cells,  «.  pi. 

Anat. :  Cells  produced  in  certain  circum- 
stances in  the  mucus  of  the  nostrils.    (Quain.) 

goblet-shaped,  a. 

Lot.  :  Concave  and  hemispherical,  a  little 
contracted  at  the  base,  as  some  Pezizas.  The 
same  as  Crateriform  (q.v.).    (Lindley.) 

gob   lln,    *  gob- bel -line,   s.     [Fr.  gobelin, 

■from  Low  Lat.  gobelinus,  cobalus  =  a  goblin, 
from  Gr.  Ko(3aAos  (kobalos)  =  a  rogue,  a  sprite, 
a  goblin ;  Ger.  kobold  —  a  demon  or  spirit  of 
the  mines.]  An  evil  or  mischievous  spirit  or 
sprite  ;  an  elf,  a  phantom  ;  a  malicious  fairy. 

"  '  Harper  1  methinks  thy  magic  lays,' 
Matilda,  said,  '  can  goblins  raiso ! '  " 

Scott :  Jtokeby,  v.  2B. 

*  gob'-lin-ry,  s.     [Eng.   goblin;  -ry.]     The 
mischievous  acts  or  practices  of  goblins. 

go'-bo-nat-ed,  a.    [Gobone.] 

Her. :  An  epithet  applied  to  a  border,  pale, 
bend,  or  other  charge 
divided  into  equal  parts 
formingsquares,  gobbets, 
or  chequers.  Called  also 
Gobone,  or  Gobony. 

go'-bo-ne,    go'-bo-ny, 

a.     [Gobbet.] 
Her.  :    The    same 


go-by,  s.    [Gobius.] 

Ichthy. :  The  English  name  of  the  genus 
Gobius  (q.v.). 

*  gock-min,  *  cock-man,  s.     [Etym.  doubt- 
ful.]   A  sentinel,  a  look-out. 

"They  had  a  constant  centinel  on  the  top  of  their 
.    houses,  called  gockmin,  or  in  the  E.  tongue,  cockman,  ~ 
who  is  obliged  to  watch  day  and  night,  and  at  the  ap- 
proach of  any  body,  to  ask,  Who  comeB  there  1" — 
Martin :   Sfestern  Islawls,  p.  103, 

gock'-roo,  s.    [An  East  Indian  word.] 

But.  .  Ruellia  longifolia,  used  in  India  as  a 

God,  god,  s.  [A.S.  ;  cogn.  with  Dut.  god; 
Icel.  gudh;  Dan.  &  Sw.  gud;  Goth,  guth;  Ger. 
goth.  All  from  a  Teutonic  base,  Gutha  =  God, 
and  quite  distinct  and  separate  from  good, 
which  in  A.S.  is  god,  in  Dan.  god,  in  Dut.  goed> 
in  O.  H.  Ger.  cuot,  in  Goth.  god.  Prof.  Max 
Miiller  says  that  "though  it  is  impossible  to 
give  a  satisfactory  etymology  of  either  God 
or  good,  it  is  clear  that  two  words  which  thus 
run  parallel  in  all  the  dialects  without  ever 
meeting  cannot  be  traced  back  to  one  central 
point.  God  was  most  likely  an  old  heathen 
name  of  the  deity,  and  for  such  a  name  the 
supposed  etymological  meaning  of  good  would 
be  far  too  modern,  too  abstract,  too  Christian." 
{Max  Miiller :  Science  of  Language,  ii.  (8th  ed.Y, 
p.  316.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Literally : 

(1)  (Of  the  form  God) :  The  Supreme  Being. 
[II.  1,  2.] 

"  For  to  us  there  is  but  one  God,  the  Father,  of  whom 
are  all  things,  and  we  in  him." — l  Cor.  viii.  6. 

(2)  (Of  the  form  god)  :  Any  superior  or 
imaginary  being,  constituting  an  object  of 
worship.    (In  this  sense  it  has  a  plural.) 

"  For  though  there  be  that  are  called  gods,  whether 
in  heaven  or  in  earth  (as  there  be  gods  many,  and  lords 

many)." — 1  Cor.  viii.  9. 

2.  Figuratively: 

(1)  An  emperor,  king,  or  any  other  person,, 
wielding  great  and  despotic  power. 

"  Art  thou  the  god,  the  thunder  of  whose  hand 
Rolled  over  all  our  desolated  land  1 " 

C'owper:  Gliarity,  IS. 

(2)  Any  person  or  thing  greatly  idolized. 

"  How  shall  I  speak  thee,  or  thy  power  address, 
Thou  god  of  our  idolatry,  the  Press." 

Cowper:  Progress  of  Error,  460. 

II.  Religions : 

1.  Ethnic :  Whether  any  savage  tribes  exist 
with  no  belief  in  any  being  higher  than  man, 
is  doubtful.  Burton  and  Lubbock  (Lord  Ave- 
bury)  are  of  opinion,  as  was  Darwin,  that 
there  have  been,  and  still  are  such  tribes  ;  Dr. 
Tylor,  after  explainingawaysomealleged  cases, 
expresses  doubt  of  those  remaining.  Lord 
Avebury  thus  arranges  the  first  great  stages 
in  religious  thought :  Atheism,  understanding 
by  this  term,  not  a  denial  of  the  existence  of  a 
Deity,  but  an  absence  of  any  definite  ideas  on 
the  subject.  Fetichism,  the  stage  in  which 
man  supposes  he  can  force  the  Deity  to  com- 
ply with  his  desires.  Nature- worship  or 
Totemism,  in  which  natural  objects,  trees, 
lakes,  stones,  animals,  &c,  are  worshipped. 
Shamanism,  in  which  the  superior  deities  are 
far  more  powerful  than  man,  and  of  a  different 
nature.  Their  place  of  abode  also  is  far  away, 
and  accessible  only  to  Shamans.  Idolatry  or 
Anthropomorphism,  in  which  the  gods  take 
still  more  completely  the  nature  of  men,  being, 
however,  more  powerful.  They  are  still  ame- 
nable to  persuasion ;  they  are  a  part  of  nature, 
and  not  creatures.  They  are  represented  "by 
images  or  idols.  In  the  next  stage,  the  Deity 
is  regarded  as  the  author,  not  merely  a  part 
of  nature.  He  becomes  for  the  first  time  a 
really  supernatural  being.  The  last  stage  is 
that  in  which  morality  is  associated  with 
religion.  (Lubbock  :  Origin  of  Civilization 
(1870),  p.  119.) 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,   sir,  marine;   go,  pot 
or.  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;   mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;   try,  Syrian,    se,  ce  =  e ;  ey  —  a.     qu  =  kw. 

god— Godfearing 


2.  Jewish :  Two  leading  names  for  the 
Supreme  Being  continually  occur  in  the 
Hebrew  Bible ;  the  one  generic,  the  other 
specific.  The  generic  term  is  bit  (El),  or  nV?« 
(Eloah),  both  singular,  and  DTlVfc?  (Elohim) 
plural.  The  specific  one  is  niiT  (Yehovali), 
in  general  written  Jehovah  (q.v.).  It  is  of  the 
first  that  God  is  the  appropriate  rendering. 
El,  Eloah,  and  Elohim  signify  Deity  in  general. 
Elohim  is  much  more  common  than  the 
singular  forms.  An  anomalous  grammatical 
idiom  is  generally  introduced  where  it  occurs. 
While  it  has  the  plural  form,  im  being  the 
plural  of  Hebrew  masculine  nouns,  the  verb, 
of  which  it  is  nominative  is  uniformly  singular. 
Older  writers  found  in  this  a  reference  to  the 
Trinity  in  Unity ;  grammarians  term  it  the 
plural  of  excellence,  and  some  have  supposed 
that  the  plural  noun  carries  us  back  to  the 
infancy  of  the  Hebrew  language  when  poly- 
theism prevailed,  and  that  the  singular  verb 
established  itself  when  monotheism  displaced 
the  worship  of  many  gods.  Among  the  epithets 
or  titles  used  of  God  in  the  Old  Testament, 
are  Most  High  (Gen.  xiv.  18,  &c),  Mighty 
(Neh.  ix.  32),  Holy  (Josh.  xxiv.  19),  Mefciful 
(Deut.  iv.  31),  God  of  Heaven  (Ezra  v.  12),  God 
of  Israel,  &c.  (Exod.  xxiv.  10).  Anthro- 
pomorphic language  occurs  chiefly,  though 
not  exclusively,  in  the  poetic  parts  of  the 
Old  Testament  (2  Chron.  xvi.  9,  Psalm  xxxiv. 
15,  Deut.  viii.  3,  Psalm  xxix.  4,  Isa.  xl. 
12,  liii.  1,  lx.  13,  Exod.  xxxii.  23),  but  mono- 
.  theism  is  enjoined  in  the  first  command- 
ment, and  idolatry  forbidden  in  the  second, 
while  in  Isaiah  and  elsewhere  there  are  most 
scathing  denunciations  of  the  manufacture 
and  worship  of  images  (Isa.  xl.  12-26,  xlii.  17, 
xliv.  9-20,  &c).  In  the  New  Testament,  St. 
John  gives  the  ever-memorable  definition  of 
the  Divine  nature,  "God  is  love  "  (1  John  iv. 
16).  The  Latin  Church,  the  Greek  Church, 
and  the  several  Protestant  denominations  all 
essentially  agree  in  their  tenets  regarding  God. 
See  the  Apostles',  Nicene,  and  Athanasian 
Creeds,  the  first  of  the  Thirty-nine  Articles, 
the  Catechism  of  the  Council  of  Trent,  the 
Confession  of  Faith  (eh.  ii.),  and  the  Shorter 
Catechism,  question  4.  [Theology,  Trinity.] 
IT  Of  God: 

Scrip. :  A  term  sometimes  used  as  a  super- 
lative to  designate  whatever  is  specially  great 
or  admirable.  Thus  the  trees  of  God  are 
cedars  (Ps.  civ.  16),  and  the  "river  of  God"  is 
a  river  full  of  water  to  the  brink  of  its  bed  or 
channel,  if  not  even  in  flood  (Ps.  Ixv.  9). 

B.  As  adj. ;  Of,  belonging  to,  or  by  God. 
See  the  compounds. 

God-'a-mercy,  inter j.   God  have  mercy  I 

God-bairn,  God  bairne,  s.  A  god- 

"  Quhat  aall  be  my  god-bairne  gift?" 

Lyndsay,  ii.  111. 

*  gOd-bOte,  a.      [GODBOTE.] 

god  cake,  s.  A  cake  sent  on  New  Year's 
Day  to  a  godchild, 

God  commissioned,  a.  Commissioned 
by  God. 

"  Awful  as  Death  and  as  Judgment, 
Stood  he,  the  God-commissioned." 

Longfellow :  Children  of  the  Lord's  Supper, 

*  God-gild,  s.  That  which  is  offered  to 
God  or  his  service. 

God -given,  «.    Given  by  God. 

"  The  world  defrauded  of  the  high  design. 
Profaned  the  God-given  strength,  and  marred  the 
lofty  line."         Scott :  Marmton,  i.  (Introd.). 

God-intoxicated,  a.  Overwhelmingly 
filled  with  the  idea  of  God's  presence;  an  epi- 
thet applied  by  Novalis  to  Spinoza.  [Spinoz- 

"  Spinoza  was  a  '  God-intoxicated  man,"  not  only  in 
the  ardoura  of  speculative  activity,  but  in  the  conflict 
of  daily  life,  believing  in  God  as  an  ever-present 
reality.  —G.  H.  Lewes :  History  of  Philosophy,  ii.  177. 

*  god-king,  s. 

Comp.  Mythology : 

1.  A  demigod,  the  offspring  of  a  god  and  a 
woman,  or  of  a  hero  and  a  goddees  or  nymph. 

2.  A  monarch  regarded  as  a  divinity  either 
in  virtue  of  his  own  claims  or  by  the  syco- 
phancy of  his  courtiers. 

"  Consult  the  Charmides  of  Plato  (v.)  for  a  remark- 
able account  of  the  theory  of  such  a  treatment  at- 
tributed by  Socrates  to  Zamolxis,  the  god-king  of  the 
Thjacians.  —  Matthew  Arnold:  Literature  &  Dogma 
(1873),  p.  144.    (Note.) 

*  god-lore,  s.     The  knowledge  of  dhini- 
ties  either  real  or  fabulous  ;  mythology. 

"Thus  we  see  a  sort  of  mystic  poesy  connecting 
itself  with  the  mybtic  god-lore."— Hitter ;  Hist,  of 
Ancient  Philosophy  (ed.  Morrison),  i.  139. 

God-man,  s.     One  buth  God  and  man ; 
applied  to  our  Lord. 

God-speed,  s.      Success,   prosperity,  or 
good  fortune  ;  specif.,  a  prosperous  journey 
"  Receive  him  not  into  your  house,  neither  hid  him 

God-speed."— 2  John  10. 

*  God-tide,  s.     Christmas. 

god-tree,  s. 

Bot. .  Eriodendron  anfractiwsum, 

God'S-acre,  s.    [Acre.]    A  burial-ground. 
"  I  like  that  ancient  Saxon  phrase,  which  calls 
The  burial-ground  God's-acre." 

Longfellow :  God's- Acre. 

God's  field,  a.  A  churchyard,  a  burial- 

God's-flower,  s. 

Bot. :  Ilelichrysum  Stcechas. 

god's- food, 

Barm  ;  yeast. 

*  god's  house,  s.    An  almshouse. 
ed  for  po 

>,,  p.  28i. 

"  [Hel  founded  for  poore  people  a  godshouse" — P.  Hol- 
land: Camden,  n.  284. 

gods-penny,    * god's-pennie,  s.    An 


"  Then  John  he  did  him  to  record  draw. 
And  John  he  cast  him  a  god's-pennie." 

Percy  Reliqttes ;  Heir  of  Linne. 

If  Ina  note  in  loc.  Percy  says  that  "at this 
day,  when  application  is  made  to  the  Dean 
and  Chapter  of  Carlisle  to  accept  an  exchange 
of  the  tenant  under  one  of  their  leases,  a  piece 
of  silver  is  presented  by  the  new  tenaut, which 
is  still  called  a  god's-penny." 

*  God's  Sunday,  s.    Easter-day. 

*god,  v.t.     [God,  s,]     To  deify;  to  exalt;  to 
divine  honours  ;  to  act  towards  as  a  god. 
"  This  last  old  man 
Loved  me  above  the  measure  of  a  father, 
Nay,  godded  me,  indeed." 

Shakesp.  :  Ooriolanus,  v.  3, 

*gdd'-ard,  s.  [Goter,  Gutter.]  A  channel, 
a  drain. 

"  Gosshet  through  godardys  and  other  grete  vauteB." 
Destruction  of  Troy,  1,606. 

*  god'-bert,  s.    [Etym.  doubtful.]  A  hauberk. 

*God'-bdte,  s.     [Eng.  God,  and  bote  (q.v.).] 
Old  Law:  An  ecclesiastical  fine  or  penalty 
paid  for  crimes  committed  against  God. 

*god'-cept,  s.  [Etym.  of  second  element 
doubtful.]    A  godfather.    (Holinshed. } 

god'-chlld,  s.  [Eng.  god,  and  child,  indicating 
the  spiritual  relation  between  the  two.]  One 
for  whom  a  person  stands  sponsor  at  baptism  ; 
a  godson  or  goddaughter. 

"  Uorte  techen  pater  noster  and  credo." — 
Ancren  Riwle,  p.  208. 

*god-Cunde,  a.     [A.S.  godcund.] 

1.  Of  the  nation  of  God. 

2.  Holy,  religious. 

"  Senden  him  anon  aumme  godcunde  mon." 

Layamon,  i.  482. 

gdd'-daugh-ter  (gh  silent),  s.  [Eng.  god, 
and  daughter  (q.v.).]  A  female  for  whom  one 
stands  sponsor  at  baptisiti. 

"To   do   favour   to  the   queen    that  was  his   god- 
daughter."—Baker :  Henry  I.  (an.  1104). 

*god'-dede,  s.  [AS.  gdldced;  O.  H.  Ger. 
guottdt.]    Good  deeds,  kindness,  mercy. 

"To  thonki  Godd  of  his  grace  and  of  his  goddede."— 
Halt  Meidenhad,  p.  19. 

goddess,     god    des,     god-desse,  «. 

[Eng.  god;  -ess.] 

1.  A  female  god  ;  a  heathen  deity  of  the 
female  sex. 

"After  the  dethe   sche  was  made  a  goddesse." — 
Trevisa,  ii.  299. 

2.  A   woman  of   pre-eminent  qualities   or 

"  A  woman  I  forswore  ;  but  I  will  prove, 
Thou  being  a  goddess,  I  forswore  not  thee." 
Shakesp. :  Love's  Labour's  Lost,  iv.  3. 

god'-dess  like,  ".  [Eng.  goddess;  -like.]  Re- 
sembling a  goddess. 

"  She's  punished  for  her  truth  ;  and  undergoes, 
More  goddesslike  than  wifelike,  such  assaults." 

Shakesp. :  Cymbeline,  iii.  2. 

**  god'-dess-ship,  *.     [Eng.  goddess ;    -ship.'' 
'"he  rank,  state,  or  condition  of  a  goddess. 

"  Appear'dst  thoxi  not  to  Paris  in  this  guise  t 
Or  to  more  deeply  blest  Auchises?  or, 
la  uil  tby  perfect  goddcssship,  when  lies 
Petore  thee  thy  own  vanquished  Lord  of  War?" 
Byron  :  Childe  Harold,  iv.  51. 

*god'  det,  s.    [Etym.  doubtful.]    A  goblet 

"  A  wooden  goddet  or  tankard." — Florio. 

*god'-dl-kin, s.  [Eng.  god;  dimin.  suff.  -kin.} 
A  little  god. 

"One's  a  ktt'e  <joddikin."— Cotton:  Burlesque  upon 
Burlesque,  p.  2d~ 

*g6d'-dize,  v.t.     [hU^.  yod;  -ize.]    To  deif1' 
"And  faire,  loued.  icv  d  Elizabeth 

Have  godd ized  ever  shire." 
Warner:  Albions  England,  bk.  ix.,  ch.  xliv. 

*  god-dot,  interj.     [A  contract,  of  God  wot  = 

[God  knows.]    An  oath  ;  by  God. 

"  Goddot  I  y  wile  with  the  gouge."     Havelok,  796. 

*  gode,  u.  &  s.    [Good.] 

*  gode-les,  a.  [Mid.  Eng.  gode  =  good,  or 
goods,  and  les  =  less.]  Without  money  or 

*  gode -ley- hede,  s.     [Mid.  Eng. 
goodly;  -]iede=hoo<\.]    Goodness,  goodliness. 

*gd-den'-da,  s.  [Fr.  godendac,  godendart ; 
Low  Lat.  godandardus,  from  Flem.  gooden  — 
good,  and  dac  =  day.  So  called  because  the 
Flemish  soldiers  virtually  said  the  words  of 
parting,  "  Good  day,"  to  the  enemy,  when  by 
using  this  weapon  against  them  they  com- 
pelled them  to  depart.  {Littre'.y]  A  pole-axe 
having  a  spike  at  its  end,  used  in  the  .thir- 
teenth century. 

*gode-ness,  *.    [Goodness.] 

god   fa  ther,     god  fa  der,  s.     [A.S.  god- 
feeder;  Icel.  gudhfadir;  Sw.  &  Dan.  gudfader; 
Ger.  gevatter.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

I.  Lit.  :  In  the  same  sense  as  II. 
*  2.  Figuratively : 

(1)  One  who  gives  aname  to  any  person  or 

"  These  earthly  godfathers  of  heaveu 'a  lights. 
That  give  a  name  to  every  fixed  star." 

Shakesp. :  Love's  Labour's  Lost,  i.  1. 

(2)  An  old  jocular  name  for  a  juryman. 

II.  Ecclesiol.  &  Ch.  Hist.  :  The  appellation, 
derived  from  Anglo-Saxon,  for  one  of  the 
sponsors  who  take  vows  upon  themselves 
when  they  bring  an  infant  to  be  baptized. 
Their  first  appointment  is  attributed  to 
Hyginus,  a  Roman  bishop,  about  a.d.  154, 
his  object  being  to  provide  some  security  for 
the  Christian  uprearing  of  the  child  if  the 
parents  were  cut  off  in  a  persecution  then  in 
progress.  Some,  however,  think  that  the 
Jews  had  sponsors  in  connexion  with  the  cir- 
cumcision of  children  ;  others  that  their  in- 
troduction into  the  Church  arose  from  the 
legislation  of  the  Roman  civil  code.  In  813 
the  Council  of  Metz  prohibited  parents  from 
acting  as  sponsors  for  their  children.  The 
Council  of  Trent,  in  1545,  limited  the  number 
of  sponsors  to  one  or  two.  The  Church  of 
England  requires  two  godfathers  for  a  male 
and  one  for  a  female  child.  In  the  Romau 
Church  sponsors  contract  a  spiritual  relation- 
ship with  the  infant  for  whom  they  pledge 
themselves,  and  with  its  parents,  so  that  a 
diriment  impediment  exists,  by  which  no  one 
of  the  parties  concerned  can  contract  matri- 
mony with  any  other  one.  The  same  impedi- 
ment occurs  when  sponsors  officiate  at  con- 
firmation, but  in  very  many  places  the  person 
to  be  continued  has  no  sponsors. 

* god'-fa-ther,  v.t.  [Godfather,  s.]  To  act 
as  godfatlier  to ;  to  take  under  one's  fostering 

"The  colonies  which  have  had  the  fortune  of  not 
beinE  godfathered  by  the  Board  of  Trade,  have  never 
cost  the  nation  a  shilling." — Burke :  On  the  (Economi- 
cal Reform. 

*god'-fa-ther-less,  a.  [Eng.  godfather ;  -less.  I 
Having  no  godfather. 

*  god'-fa-ther-shlp,  s.  [Eng.  godfather  ; 
-ship.]  Tl^e  position,  condition,  or  state  of  a 

God  fear- irig,  a.  [Eng.  God,  and  fearing.] 
Having  a  reverential  and  loving  feeling  to- 
wards God ;  religious. 

"That  sober,  resolute,  and  Godfearing  class,  out  of 
which  Cromwell  had  formed  his  unconquerable  amry." 
— Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xii. 

boll,  Tbo^;  pout,  jo\W;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    -ing. 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -tious,  -sious,  -cious  =  shus.    -We,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


godfright— goer 

*  god-fright,  *  god-friht,  *  god-fruht, 
*god-furht,  a.  [A.S.  godefriht,  godferht, 
godfyrht;  Ger.  gottesfurchtig.]    Godfearing. 

"Bute  hit  beo  ani  godfriht  man."— 0.  E.  JTomiUes, 
ii.  121. 

"  god-fright-hede,  *  gode-frigt-i-hed, 
;>.  [Mitl.  Eng.  godf right ;  -hede  =  hood.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  godfearing  ;  the  fear 
of  God. 

*  god-ful  (1),  *  god-fulle,  u.    [Goodful.] 

*  god'-ful  (2),  *god'-full,  «.  [Eng.  god,  and 
full.]     Inspired. 

"Those   godfull    prophets."  —  II errick  :    Appendix, 
p.  4-10. 

God-head  (1),  * God-hed,  God-hede  (1), 
s.  [Eng.  God;  -head;  O.  H.  Ger.  Gotheit  ; 
M.  H.  Ger.  Gotelieit ;  Dut.  Godheid.] 

1.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  God ;  God- 
ship,  divinity  ;  divine  nature  or  essence. 

"  They  now  are  deemed  the  faithful,  and  are  praised, 
Who,  constant  only  in  rejecting  thee, 
Deny  thy  Godhead  with  a  martyr'3  zeal." 

Co-wper:  Task,  vi.  883. 

2.  The  Supreme  Deity  ;  God. 

"The  imperial  throne 
Of  Godhead,  fixed  for  ever  firm  and  sure." 

Miltoii;  P.  L.,  vii.  585. 

3.  A  god  or  goddess ;  a  deity  in  person ;  a 

"  Belus  .  .  .  there  might  rest:  and,  from  that  height, 
Pure  and  serene,  the  godhead  overlook 
Winding  Euphrates." 

Wordsworth :  Excursion,  bk.  iv. 

*  god-head  (2),  god-hede  (2),  $.  [Mid. 
Eng.  pod  =  good  ;  -head;  M.  H.  Ger.  guotlieit  ; 
Dut.  goedheid;  Dan.&  Sw.  godhed.]    Goodness. 

"  Ibore  bifore  God  thi  godhedc."      Leben  Jesu,  112. 

*  God-hood,  s.  [Eng.  God;  -hood.]  The 
state  or  quality  of  God  ;  divine  nature  or 
essence ;  godhead,  godship. 

"  Acoept  my  simple  legacie  of  Godhood  most  deuine." 
Warner  .  Albions  England,  bk.  Hi.,  ch.  xvL 

*  God'-ild,  *  God-ield,  phr.  [A  contr.  of 
God  yield  (  =  requite)  (you).]  A  phrase  used 
in  giving  thanks. 

"  Godild  you  for  your  conixiany."— Shakes}). :  As  You 
Like  It,  iii.  3. 

god  -less,  *  god-lese,  a.  &  s.  [A.S.  godkds; 
Icel.  gudhlauss  ;  Sw.  gudlos.] 

A.  As  adj. :  Acknowledging  no  God,  with- 
out sense  of  duty  to  God  ;  impious,  atheistical, 


B,  As  subst. :  A  godless  person  ;  one  with- 
out sense  of  duty  or  reverence  to  God. 

"Mourn!    where  their  God  hath    dwelt  the  ffodless 
dwell."  Byron:  Oh!   Weep  for  Those. 

godless-month,  ■-. 

Comp.  Myth.  :  The  tenth  month  of  the  Ja- 
panese year,  so-called  because  then  the  lesser 
divinities  were  considered  to  be  absent  from 
their  temples,  for  the  purpose  of  paying  the 
annual  homage  due  to  the  celestial  Dairi. 

gdd'-less-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  godless;  -ly.)  In  a 
godless,  impious,  or  irreverent  manner  ;  with- 
out fear  of  or  reverence  towards  God. 

god'-less-ness,  s.    [Eng.  godless ;  -ness.]    The 

quality  or  state  of  being  godless,  impious  or 


god'-llke,  w.     [Eng.  God,  and  like.] 

1.  Like  a  god ;  having  the  qualities  of  a 
god;  divine. 

"  Whose  small  sparkes  once  blowne 
None  but  a  god  or  godlike  man  can  shake." 

Spenser:  F.  Q.,  IV.  ii.  1 

2.  Possessing  some  of  the  attributes  of  God  ; 


"  Thus  the  godlike  angel  answered  mild. 

Milton:  P.  L.,  vii.  110. 

3.  Befitting  or  becoming  a  god  ;  divine. 

"  How  best  the  mighty  work  he  might  begin 
Of  Saviour  to  mankind,  and  which  way  first 
Publish  his  '1'  office  now  mature." 

Milton  :  P.  JT.,  i.  188. 

4.  Of  the  highest  excellence  ;  pre-eminently 

"  The  woman's  cause  is  man's :  they 'sink  or  rise 
Together,  dwarfed  or  godlike,  bond  or  free." 

Tennyson  :  Princess,  vii.  244. 

*fi  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  godlike, 
divine,  and  heavenly:  "  Godlike  is  a  more  ex- 
pressive, but  less  common  term  than  divine : 
the  former  is  used  only  as  an  epithet  of  pecu- 
liar praise  for  an  individual;  divine  is  generally 

employed  for  that  which  appertains  to  a  supe- 
rior being,  in  distinction  from  that  which  is 
human.  As  divine  is  opposed  to  human,  so  is 
Jieavenly  to  earthly ;  the  Divine  Being  distin- 
guishes the  Creator  from  all  other  beings  ;  but 
a  heavenly  being  denotes  the  angels  or  inhabi- 
tants of  heaven,  in  distinction  from  earthly 
beings  or  the  inhabitants  of  earth."  (Crabb : 
Eng.  Synon.) 

*  god'-llke-ness,  s.  [Eng.  godlike  ;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  godlike ;  godliness. 

*  god'-llke- wl§e,  adv.  [Eng.  godlike;  -wise.] 
In  a  godlike  manner. 

god-ll-ly,  god-ly-lye,  adv.  [Eng.  godly  ; 
-ly.]  In  a  godly  manner;  righteously,  reli- 

"  A  certaine  young  man,  who  liued  godlylye  here  with 
vs  in  this  eytie."— Catuine:  Foitre  Godlyc  Sermons, 
ser.  ii. 

god'-li-ness,  godd -li- ness,  s.  [Eng. 
godly;  -ness.]  The  quality  or  state  of  being 
godly ;  piety ;  a  religious  observance  of  the 
commands  of  God,  and  a  careful  performance 
of  all  the  duties  prescribed  by  religion. 

"Bigotry,  with  well-diaseinbled  fears  .  .  . 
Pretends  a  zeal  fur  godliness  and  grace." 

Cowper :  Hope,  6C1. 

*  god -ling,  s.  [Eng.  god  ;  dim.  suff.  -ling.] 
A  little  god  or  deity  ;  a  petty  or  puny  deity. 

"He  is  the  patient'st  godlinn i    Do  not  fear  him, 
He  would  not  hurt  the  thief  that  stole  away 
Two  of  his  golden  locks." 

Massingcr:   Virgin  Martyr,  iii.  2. 

god'-ly,  a.  &  adv.    [Eng.  god;  -ly.] 
A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Of  persons :  Godfearing,  pious;  reveren- 
tial towards  God,  and  observant  of  His  laws  ; 
religious,  righteous,  upright. 

"Help,  Lord,  for  the  godly  man  ceaseth,  for  the 
faithful  fail  among  the  children  of  men."— Ps.  xii.  1. 

%  The  name  applied  to  themselves  by  the 
Parliamentary  party  in  the  civil  war  of  the 
seventeenth  century. 

2.  Of  things  :  Influenced  by  a  reverential 
love  of  God  ;  conformed  to  God's  commands  ; 
upright,  righteous,  religious. 

"  That  we  may  hereafter  live  a  godly,  righteous,  and 
sober  life." — Book  of  Comm-on  Prayer ;  General  Con- 

"'  B.  As  adv.  ;  Iii  a  godly,  pious,  and  god- 
fearing manner  ;  godlily,  piously,  religiously. 

"In  this  text,  kinges  be  taught  to  moderate  their 
victories,  and  that  it  is  their  uthce  to  see  the  youghth 
diligently  &  godly  brought  up  and  learned." — Joy:  Ex- 
position of  Daniel,  c.  1. 

IT  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  godly 
and  righteous  :  "  Godliness,  in  the  strict  sense, 
is  that  outward  deportment  which  character- 
izes a  heavenly  temper  .  .  .  righteousness 
comprehends  Christian  morality,  in  distinction 
from  that  of  the  heathen  or  unbeliever;  a 
righteous  man  does  right,  not  only  because  it 
is  right,  but  because  it  is  agreeable  to  the  will 
of  his  Maker,  and  the  example  of  his  Re- 
deemer ;  righteousness  is  therefore  to  godliness 
as  the  effect  to  the  cause."  (Crabb  :  Eng. 

god'-ly-head, '  goode-ly-hede,  *  good- 

ly-hed,  s.     [Eng.  godly  ;  -head.] 

1.  Goodness. 

"Mote  thy  goodlyhead  forgive  it  once." 

Spenser:  F.  <{.,  II.  iii.  33. 

2.  Goodly  appearance. 

"Pleased  with  that  seeming  goodlyhed." 

Spenser  :  F.  Q.,  III.  ii.  38. 

god- moth  - er,    *  god-mo  der,    *  god 

mo-dyr,  s.  [A.S.  godmodor ;  Icel.  godh- 
modir ;  Sw,  gudmoder,  gumor ;  Dan.  gud- 
moder.] [Godfather.]  A  woman  who  becomes 
sponsor  for  a  child  in  baptism.   [Godfather.] 

go'-down  (I),  s.  [Malay  godong.]  A  ware- 
house or  storeroom.    (East  Indies.) 

go'-down  (2),  s.  [Eug.  go,  v.,  and  down.] 
A  draught. 

"  god'-phere,  s.  [I'rob.  a  corrupt,  of  Eng. 
god,  ana  Fr.  p'ere  ~  a  father.]    A  godfather. 

"My  godphere  was  a  Rabian  or  a  Jew." 

Ben  Jonson :  Tale  of  a  Tub,  iv.  1. 

go  drobn,  s.  [Fr.  godron  =  a  ruffle  or  a  puff.] 
Au  inverted  fluting,  beading,  or  cabling  used 

for  ornamentation.     [Gadroon.] 

god' -send,  s.  [Eng.  god,  and  send.]  Some- 
thing sent  by  God  ;  a  fortunate  and  unlooked- 
for  acquisition  or  gain. 

"  In  fact  this  insignificant  incident  ha3,  in  the  end, 
turned  out  a  godsend  for  him." — Athenceum,  April  1, 


*  gdd'-shxp,*.  [Eng.  god;  -ship.]  The  rank 
or  character  of  a  god  ;  a  deity  ;  a  divinit} . 

"  And  the  hoarse  deep-throated  a^ea 
Laugh  your godships  untoscorn.  , 

E.  B.  Browning:  Pan  is  Dead. 

*  irod'-slb.  s.  [A.S.  God  =  God ;  sib  =  relative 
kin-  Icel.  gudhsif  (masc),  gudhsifja  (fern.).] 
[Gossip,  s.]  One  akin  in  God;  one  who  is 
sponsor  along  with  another. 

"  Parentile  is  in  two  maners,  eyther  gostlyor  fleshly ; 
gostly  is  for  to  del  en  with  hiB  godsibbes.  —Chaucer. 
[ed.  Tyrwhitt),  p.  16"- 

*  god  -sib-rede,  ■  gos  -sip-rede,  *  gos- 

syb-rede,  s.    [A.S.  God  =  God ;  sibrceden  = 
relation.]    Relationship  in  God. 

"  More  godsibrede  nys  ther  naught."— Shoreham,  p.  69. 

"  god'-smith,  s.     [Eng.  god,  and  smith  (q.v.).^ 

1.  A  smith  who  is  a  god ;  a  divine  smith. 

"  He  had  the  same  godsmith  to  forge  hia  armB  as  had 
Achilles."— Dryden:   Virgil;  ;Eneid.    (Dedic.} 

2.  A  maker  of  idols. 

"  Gods  they  had  of  every  shape  and  eize 
That  godsmiths  could  produce  or  priests  devise." 

Dryden:  Absalom  &  Achitophel,  i.  50. 

god-son,  * gode-son,  * god-sone,  *  gos- 
son,  s.  [A.S,  godstmn ;  Sw.  gudson,  gnsoii; 
Dan.  gudson.]  A  male  for  whom  one  has  stood 
sponsor  in  baptism. 

"The  King  bestowed  his  own  name  on  his  godson." — 
Macaulay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xiv. 

godd-spel,  i 

*  god-spel,  *  godd  spell, 


god  -  spel  -  book,    *  godd  -  spell  -  boc, 

godd  spell-bock,  s.     [Gospel-book] 

"  god-spell-er,  +  god-spel-lere,  s.  [Gos- 

*  god  -  spel  -  wright,  *  godd  -  spell- 
wrihhte,  $■    [Gospeiwright.] 

■  god'  -  ward,  *  god  -  warde,  *  god- 
wards,  adv.     [Eng.  God;  -ward.]     Toward 


"  But  their  hartes  remayned  styll  faythlesse  to  god- 
ward,  and  towards  his  mercy  and  truth." — 2'yndalt : 
Workes,  p.  35. 

god-win'-i-a,  s.  [Named,  in  1869,  after  Mr. 
George  Godwin,  an  architect.] 

Bot.  :  A  genus  of  Arads,  with  twelve  sta- 
mens. Godwinia  gigas  is  ten  feet  high,  two  of 
which  are  occupied  by  the  oblong,  purple 
hood-like  spathe.  It  is  from  Nicaragua,  and 
is  the  largest  Arad  known.    (Treas.  of  Bot.) 

god' -wit,  a.  [A.S.  god  =  good  ;  wiht  =  crea- 
ture. ] 

Ornith. :  A  wading  bird,  Limosa,  melanura, 
and  the  genus  Limosa  generally.  [Limosa.] 
They  undergo  a  double  moult,  having  red  plu- 
mage when  young,  and  then,  after  moulting, 
black  with  a  base  of  white  ;  on  the  wings  also 
is  a  white  spot.  The  female  is  larger  than  the 
male.  The  Godwit  occurs,  in  Britain  and  the 
rest  of  Europe,  also  in  Africa  and  India.  It 
rarely  breeds  in  England.  Its  nest  is  of  dry 
grass ;  the  eggs  four,  light  olive  brown  blotches, 
and  spotted  with  darker  brown. 

' '  The  Ionian  godwit,  nor  the  ginny  hen 

Could  not  goe  downe  my  belly  then 
More  sweet  than  olives,  that  new  gathered  be." 
B.  Jonson :  Horace ;  Praises  of  a  Countrte  Life, 

*  god'-yeld,  *  god' -yield,  phrase.  [Eng. 
god,  and  yield.]  A  phrase  used  in  returning 
thanks.    [Godild.] 

"  Herein  I  teach  you, 
How  you  should  bid  godyeld  us  for  your  pains, 
And  thank  us."  S/utkesp. :  Mac' eth,    .  6. 

*  goe,  *  goen,  pa.  par.    [Go,  -j.j 

v  goel,  *  gool,  a.     [A.S.  gsolo.]    Vellow. 

"  Hop  roots  so  well  chosen  let  skilful  go  set ; 
The  goeler  and  younger,  the  better  I  love." 

Tusser :  Husbandry. 

go'-er,  *  go-are,  "  go-ere,  *.  [Eng.  go,  v. ; 

1.  One  who  or  that  which  goes,  runs,  walks, 
or  moves  in  any  way  ;  one  that  has  a  gait  of 
any  kind ;  especially  applied,  in  conjunction 
with  an  adjective,  to  a  horse  :  as,  a  fast  goer; 
or  to  a  watch,  as  a  good  goer. 

*  2.  One  who  acts  as  an  intermediary  be- 
tween two  parties  ;  a  go-between. 

"  Nothing  co\ild  hurt  either  of  us  so  much  as  the 
intervening  officious  impertinence  of  those  goers  be- 
tween us."— Pope  :  To  Swiff. 

*  3.  The  foot. 

"  A  double  mantle,  cast 
Athwart  his  shoulders,  his  faire  goers  grac't 
With  fitted  shoes."  Cliapman. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here    camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;  go,  pot, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian.    $e,  ce  =  e ;  ey  =  a.    an  =  kw, 

goenus— gold 


*  goer-backward,  s.  One  who  gives 
way  ;  one  who  deteriorates. 

"Such a  mutt 
Might  be  a.  copy  to  these  younger  times  ; 
Which,  followed  well,  would  demons trate  them  now 
But  go^rs-backward."        Stakesp..  All's  Well,  i.  2. 

go-er'-l-US,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.  Agassiz 
suggests  that  it  may  be  from  Eng.  goer  La- 
tinized, which  would  be  a  barbarous  combina- 
tion, and  MeNicoll  from  Gr.  7oep6s  (goeros)  — 
mournful,  distressful.] 

Entom. :  A  genus  of  beetles,  family  Staphy- 
linidae.  Goerlus  olens,  which  is  sometimes 
called  the  Devil's  coach-horse,  is  now  Oeypus 

*  go-et'-ic,  .*  go-et'-Ic-al,  "  go-et'-ic-all, 

a.  [Eng.  goety ;  c  connective,  -at]  Pertaining 
to  goety  ;  magical. 

"  A  turning  of  ghospell  predication  unto  goeticall 
prediction." —  0-aule  ;  Mag  -  Astro  •  Mantix  ;  To  the 

*  go'-e-ty,  *go'-e-tie,  s.  [Gr.  yo>rreia 
(joete£a)=witchci*aft ;  y6*]s  (goes)  =  &  magician, 
a  sorcerer;  Fr.  goetie.]  Invocation  of  evil 
spirits  ;  magic. 

"To  reconcile  .  .  .  Theologie,  Geomancy,  or  Goetie 
and  the  Gospell." — Gaule  :  Mag- Astro- Mantix,  p.  32. 

*  gofe,  *  goif;  *  goyff,  *  gowff, *  go wcht, 

*gow,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  The  pillory  ;  the 

"  Word  19  fates  and  said  in  fwme,  and  his  crag  & 
handisto  stand  in  the  gofe."— Aberd.  Reg  (1538),  xv., 
p.  141. 

go'-fer,  v.t.    [Gauffer.] 

*  goff  (1).  s.  [Fr.  gofe  =  ill-made,  clumsy, 
awkward  ;  Sp.  gofo  ;  ltal.  goffo.]  A  stupid 
lout ;  an  oaf ;  a  dolt ;  a  blockhead. 

*goff  (2),  s.  [Icel.  gdlf;  Dut.  gulv.]  A  stack, 
mow,  or  cock  of  hay. 

"He  was  in  his  labour  stacking  up  a.goff  of  corn."— 
Fox,  in  Wood:  A  then.  Oxon.,  i.  592. 

*  gof  -fer,  v.t.  [Gauffek.]  To  crimp,  plait,  or 
liute,  as  lace,  frills,  &c. 

"Ill  have  to  get  it  all  goffered  over  again. "—Miss 
Ferrier ;  The  Inheritance,  ch.  xxi. 

gof -fer-ihg,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Goffer.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  partkip.  adj.  :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst.  :  Goffered  or  ornamented  plait- 
ing, used  for  frills,  lace,  &c. 

gof -fish,  «.    [Goafish.] 

gog  (1),  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  The  object  set 
up  as  a  mark  in  playing  at  quoits  or  pitch- 

"  The  parties  stand  at  a  little  distance,  and  pitch  the 
halfpenny  to  a  mark,  or  gog ;  and  he  who  is  nearest 
the  mark,  has  the  envied  privilege  of  tossing  up  for 
heads  or  tails."— ZJ lack  wood's  Magazine,  August,  1821, 
p.  35. 

~}  gog,  s.  [Welsh,  =  activity,  rapidity.]  [Agog.] 
Anxiety,  desire,  eagerness. 

"  You  have  put  me  into  such  a  gog  of  going,  I  would 
not  stay  for  all  the  world."  —  Beaum.  &  Flet. :  Wit 
Without  Money,  iii.  1. 

*  gogge,  v.t.  [Prob.  connected  with  gag,  v. 
(q.v.).]     To  blind,  to  blindfold. 

"Glad  was  lie  to  gogge  the  worlds  eyes  with  the 
distinctions."— 2".  Boyd  :  Last  Battell,  p.  1,208. 

*  gog'-gle  (1),  *  gO-gle,  v.i.  &  t.   [A  frequent. 

from  Ir.  &  Gael,  gog  =  a  nod,  a  slight  motion  ; 
Ir.  gogain=  to  nod  or  gesticulate,  gogshuileach 
=  goggle-eyed,  from  suit  =  the  eye.] 

A.  Intrans. :  To  strain  or  roll  the  eyes  ;  to 

"  They  goggle  with  their  eyes  hither  and  thither." — 
Uolinshed:  Description  of  Ireland,  oh.  1. 

B.  Trans.  ;  To  roll  about,  to  strain. 

"  He  goggled  his  eyes."—  Walpole :  Letters,  iii.  174. 

*  gog'-gle  (2),  v.t.     [A  variant  of  gobble  {c^.v.).'] 

To  swallow  ;  to  gulp  down. 

"Gotdarde,  gulped  or  joggled  down."— Cotgrave. 

gog'-gle,  a.  &  s.     [Goggle  (1),  v.] 

A.  As  adj.  :  Prominent,  staring,  full ;  said 
of  the  eyes. 

"Palinnted  feet  might  have  been  joined  with  goggle 
eyes." — Paley  :  Natural  Theology  en.  xv. 

B.  As  substantive : 

I,  Ordinary  Language : 

1,  A  strained  or  staring  rolling  of  the  eyes. 
"Those  muscles,  in  English,  wherewith  a  man  ogles, 

When  on  a  fair  lady  he  fixes  his  goggles." 

Byrom  :  Dissection  of  a  Beau's  Head. 

2.  (PI.) :  Tubes  or  glazed  cases  in  front  of 

the  eyes  for  protection  from  dust  or  intense 

3.  (PL):  Blinds  or  blinkers  for  horses  that 
are  apt  to  take  fright,  to  prevent  their  seeing 
objects  from  behind. 

4.  (PI.) :  Spectacles.    (Slang.) 
*  5.  A  goggle-eyed  person. 

"Do ye  stare,  goggles?" 
Beaum.  &  Flet. :  Knight  of  Malta,  v.  2. 

II.  Surg. :  Instruments  used  to  cure  squint- 
ing or  distortion  of  the  eyes. 

goggle -eye,  s.  A  prominent,  rolling,  or 
staring  eye ;  strabismus. 

"  It  [the  sea-lion]  has  a  great  goggle-eye.  the  teeth 
three  inches  long,  about  the  bigness  of  a  man's 
thumb."— Dampier :   Voyages  (an.  1C83). 

goggle-eyed,  *  gogil-ighed,  *  gogle- 

eied,    *  gogyl-eyed,    a.     Having    goggle- 

"Let  the  gogle-eied  Gardiner  of  Winchester  gyrde 
at  it  till  hys  rybbes  ake  and  an  hondred  digging 
deuyls  vpon  his  side." — Bale:  English  Votaries,  lit  i, 

y  gog'-gled  (gled  as  geld),  a.     [Eng.  goggle, 

v.  ;  -erf.]  Goggle,  goggling,  staring, prominent. 
"Ugly-faced,  with  long  Mack  hair,  goggled  eyes, 
wide-mouthed."— Sir  T.  Herbert :  Travels,  p.  50. 

*  gog'-gling,   pr.  par.   or   «.      [Goggle,   v.] 

Goggle,  staring,  prominent. 

"  Such  sights  have  they  that  see  with  goggling  eyes." 
Sidney:  Arcadia,  bk.  ii. 

*  gog'-let,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  A  sort  of 
pottery  jar  or  earthen  vessel  used  for  keeping 
water  cool. 

goif,  s.    [Golf.] 

go'-ing,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Go,  v.] 

A.  As  pr.  par. :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective : 

1.  Walking  or  moving  in  any  way. 

2.  In  a  state  of  active  management ;  in 

"  The  business  will  be  transferred  to  the  company 
upon  allotment  as  a  going  concern." — Daily  Telegraph, 

Nov.  2G,  1881. 

C.  As  substantive : 

1.  The  act  of  walking  or  moving  in  any  way. 

2.  A  departure. 

"  And  yet  thi3  is  a  wonder  most  of  al. 

Why  thou  thus  sorrowest,  seth  thou  wesfc  nat  yet 
Touching  her  going,  how  that  it  shal  fal." 

CJiaucer;  Troilus.fbk.  iv. 

3.  A  wandering  or  departure  from  the  right 

"Compare  the  Pope's  doctrine  to  the  word  of  God, 
and  thou  shalt  fiiule  that  there  hath  ben,  and  yet  is  a 
great  going  out  of  the  way." — Tyndall :  Workes.  p.  1U2. 

4.  Procedure  ;  course  or  manner  of  life ; 
conduct ;  behaviour.    (Usually  in  the  plural.) 

"  His  eyes  are  on  the  ways  of  man,  and  he  seeth  all 
his  goings."— Job  xxxiv.  20. 

5.  A  state  or  time  of  pregnancy  ;  gestation. 
"  The  time  of  death  has  a  far  greater  latitude  than 

that  of  our  birth  :  most  women  coming,  according  to 
their  reckoning,  within  the  compass  ut  a  fortnight ; 
that  is,  the  twentieth  part  of  their  going." — Grew: 
Cosmologia  Sacra. 

6.  The  state  or  condition  of  the  ground  or 
course  on  which  a  race  is  run. 

"Thanks  to  a  complete  system  of  drainage,  the 
going  was  wonderfully  clean  for  the  time  of  year."— 
Daily  Telegraph,  Nov.  23,  1883. 

going-barrel,  s. 

Horology : 

1.  A  barrel  containing  a  mainspring,  and 
having  a  cog-wheel  on  its  periphery  which 
drives  the  train.  It  supersedes  the  arrange- 
ment of  chain  and  fusee. 

2.  A  ratchet-wheel  with  pawl  and  spring  on 
the  shaft  of  the  great  wheel,  by  which  the 
works  are  kept  going  while  the  clock  is  being 
wound  up.  Invented  by  the  celebrated  Eng- 
lish watchmaker,  Harrison. 

*  going  forth,  s. 

1.  A  departure,  a  setting  out. 

*  2.  A  limit,  a  bound,  a  border. 

"And  your  border  shall  turn  ,  .  .  and  the  going- 
forth  thereof  shall  be  from  the  south  to  Kadesh- 
barnea."— Numbers  xxxiv.  4. 

3.  An  outlet ;  a  means  or  passage  of  exit. 

"  Mark  well  the  entering-iu  of  the  house,  with  every 
going -forth  of  the  sanctuary." — Ezekiel  xliv.  5. 

going-out,  s, 

1.  A  departure  or  journeying. 
"And  Moses  wrote  their  goings-out  according  to  their 
journeys." — Numbers  xxxiii.  2. 

*  2.  An  extreme  point  or  limit ;  a  border. 

"  And  the  border  shall  fetch  a  compass  .  .  .  and  the 
goings-out  of  it  shall  be  at  the  sea.'"— Numbers  xxxiv.  6. 

going  -  wheel,  s.  An  arrangement  in- 
vented by  Huyghens  to  keep  a  clock  in  motion 
while  winding. 

goings-on,  s.  pi.  Behaviour,  actions, 
conduct.    (Generally  in  a  bad  sense.) 

"Pretty  place  it  must  be  where  they  don't  admit 
women.  Nice  goings-on,  I  daresay,  Mr,  Caudle."— 
D.  Jerrold:  Mrs.  Caudle,  lect.  viii. 

goi'-tered,'  goi'-tred  (tred  as  terd),  a. 

[Eng.  goitre;  -ed.]    Affected  with,  or  suffering 

from  goitre. 

goi'-tre    (tre  as  ter),  s.     [Fr.   goitre,   from 
Lat.  guttur  =  the  throat.] 

Pathol. :  The  same  as  Bronchogele  (q.v.). 
It  arises  from  a  morbid  enlargement  of  the 
thyroid  gland,  causing  an  unsightly,  but  pain- 
less, deformity.  It  is  more  common  among 
women  than  among  men,  in  the  proportion  of 
about  twelve  to  one.  It  prevails  chiefly,  if 
not  exclusively,  in  villages  situated  upon  or 
close  to  limestone  rocks.  From  its  commonness 
in  Derbyshire  it  is  sometimes  called  Derby- 

goi'-trous,  a.     [Fr.  goitreux.]    [Goitre.] 

1.  Pertaining  to  goitre ;  of  the  nature  of 

2.  Affected  with  or  suffering  from  goitre; 

*go-jon,  *go-jone,  ""go-June,  s.    [Gud- 
geon, ] 

*  goke,  s.    [Gawk.]    A  stupid  fellow ;  a  clown. 

*  goke,    v.t,     [Goke,   s.}     To    stupefy.     (Ceit 

gd'-kum-lte  (6  as  e),  s.     [From  Gokum  in 
Finland,  where  it  occurs.] 

Min.  :  A  variety  of  Idocrase  named  by  Dana 
Vesuvianite.  Gokumite  is  the  same  as  Loboitb 
and  Gahnite  (q.v.). 

4  gok'-y,  s.    [Gawky.]   A  fool ;  a  stupid  fellow. 

*  gd'-la,  s.  [Ital.,  from  Lat.  girfa  =  the  throat.] 

Arch. :  A  moulding,  more  commonly  called 

"In  a  cornice  the  gola,  or  cymatium  of  the  corona, 
the  coping,  the  modillions  or  dentelli,  make  a  noble 
show." — Addison:  Spectator,  No.  415. 

go'-lan-dau^e,  s.  [Hind,  goland&z.]  A  native 
artilleryman .     [Anglo-Indian.] 

gold,  *  golde,  *  goolde,  *  gowd,  s.  &  a. 

[A.S.  gold;  cogn.  with  Icel.  gull;  Dut.  goitd ; 
Hw.  &  Dan.  guld;  Ger.  gold;  Goth/gulth ;  Lat. 
aurum;  Gr.  xPU(™s  (chrusos);  Sansc.  htrana ; 
Russ.  zlato;  Zend  zarana,  zaranya,  all  — 

A.  As  substantive  : 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Literally  : 

(1)  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  3. 

"  The  proportion  between  the  quantities  of  gold  and 
silver  annually  imported  into  Europe,  according  to 
Mr.  Meggen's  account,  ia  as  one  to  twenty-two  nearly  ; 
that  is.  for  one  ounce  of  gold  there  are  imported  a 
little  more  than  twenty-two  ounces  of  silver,"— Smith  : 
Wealth  of  Nations,  bk.  i.,  ch.  xiL . 

(2)  Gold  coin. 

2.  Figuratively : 

(1)  Money,  riches,  wealth. 

"Forme,  the  gold  at  France  did  not  seduce." 

Shakesp. :  Henry  V„  ii.  2. 

(2)  Used  as  a  symbol  of  anything  very  valu- 
able or  greatly  prized  ;  as,  A  heart  of  gold. 

(3)  A  bright  yellow  colour,  like  that  of  gold. 
II.  Technically : 

1.  Chem.  :  A  triatomic  metallic  element, 
symbol  Au  ;  atomic  weight,  196  ;  sp.  gr., 
19*26  ;  melting  point  about  1240°,  forming  a 
green  fluid  which  volatilizes  at  a  higher  tem- 
perature. Gold  is  a  metal  of  a  bright  yellow 
colour,  and  was  compared  to  the  sun  by  the 
alchemists.  It  is  very  ductile  ;  a  grain  of  it 
can  be  drawn  into  a  wire  500  feet  long,  and 
will  gild  two  miles  of  fine  silver  wire.  It  is 
also  very  malleable  ;  one  grain  can  be  beaten 
out  to  cover  an  area  of  5b '75  square  inches. 
Thin  gold  leaf  appears  green  by  transmitted 
light.  The  red  colour  of  ruby  glass  is  due  to 
metallic  gold  in  an  extreme  state  of  division. 
Gold  does  not  oxidize  or  tarnish  in  the  air, 
and  is  not  acted  upon  by  oxygen  or  water 
at  any  temperature ;  it  is  not  dissolved  by 
sulphuric,  nitric,  or  hydrochloric  acid,  but 
is  'dissolved  by  aqua  regia,  a  mixture  of 
nitric  and  hydrochloric  acids.     Gold  crystal- 

boil,  bo^;  pout,  jo%l;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  9hin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this,  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph  -  f. 
-eian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun;  tion,   sion  =  zhun.    -tious.  -clous,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble.  -die*  &c.  =  bel.  del. 




lizes  in  cubes,  octahedra,  and  other  forms  be- 
longing to  a  regular  system.  Gold  forms  two 
series  of  salts,  Aurous  and  Auric  (q.v.):  it 
has  "been  detected  in  sea  water.  Gold  is  ex- 
tracted from  the  quartz  ore  by  pulverising  it, 
and  adding  mercury  containing  a  small  quan- 
tity of  sodium  ;  the  amalgam  is  then  heated  to 
drive  off  the  mercury  ;  auriferous  pyrites  are 
roasted  to  drive  off  sulphur  and  arsenic  before 
they  are  treated  with  the  amalgam.  Gold  can 
be  purified  by  melting  it  along  with  borax  in  a 
clay  crucible,  glazed  inside  with  borax,  and 
passing  chlorine  gas  through  the  melted  metal 
by  means  of  a  tobacco-pipe  stem  ;  the  other 
metals  are  converted  into  chlorides,  which 
rise  to  the  surface.  When  the  operation  is 
finished,  the  gold  is  allowed  to  cool,  and  the 
fused  chlorides  poured  off.  Pure  gold  is  pre- 
pared by  dissolving  the  metal  in  a  mixture  of 
nitric  and  hydrochloric  acids  :  the  solution  is 
evaporated  to  get  rid  of  the  nitric  acid,  then 
diluted  with  water  and  filtered ;  the  gold  is 
then  precipitated  by  ferrous  sulphate.  2A11CI3 
+6FeS04  =  Au2+Fe2Cl6  +  2Fe2(S04)3.  Gold 
can  be  separated  from  silver  by  heating  it 
with  two  and  a  half  times  its  weight  of  con- 
centrated sulphuric  acid,  sp.  gr.  1*84,  till  no 
more  SOo  is  given  off.  The  alloy  must  not 
contain  more  than  25  per  cent,  of  gold  ;  if  it 
does  it  must  be  melted  with  silver  before  the 
operation  ;  the  sulphuric  acid  attacks  the 
silver  and  copper,  converting  them  into  sul- 
phates ;  the  gold  is  allowed  to  settle,  and  then 
the  silver  is  precipitated  by  metallic  copper 
from  the  decanted  liquid.  The  presence  of 
small  quantities  of  tin  and  antimony  in  gold 
renders  it  brittle  ;  they  can  be  removed  by 
heating  the  gold  with  ten  per  cent,  of  oxide  of 
copper  and  a  small  quantity  of  borax.  Pure 
gold  is  a  very  soft  metal,  therefore  it  is  alloyed 
with  silver,  which  gives  it  a  greenish -yellow 
tint,  or  with  copper,  which  gives  it  a  yellowish- 
red  colour. 

2.  Pharm. :  Gold  has  been  used  in  medicine 
for  scrofulous  diseases ;  it  appears  to  act  like 
mercury.  Gold  terchloride  is  very  poisonous, 
acting  like  corrosive  sublimate.  Gold  leaf  is 
used  by  dentists  for  stopping  teeth. 

3.  Min.  :  A  metal  crystallizing  isometrically 
in  octahedrons  or  dodecahedrons,  as  well  as 
acicnlar,  filiform,  reticulated,  arborescent, 
and  spongiform  shapes.  There  are  four  varie- 
ties, (1)  Ordinary,  and  (2)  Argentiferous  Gold  or 
Electrum,  (3)  Palladium  Gold  or  Porpesite, 
(4)  Rhodium  Gold.  Dana  has  a  Gold  Group 
of  Minerals,  containing  (1)  Gold,  (2)  Silver. 
(Dana.)  It  is  widely  diffused.  It  has  been 
found  in  Cornwall,  Devon,  &c,  in  England; 
in  North  Wales  ;  in  Scotland  at  Wenlock- 
head,  Lead  Hills,  in  Sutherlandshire,  &c.  ; 
in  Ireland  at  Wicklow.  Abroad  it  occurs  in 
the  Ural  Mountains,  in  Persia,  Japan,  Cali- 
fornia, West  Canada,  Nova  Scotia,  New 
Brunswick,  Venezuela,  Southern  Africa,  Sa- 
moa; in  Victoria,  Queensland,  New  Zealand, 
&c.  Alluvial  or  drift  workings  tend  to  ex- 
haust themselves,  and  those  of  the  ancient 
world  are  now  little  worth.  In  the  early  part 
of  the  nineteenth  century,  parts  of  the  Ural 
Mountains  were  the  most  productive  gold  field 
of  the  world.  In  September,  1847,  a  magnificent 
gold  field  was  discovered  in  California.  Sir 
Roderick.  Murehison,  who  was  struck  with  the 
similarity  of  conformation  between  the  Ural 
Mountains  and  the  Blue  Mountains  of  New 
Holland,  which  he  happily  re -named  the 
Australian  Cordillera,  predicted  the  discovery 
of  gold  in  the  latter  mountain  region ; 
and  in  1851  gold  was  found  in  the  parts 
pointed  out.  Towards  the  end  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  important  gold-fields  were 
discovered  in  the  Transvaal,  and  the  mines, 
which  are  scientifically  worked,  are  now  the 
most  important  in  the  world.  In  1897  a 
notable  discovery  of  gold  was  made  on  the 
tributaries  of  the  Klondike  river,  in  the 
Yukon  district,  Canada. 

4.  Geol, :  It  has  been  found  in  slate,  quartz- 
ite,  sandstone,  limestone,  granite,  and  serpen- 
tine. In  many  cases  it  occurs  in  veins  of 
quartz,  but  much  more  accessibly  in  drifts, 
which  the  breaking  up  of  those  quartz  veins 
has  helped  to  produce.  In  the  Ural  Moun- 
tains the  drift  is  Newer  Pliocene,  having  in  it 

■  bones  of  the  mammoth,  &e.  ;  in  California  it 
is  of  two  different  ages,  but  both,  geologically 
viewed,  comparatively  recent ;  when  in  veins, 
it  is  more  frequently  found  in  the  palseozoic 
than  in  the  secondary  or  tertiary  strata.  In 
most  cases  the  veins  are  near  plutonic  rocks. 

5.  Hist. :  Gold  is  mentioned  in  the  Bible  as 

early  as  Gen.  ii.  12.  The  Hebrew  word  is 
nnj  (Zdkdb),  from  3H1  (Zdhab)  =  to  shine,  to 
be  brilliant.  As  the  names  of  gold  in  the 
Aryan  languages  (Lat.  aurum,  Gr.  xpwros 
(chrusos)  differ  from  this,  gold  may  perhaps 
not  have  been  discovered  till  after  the  separa- 
tion of  the  Aryan  and  Semitic  races. 

6.  Coinage,  Art,  dtc.  :  Gobi  was  first  coined 
in  England  in  a.d.  1257.  The  amount  of  gold 
that  passed  through  the  English  mint  from 
1558  (accession  of  Queen  Elizabeth)  to  Janu- 
ary 1, 1840,  was  3,553,561  pounds  weight,  troy. 
Of  this  nearly  one-half  was  coined  in  the 
reign  of  George  III.  The  standard  of  gold 
coinage  in  England  is  eleven  parts  of  gold 
with  one  part  of  alloy.  In  France,  Germany, 
and  the  United  States  it  is  nine  parts  of  gold 
to  one  part  of  alloy. 

7.  Bot.':  (Of  the  form  gold) : 

(1)  The  Turnsole  (Heliotropium). 
"  She  sprong  up  out  of  the  molde 

Into  a  flour,  was  named  golde, 
Which  etant  governed  01  the  Bonne.' 

Oower,  ii.  356. 

(2)  The  Corn  Marigold  (Chrysanthemum 

(3)  The  Wild  Myrtle. 

(4)  Calendula  officinalis. 

8.  Archery :  The  exact  centre  of  a  target,  so 
called  because  marked  with  gold,  or  of  a  gold 

"  Miaa had  the  skill  to  forestall  the  general  dis- 
tribution by  securing  three  golds  at  one  end."  —  Field, 
Oct.  27,  18B3. 

B.  As  adjective : 

1.  Made  of  or  consisting  of  gold. 

"In  the  Bandy  slope,  near  the  shore,  at  the  head  of 
the  bay,  the  beautiful  gold  armillse  were  found." — 
Wilson  :  Prehistoric  Annals  of  Scotland,  ii.  251. 

2.  Pertaining  to  or  connected  with  gold  or 
gold  coin. 

"  The  gold  withdrawal,  too,  helped  to  depress  home 
securities."— Daily  Telegraph,  Nov.  23,  1883. 

gold-alloy,  s.  An  alloy  in  which  other 
metals  are  added  to  gold  to  confer  hardness, 
as  in  coin,  or  to  cheapen  the  product,  as  in 
some  jewellers'  alloys  and  solders. 

gold-amalgam,  s. 

Min. :  A  mineral  composed  of  mercury, 
57"40 ;  gold,  38  39;  and  silver,  5.  It  occurs 
in  Columbia  in  white  grains  about  the  size  of 
a  pea,  and  in  California  in  yellowish-white 
four-sided  prisms.    (Dana.) 

gold-beating,  s.  The  act  or  trade  of 
beating  out  gold  for  gilding. 

gold-blocking,  s.  Pressure  of  an  en- 
graved or  composed  block  upon  a  book-cover. 
Without  the  leaf  it  is  called  blind-blocking. 

gold-carp,  golden-carp,  s. 

Ichthy. ;  The  same  as  Goldfish  (q.v.). 

*  gold-clocked,  a.  Having  the  clocks 
of  stockings  worked  in  gold. 

gold-cloth,  s.  Cloth  of  gold;  cloth  woven 
of  threads  of  gold  or  interwoven  with  them. 

Gold  Coast,  s. 

Geog.  :  A  part  of  the  coast  of  Guinea,  on 
the  west  coast  of  Africa. 

gold-cradle,  a. 

Min.  :  An  apparatus  used  for  washing  the 

refuse  matter  away  from  gold. 

gOld-CUp,  a. 

1.  Qrd.  Lang. :  A  cup,  or  piece  of  plate, 
made  of  gold,  or  silver  gilt,  given  as  a  prize 
in  horse-racing,  rifle-shooting,  and  other  com- 

2.  Bot.  (PI.) :  Various  species  of  Ranunculus  ; 
as,  R.  buloosu-s,  R.  acrisy  &c. 

gold-cutter,  s.    One  who  prepares  gold 

for  the  use  of  others. 

gold-digger,  s.    A  gold  miner. 

"  Others  sink  a  perpendicular  shaft,  and  then  put  in 
a  'Bide-drive.'astne  Aufltraliaiii/oW-di^eraterniit  "— 
Journ.  Anthrop.  Inslit.,  x.  Ill 

gold-digging,  *. 

1.  The  act  or  occupation  of  digging  for 
gold ;  gold-mining. 

2.  (PL):  Mr.  G.  H.  Wathers,  mining  en- 
gineer, divided  the  gold-diggings  of  Ballarat, 
&c.  in  Australia,  into  surface  workings,  where 
the  gold  was  found  lying  on  the  surface  or 
diffused  through  the  gravelly  soil  to  the  depth 

of  six  or  twelve  inches  and  pit ;  or  kol^'°veni 
ings,  from  three  or  four  to  twenty-five  ox  » 
thirty  feet  deep.     In  these  last  deposits  w 
gold  was  almost  always  imbedded  in  **  - 
clay.      (Quar.    Jour.    Geol.   Soc,   ix.    '^    "•' 
gold-dust,  s. 

1.  Ord.  Lxng. :  Gold  in  very  fine  particles. 

2.  Bot. :  A  popular  name  for  Alyssum  samtile. 
gold -embroidered,  <*.     Embroidered 

with  gold. 

"  And  gold-embroidered  garments,  fair  to  see. 

a  Byron :  Childe  Barold,  11.  57. 

*  gold-end,  ■>■  A  broken  piece  of  gold  or 

Gold-end  man :  One  who  buys  old  gold  or 
silver  ;  an  itinerant  jeweller. 

"I  know  him  not :  he  looks  like  &gold-end  man." 
Ben  Jonson  :  AlchemUt,  ii.  1, 

IT  In  Eastward  Hoe,  where  the  expression 
often  occurs,  it  is  used  for  a  goldsmith's 

gold-fever,  s.  A  mania  for  digging  or 
seeking  gold. 

gold-field,  s.  A  district  or  region  where 
gold  is  found. 

"The  extent  of  the  gold-field,  aa  at  present  ascer- 
tained."—Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc.,  xxv.  317. 

*  gold-finder,  ». 

1.  One  who  finds  or  seeks  for  gold. 

2,  One  who  cleans  out  privies  or  cesspools. 

"  Untouched  it  passed  between  his  grindera. 
Or  it  had  been  happy  for  gold-finders."     Swift. 

gold-flower,  s. 

Bot. :  Helichrysum  Stmckas. 

gold-flux,  s. 

Min. :  Avanturine  (q.v.). 

gold-foil,  s.  A  thin  sheet  of  gold  used) 
by  dentists  and  others. 

gold-fringe,  s. 

Entom.  :  A  moth,  Pyralis  costalis,  family 

gold-furnace,  s.  A  furnace  for  melting 
or  reducing  gold.  It  resembles  a  brass- 
furnace,  but  is  usually  built  above  the  floor, 
occupying  one  side  or  more  of  the  shop,  and. 
appearing  like  a  dwarf  wall.  The  aperture 
for  the  fuel  and  crucible  in  each,  furnace  is 
nine  to  sixteen  inches  square,  and  eleven  to  - 
twenty  inches  deep.  The  front  edge  of  the 
wall  is  horizontal  and  stands  about  thirty 
inches  from  the  floor,  but  the  top  inclines 
backward  at  an  angle  of  about  30°,  and  a  ledge 
holds  the  tiles  which  close  the  tops  of  the 
furnaces.  The  crucibles  are  usually  of  black- 

gold-hammer,  s. 

1.  A  kind  of  hammer  used  by  gold-beaters  ; 
a  goldbeater's  hammer. 

2.  A  popular  name  for  the  Yellow-hammer 

*gold-hewen,  a.  Of  a  gold  or  golden 
hue  or  colour. 

gold-hunter,  s.    One  who  seeks  for  gold. 

gold-inlaid,  a.     Inlaid  with  gold. 

"  King  Olaf  smote  them  with  the  blade 
Of  his  huge  war -axe,  gold  inlaid.' 

Longfellow  ;  Musician  s  Tale. 

gold-knobs,  gold-knoppes,  s.  pi. 

Bot. :  Various  species  of  Eanunculus  ;  spec, 
R.  acris,  R.  bulbosus,  &c. 

gold-latten,  s.  A  plate  of  gold  or  of 
other  metal  covered  with  gold. 

gold-lily,  s.     The  yellow  lily. 
"  While  the  gold-lily  blows." 

Tennyson  ;  Edward  Morris,  146. 

gold-lode,  s. 

Mining :  A  gold  vein.    (Dr.  T.  Sterry  Hunt). 

gold-mine,  s. 

I.  Ordinary  Language: 

Mining :  A  place  where  gold  is  obtained  by 
mining  operations,  as  distinguished  from  gold- 
diggings,  where  the.  precious  metal  is  extracted 
by  sluicing  or  cradling. 

II.  Fig.  :  Any  place  containing  a  store  of 
wealth  either  actual  or  mental. 

"  No  memory  labours  longer  from  the  deep 
Gold-mines  of  thought—to  lift  the  hidden  076." 
Tennyson;  Bream  of  Fair  Women,  274. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;   go,  pot. 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son  ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,    se,  03  =  e ;    ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

goldbeaten— golden 


gold-nugget,  s. 

Mining,  &c. :  A  lump  of  gold.  One  from 
Ballarat  weighed  1301b.,  taken  in  its  natural 
state  from  the  diggings.  Called  also  a  pepito. 
(Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  x.  306.) 

gold-of-pleasure,  s. 

Bot.  :  Camelina  saliva,  a  cruciferous  plant, 
two  or  three  feet  high,  panicled  above  with 
small  yellow  flowers.  It  is  occasionally  found 
in  England  among  flax,  having  been  imported 
with  the  seeds.    [Camelina.] 

gold-paint,  s.    [Gold-shell.] 

gold  pen,  s.  A  pen  with  a  gold  nib 
pointed  with  rhodium  or  iridium. 

gold-pheasant,  golden-pheasant,  s. 

Ornith.  :  Phasianus  pictus.  It  is  a  gorgeous 
species,  wild  in  India. 

gold-plate,  s.  Vessels,  dishes,  spoons, 
cups,  &c. ,  made  of  gold. 

gold-printing,  s.  Work  printed  with 
gold-size  and  the  letters  then  covered  with 
gold-leaf  or  Dutch-metal. 

*  gold-proof^  a.  ;  Proof  against  bribery 
or  temptation  by  money. 

gold-rain,  s. 

Pyrotechnics:  Small  cubes  4  inch  square, 
used  instead  of  stars  for  rockets,  &c.  Their 
composition  is  nitre,  16  parts  ;  sulphur,  10 
parts  ;  mealed  powder,  4  parts  ;  lamp-black, 
3  parts  ;  flowers  of  zinc  and  gum  arabic  each 
1  part ;  treated  in  the  same  manner  as  for  stars. 

t  gold-seed,  s,  pi. 

Bot. :  Dog's-tail  grass  (Cynosurus  cristatus). 

gold-shell,  s.  Powdered  gold,  or  gold- 
leaf,  ground  up  with  gum-water  and  spread 
on  shells.  It  is  used  by  artists,  and  is  also 
called  gold-paint. 

gold-shrub,  h, 

Bot. :  Falicourea  speciosa. 

gold-size,  s.  A  size  used  as  a  surface  on 
whicli  to  apply  goldleaf.  Oil  gold-size  is  a 
mixture  of  linseed-oil  or  fat  oil  and  ochre- 
ground  by  the  muller,  and  used  in  oil-gilding. 

gold-solder,  s.  A  kind  of  solder  com- 
posed of  gold,  12  parts,  silver  2  parts,  and 
copper  4  parts. 

gold-tail,  a.    (See  the  compound.) 

Gold-tail-moth : 

Entom. :  A  moth  (Portesia  auriflua),  family 
Liparidese.  So  called  because  the  anal  tuft  on 
the  abdomen  is  yellow.  Wings  white,  the  fore 
ones  with  a  brownish-black  spot. 

gold-thread,  s. 

Bot. :  Coptis  trifolia,  a  plant  belonging  to 
the  Ranunculaceae. 

gold-tissue,  *.  Cloth  interwoven  with 
gold  thread. 

gold-tooling,  5. 

Book-bind. :  Ornaments  impressed  by  the 
hot  tool  upon  goldleaf  laid  on  book-covers, 
causing  the  metal  to  adhere.  In  contradis- 
tinction to  blind-tooling,  which  is  the  tool- 
mark  without  the  leaf.  The  gold  is  fixed  to 
the  surface  of  the  leather  by  gold-size,  and 
the  surplus  is  wiped  off  after  the  tool  has 
been  applied. 

gold-varnish,  s. 

Metal. :  A  yellow,  transparent  varnish 
spread  over  silver-leaf  to  give  it  the  appear- 
ance of  gold. 

gold-washer,  . 

1.  One  who  washes  away  the  refuse  dirt  from 
gold  ore,  as  in  a  cradle. 

2.  An  apparatus  or  instrument  employed  in 
washing  gold. 

gold-washings,  Places  where  gold 
found  in  gravel  is  washed,  the  heavier  material 
"puddling  down."  (Quar,  Jour.  Geol.  Soc, 
xxviii.  298.) 

gold-workings,  The  same  as  Gold- 
works  (q. v.).  (Quar.  Jour,  Geol.  Soc,  xxxii.36,) 

gold-works,  Works  for  gold-min- 
ing.    (Murchison :  Siluria,  ch.  xviii.) 

*  gold- worm,  *  golde-worme,  s.     A 


"  A  golde-worme :  noctiluca."—Catlu>l.  Anglicum. 

*  gold' -beat-en,  a.     [Eng.  gold,  and  beaten.] 

Coated  with  gold  ;  gilded. 

gold -beater,   s.      [Eng.  gold,  and  beater.] 
One  whose  trade  or  occupation  it  is  to  beat  or 
hammer  out  gold  into  goldleaf  for  gilding. 
"  This  process  achieved,  it  is  doomed  to  sustain 
The  thump  alter  thump  of  a  gold-beaters  mallet " 
Cowper ;  Tlie  Flatting  Mill. 

goldbeater's  hammer,  s.  A  hammer 
with  two  somewhat  rounded  faces,  used  in 
beating  the  pack  of  alternate  gold  ribbon  and 
vellum  or  goldleaf  and  skin.  As  the  work 
progresses  smaller  hammers  are  used.  The 
forging-hammer  is  used  in  reducing  the  ingot 
of  gold  to  one-sixth  of  an  inch  thickness.  The 
anvil  is  a  steel  block  4x3  inches  on  the  face. 
The  hammer  for  the  first  course  of  beating  is 
short-handled,  and  weighs  fifteen  or  sixteen 
pounds.  The  hammer  for  the  next  beating 
weighs  ten  pounds. 

goldbeater's- Skin,  s.  The  prepared 
peritoneal  membran  e  of  the  CEecum  of  the  ox. 
It  is  used  to  separate  the  leaves  of  gold  while 
under  the  hammer ;  thus  it  is  reduced  to  ex- 
treme thinness,  and  in  this  state  is  used  as  an 
application  to  cuts  and  wounds. 

"  Bind  it  about  with  a  narrow  Blip  of  goldbeater's- 
skin,  which  moiBten  with  your  tongue,  and  it  will 
stick  together." — Mortimer :  Husbandry. 

*  gold-bound,  a.  [Eng.  gold,  and  bound.] 
Bound  or  encircled  with  gold. 

"  Thy  air. 
Thou  other goldbound  brow,  is  like  the  first." 

Shakesp.  :  Macbeth,  iv.  1. 

gold -en,  *  gild-ene,  *  gold  ene,  *  guld- 
ene,  a.  [A.S.  gulden,  from  gold  =  gold  ;  O. 
H.  Ger.  guldin  ;  O.  Fris.  gelden ;  Dut.  goulden ; 
Icel.  gullinn ;  Sw.  gyllen,  gylden ;  Dan.  gylden ; 
Ger.  golden.  Golden  is  now  passing  out  of 
use,  its  place  being  supplied  by  the  substantive 
gold  used  adjectively  :  as,  a  gold  key,  not  often 
now  a  golden  key.] 

1.  Made  of  gold,  consisting 

"He  rauished  apples  fro  the  wakinge  dragon  :  and 
his  hnnde  was  the  more  heauie  for  the  golden  metall." 
— Chaucer :  Boecius,  bk.  v. 

2.  Of  the  colour  or  lustre  of  gold  ;  yellow  ; 
gleaming  or  shining  like  gold. 

"  Last  night  the  moon  had  a  golden  ring, 
And  to-night  no  moon  we  see  1 " 

Longfellow:   Wreck  of  the  Hesperus. 

3.  Ornamented,  embroidered,  or  inlaid  with 

"Thy  golden  coat."     Shakesp.  :  Rape  of  Lucrece,  205. 

*  4.  Abounding  or  rich  in  gold. 

"  The  learned  pate  ducks  to  the  golden  fool." 

Shakesp.:  Timon  of  Athens,  iv.  8. 

5.  Excellent ;  most  valuable  or  precious. 

"  Nestor'a  golden  words." 

Shakesp. ;  Rape  of  Lucrece,  1,420. 

6.  Most  favourable. 

"  I  have  bought 
Golden  opinions  from  all  sorts  of  people," 

Shakesp.  :  Macbeth,  i.  7. 

7.  Most  favourable  or  auspicious  :  as,  a 
golden  opportunity. 

*  8.  Fortunate,  happy,  prosperous. 

"  In  Eliza's  golden  days,  a  knight 
Came  on  a  war-horse  sumptuously  attired." 

Wordsworth :  Excursion,  bk.  vii. 

%  Obvious  compounds  :  Golden-cinctured, 
golden  -  haired,  golden  -  hilted,  golden  -  netted, 
golden-rinded,  golden-shafted,  &c. 

golden-age,  s.  The  earliest  period  in 
the  mythological  history  of  almost  all  nations, 
in  which  those  then  existing  were  supposed  to 
live  in  perfect  innocence  and  the  enjoyment 
of  every  pleasure,  and  when  the  earth  pro- 
duced all  things  necessary  for  their  support, 
comfort,  or  enjoyment  in  the  fullest  abund- 
ance, and  all  animals  were  at  peace  with  each 
other.  The  Egyptians  believed  in  successive 
conflagrations  and  deluges  occurring  at  un- 
certain intervals.  These  were  designed  by  the 
gods  to  purify  the  earth  from  guilt.  After 
each  of  these  judgments  man  was  again  so 
regenerated  as  to  live  for  a  time  in  a  state  of 
virtue  and  happiness,  after  which  degeneracy 
again  established  itself,  continually  gaining 
strength  till  the  next  catastrophe.  Sir  Chas. 
Lyell  believed  that  the  Greek  and  Roman 
notions  of  the  golden  and  other  ages  were  of 
Egyptian  origin. 

"  The  golden  age  was  first,  when  man,  yet  new, 
No  rule  but  uncorrupted  Reason  knew  : 
'  And,  with  a  native  bent,  did  good  pursue." 

Dryden  :  The  Golden  Age. 

golden-apple,  s. 

Bot.  :  Citrus  Aurantium. 

golden-balls,  The  three  gilt  balls 
suspended  as  a  sign  in  the  front  of  a  pawn- 
broker's place  of  business.  They  were  derhed 
from  the  arms  of  Lombardy,  Lombards  having 
been  the  first  bankers  and  money-lenders  in 

golden-beetle,  5. 

Entom.  :  Various  species  of  Chrysomela,  or 
of  the  family  Chrysomelidse.  They  are  so 
called  from  their  metallic  lustre.  The  colour 
thus  reflected  is  generally  golden -green, 
scarlet,  azure,  or  blue. 

t  golden-bug,  s. 

Entom. :  A  beetle  (Coccinella  septempunctata), 
the  Seven-spotted  Ladybird. 

golden-bull,  s. 

Hist. ;  A  bull  having  a  golden  seal,  issued 
by  the  German  emperor,  Charles  IV.  at  the- 
Diet  of  Nuremberg  in  1356,  and  which  became 
the  fundamental  law  of  the  empire  over  which 
he  ruled.  Other  bulls  have  also  been  called 
golden  for  a  similar  reason. 

golden-carp,  s.  [Goldfish.] 

golden-chain,  s. 

Bot. :  The  Laburnum,  Cytisus  Laburnum. 

golden-club,  s. 

Bot.  :  Orontium  aquaficum,  or  the  genus 
Orontium  itself. 

golden-crested,  a.  Having  a  crest  or 
top-knot  of  gold  or  of  a  golden  colour. 

Golden-crested  wren : 

Ornith. :  Regulus  cristatus.  A  beautiful  little 
British  bird,  the  upper  parts  olive-green  ;  the 
head  ornamented  with  an  orange-yellow  crest, 
bordered  with  black,  whence  it  has  sometimes 
been  called  R.  auricapillus ;  the  lower  parts 
yellowish-grey.  Length  about  3£  inches.  It 
exists  in  flocks,  often  along  with  titmice  and, 
creepers,  in  firwoods,  remaining  all  the  year 

golden-crown,  s. 

Bot. :  Chrysosterama. 

golden-cup,  s. 

Bot. :  The  same  as  Gold-cup  (q.v.). 

golden-eagle,  s. 

Ornith.  :  Aquila  chrysaetos.     [Eagle.] 

golden-ear,  s. 

Entom. :  A  moth,  Hydraicia  nictitans,  family 

golden-eye,  s. 

Ornith.  :  Clangula,  a  genus  of  Anatidse 

golden  -  fingered,  a.  Having  golden 
fingers  in  a  figurative  sense. 

"  Golden-fingered  Ina."  Marlowe.    (Trench.) 

golden-fleece,  s. 

Class.  Myth. :  The  fleece  of  gold  taken  from 
the  ram  on  which 
Phryxus  was  trans- 
ported through  the  air 
to  Colchis,  and  in  quest 
of  which  the  Argonauts 
sailed  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Jason. 

1"  Order  of  the  Golden 
Fleece ; 

Her.  :  An  order  of 
knighthood  instituted 
in  1429  by  Philip  the 
Good,  Duke  of  Bur- 
gundy. In  process  of 
time  the  operation  of 
hereditary  descent 
brought  the  families  of 
Spain  and  Austria  into 
the  order,  which  now  is 
common  to  both  these 

golden-flower,  ». 

Bot. :  The  genus  Chrysanthemum. 

golden-fly,  & 

Entom.  :  Chrysis,  a  genus  of  Hymenoptera, 
possessed  of  metallic  brilliance,  reflected  from 
green,  ruby  tint,  &c. 


boll,  boy ;  pout,  jo*wl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,      irig. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.     -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


goldenly— goldfinny 

golden-grease,  o.    A  fee,  a  bribe. 

golden -hair,  «. 

Bot.  ;  Chrysocoma  Comaitrea, 

golden-horde,  s. 

Hist.  :  The  tribe  of  Mongolian  Tartars, 
which  about  1724  established  itself  in  Southern 

golden  knop,  s. 

Entom. :  The  same  as  Golden-bug  (q.v.). 

golden-legend,  s.  The  Anrealegenda  of 
the  middle  ages,  a  work  written  by  James  de 
■  Voragine,  Archbishop  of  Genoa,  in  the  end  of 
the  thirteenth  century.  It  is  a  hagiology  or 
collection  of  lives  of  saints,  and  descriptions 
and  histories  of  festivals.  A  translation  of  it 
was  made  and  printed  by  Caxton  in  a.d.  1483. 
Longfellow  made  a  portion  of  it  popular  by 
his  poem  of  the  sa'me  name. 

golden-lungwort,  s. 

Bot. :  Hieracivm  aurantiacum,  a  composite 
plant,  naturalized  in  copses  in  the  north  of 
England  and  Scotland,  having  escaped  from 
the  cottage  gardens  in  which  it  often  occurs. 

golden-maid,  ». 

IclUhy.  :  Crenilabrus  melops ;  called  also  the 
Gilthead  and 

1,  Sporangium. 

golden  marcasite,  s.  An  old  name  for 

golden-mean,  «. 

I.  Orel.  Lang. :  A  state  of  competence,  in 
which  one  is  neither  burdened  with  the  cares 
of  riches  nor  depressed  by  the  necessities  of 

"  Where'er  lie  shines,  oh  Fortune,  gild  the  scene, 
And  angels  gu;ird  him  in  the  golden-mean  ! " 

Pope:  Moral-  Essays,  iii.  147. 

II.  Ethics  :  This  term  appears  to  have  been 
adopted  into  the  English  language  from 
Horace  (Odes  ii.  10,  5),  though  there  the  poet 
is  speaking  of  worldly  circumstances  [I.] 
rather  than  of  moral  duties.  We  find  the 
virtue  of  moderation  taught  in  Hesiod  (WorLs 
&  Days  (ed.  Paley),  694),  and  Cooke  renders  the 

Similar  teaching  maybe  found  in  the  writings 
of  Plato  and  Aristotle,  and  the  latter  lays  it 
down  in  his  Ethics  (ii.  7)  that  every  virtue  is  a 
mean  between  two  vices.  This  teaching  crys- 
tallized into  the  pithy  Mri&iv  ayav  (=  not  too 
much  of  anything)  of  the  Greeks,  which 
Cicero  appears  to  have  had  in  view  in  De 
OJficiis  (i.  25)  where  he  speaks  of  "that  mean 
which  sins  neither  by  defect  nor  excess." 
Terence  gave  the  Greek  version  a  Latin  form, 
Ne  quid  nimis  (Andria,  i.  1.  34),  and  it  found 
expression  in  the  Point  d-e  zele  of  Talleyrand. 

golden-mole,  s. 

Zool. :  Chrysochloris  aureus,  one  of  the  Tal- 
pida>  (Moles).  The  hairs  of  the  fur  so  dis- 
perse the  light  as  to  produce  metallic  reflec- 
tions.    It  occurs  in  Africa. 

jrolden  mouse  ear,  s, 

Bot.  :  A  composite  plant,  Hieracium.  Pilo- 
sella,  called  in  books  the  Common  Mouse-ear 
Hawk  weed.     [Hawk  weed,  Hierack'm.] 

"  golden-mouthed,  a. 

1.  Eloquent  :  a  translation  c  the  Gr.  xpyo"»- 
oto/lios  (chrusostonws),  whence  the  name  Chry- 
sostom,  fitom  xPU0"°s  (chrusos)  =  gold,  and 
a-rofxa  (stoma)  =  a  mouth. 

2.  Musical,  melodious. 

"  A  cry  of  love  that  rang 
As  from  a  trumpet  goldvn-mouthed." 
A.  C.  Swinburne  :  Tristram  of  Lyoncsse,  viii. 

golden-number,  *. 

Chron.:  A  number,  so  called  from  being 
marked  in  ancient  calendars  in  letters  of  gold. 
It  indicated  the  number  of  any  year  in  the 
cycle  of  the  moon.  After  every  nineteen  years 
the  various  aspects  of  the  moon  are  within 
an  hour  the  same  as  they  were  when  the  cycle 
commenced.  This  was  known  at  an  early 
period,  and  the  nineteen  years'  lunar  cycle 
was  adopted  in  July  16,  b.c.  433.  To  find  the 
golden  number  of  any  particular  year,  make 
the  accepted  time  of  our  Lord's  birth  b.c.  4, 
the  first  year  of  a  cycle  ;  add  one  to  the  year 
for  which  the  golden  number  is  required,  and 
divide  by  twenty ;  the  quotient  will  be  the 
number  of  lunar  cycles  from  the  birth  of 
Christ,  and  the  remainder,  if  any,  will  be  the 
golden  number. 

golden-pert,  &. 

Bot.  :  Gratiola  aurea. 

golden-pheasant,  ». 

Omith. :  [Gold-pheasant]. 

golden-pippin,  a.  A  species  of  apple, 
so  named  from  its  colour. 

golden-robin,  s. 

Omith. :  The  Baltimore  Oriole. 

golden-rod,  a. 

Bot.  :  (1)  Solidago  virgaurea,  or  the  genus 
Solidago;  (2)  Leontict  Chrysogoman  ;"(3)  The 
genus  Bosea. 

TT  Raylcss  Golden-rod  is  an  American  name 
for  Bigelovia  ;  Golden-rod  tree,  ov  Tree  golden- 
rod,  is  Bosea  Yervamora. 

golden-rose,  s.    A  rose  of  gold,  or  gilded, 

supposed  to  represent  by  its  gold,  its  odour, 
and  its,  the  Godhead,  the  body,  and  the 
soul  of  the  Redeemer.  It  was  sent  at  inter- 
vals by  the  Pope  to  sovereigns  supposed  to 
be  more  loyal  than  others  to  the  Holy  See. 
Among  those  sent  were  one  to  Henry  VIII., 
in  1510  ;  one  to  Frederick  the  Wise  of  Saxony, 
in  1519,  to  wean  him  from  friendship  with 
Luther ;  to  Charles  IX.  of  France,  in  1572, 
just  after  the  "massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew"  ; 
one  to  the  Queen  of  Spain  in  1808  ;  and  more  re- 
cently to  Eugenie,  while  Empress  of  the  French. 

golden -rule,  s. 

*1.  Arith. ;  A  rule,  so  called  on  account  of 
its  excellent  use  in  arithmetic,  and  especially 
in  ordinary  calculations,  by  which  numbers 
are  found  in  certain  proportions— viz.,  having 
three  numbers  given  to  find  a  fourth  number 
in  proportion.  (Hutton  :  Math.  Diet.)  [Pro- 
portion, Rule  of  Three.] 

2.  Morals:  The  rule  laid  down  by  Jesus  in 
the  Sermon  on  the  Mount,  and  stated  by  him 
to  be  the  law  and  the  prophets, — i.e.,  a  sum- 
mary of  their  teaching  :  "Therefore  all  things 
whatsoever  ye  would  that  men  should  do  to 
you,  do  ye  even  so  to  them"  (Matt.  vii.  12). 
This  rule,  almost  axiomatic  to  a  mind  of  keen 
moral  sensitiveness,  had  already  been  "  exam- 
ined and  adopted  as  a  standard  of  ethics  by 
westerns  like  Socrates  and  easterns  like 
Theng-tsen,  the  disciple  and  friend  of  Con- 
fucius, some  centuries  before  the  birth  of 
Christ.  The  latter  tells  us  Toen-kousy  asked, 
Is  there  a  word  in  the  language  which  is  of 
itself  enough  for  a  guide  for  our  life?  The 
wise  man  answered,  There  is  ;  the  word  Chon, 
of  which  the  meaning  is  that  what  we  would 
should  not  be  done  to  us  let  us  not  do  to 
others."  (Gontemp.  Review,  April,  1882,  p.  682.) 

golden-samphire,  «. 

Bot.  :  Inula  crithmoides, 

golden-saxifrage,  s. 

Bot. :  The  genus  Chrysosplenium. 

'  golden-slopt,  a.  Wearing  gold  buskins. 

"Some  shy  golden-s/opt  Gastalio."  Marston, 

golden  -  sulphide,    s.     [G  olden  -  sul- 


golden-sulphuret,  [Golden  Sulphuret 
of  Antimony.] 

Golden  Sulphuret  of  Antimony  : 

Cliem. :  Sulphur  Antimonii  auratwni.  Penta- 
si.lphide  of  antimony,  Sb.jSg. 

golden-swift,  *. 

Entow.  :  A  moth,  Itcpialus  humuli,  family 

golden- teeth,  s.  pi.  The  teeth  of 'her- 
biforous  animals  coated,  as  they  sometimes 
are.  with  a  yellow  precipitate.    (Uossiter.) 

golden-thistle,  s. 

Bot. :  (1)  Scolymus,  (2)  Protea  Scolymus. 

golden-tressed, a-  Havingfairorgolden- 
coloured  tresses  ;  golden-haired  ;  {fig.)  shining 
with  bright  rays. 

"  And  caused  the  golden -tressSd  sun  ^ 
All  the  day  long  his  course  to  run. 

Milton :  Trans,  of  Psalm  cxxxvl 

golden-trumpeter,  *. 

Omith.  :  A  South  American  bird,  the  A  garni 
(Psophia  crepitans),  which  emits  a  deep  rough 
sound,  suggesting  that  of  a  trumpet.  [Agami.] 

golden-wasps,  s.  pi. 

Entom.  :  One  of  the  popular  names  for  the 
hymenopterous  genus  Chrysis,  or  the  family  of 
which  it  is  the  type.  They  are  not  genuine 
wasps,  one  difference  between  the  two  being 
that  the  wasps  fjroper  have  a  sting,  and  the 
"golden  wasps"  only  an  ovipositor.  [G'hry- 
sidid^e,  Chrysis.] 

golden-wedding,  s.  The  fiftieth  anni- 
versary of  a  wedding,  which  is  usually  ob- 
served with  more  than  ordinary  festivity. 
The  presents  given  to  the  couple  should  all  be 
of  gold. 

golden-winged,  c.  Having  wings  of 
gold,  or  of  a  gold  colour. 

golden- Y,  s. 

Entom.  :  Plusia  iota. 

golden-yellow,  *. 

Bot.,  &c.  :  Pure  yellow,  duller  than  lemon- 
coloured,  and  bright.  It  corresponds  to  the 
Latin,  aureus  or  auratus,  and  to  the  Greek 
xputfos  (chrusos);  in  Lat.  and  Eng.  coniposi- 
tion,  chryso:     (Lindley,  <£c.) 

*  g61d'-en-ly,  ado.  [Eng.  golden;  -ly.]  Splen- 
didly, excellently,  delightfully. 

"Jaques  he  keeps  at  school,  and  report  speaks 
goldenly  of  his  profit."— Shakesp.  :  As  Von  Like  It,  i.  l. 

sg6ld'-en-ness,  s.  [Eng.  golden;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  golden  or  golden- 

"It  threw  up  it3  outline  .against  the  wonderful 
greenness,  blueuess,  goldcnness  of  the  aky."  —  Mrs. 
Ohphant :  Primrose  Path,  ii.  145. 

gold   er,  s.     [Golader.J 

*  gold-fan,  *  gold  -faghe,  a.  [A.S.  gohl- 
fah.]    Golden;  gold-coloured. 

"Nim  goldfah  iwede."  Layamon,  iii.  262. 

gold'  -  finch,  >:  gold  -  fy  nch,  *  gold  - 
fynche,  s. 

I.  Literally : 

Omith.  :  Carduelis  elegans,  a  well-known 
bird  belonging  to  the  family  Fringillidae,  and 
the  sub-family  Friugillinae.  Bill  pale  horn 
coloured,  the  tip  black,  the  circumference  at 
its  base  crimson,  nape  of  the  neck  white  ;  the 
top  of  the  head,  carpal  portions  of  the  wing, 
the  smaller  wing  coverts,  and  part  of  the  sur- 
face of  the  primaries  black  ;  back  and  rump 
dusky  brown,  greater  wing  coverts,  and  part 
of  the  expanse  of  the  others,  gamboge  yellow ; 
under  surface  of  the  body  dull  white.  It  feeds 
on  the  seeds  of  thistles  and  other  plants.  It 
sings  very  sweetly.  Its  nest  is  neatly  built  of 
moss,  twigs,  roots,  &c,  and  is  lined  with 
wool.  It  is  situated  in  bushes,  hedges,  or 
apple  or  pear  trees  in  orchards.  The  eggs  are 
four  or  five,  spotted  with  purple  and  brown. 
The  bird  is  found  in  various  parts  of  Britain, 
and  is  diffused  over  most  parts  of  Europe. 

"  A  goldfinch  there  I  saw,  with  gaudy  pride 
Or  painted  plumes,  that  hopped  from  side  to  side  " 
Dryden  :  Flower  &  Leaf,  106. 

II.  Fig.  :  A  sovereign,  so  called  from  its 
yellow  colour.     (Slang  Diet.) 

gold'-fin-ny,  gdld'-sin-ny,  s.  [Eng.  gold, 
and  finny.  Etyin.  of  sinny  doubtful.  Can  it 
have  come  from  the /of  gold-finny,  printed  in 
old  characters  and  misread  s  ?] 

Ichthy. :  Crenilabrus  uorwegicus  or  cornubi- 
cns.  It  is  yellowish-green,  darker  on  the 
back,  with  longitudinal  lines  of  a  deeper 
, colour  on  the  sides,  and  a  black  spot  on  each 
side  near  the  base  of  the  tail.  Length,  three 
or  four  inches.  It  is  called  also  the  Cork 
wing.     [Goldsinnv.] 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;  go,  pdt. 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,     oe,  oe      « ;  ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

goldfish— Goliath 


gold-fish,  gold  en  fish,  s.  [Eng.  gold, 
golden,  and  fish.] 

Ichthy,  :  Cyprinus  auratus,  a  well-known 
fish,  which,  when  mature,  is  of  a  golden-red 
colour,  though  it  is  nearly  black  when  young. 
It  is  a  native  of  China.  According  to  Pennant, 
it  was  introduced  into  England  from  China  in 
1691,  but  did  not  become  common  till  about 
1723.  It  is  called  also,  though  rarely,  the 
gold  or  golden  carp. 

•  gold  hoard,  gold  hbrd,  s.  [A.S.  gold- 
hord.]    A  treasure. 

"Deorewurthe  oucr  a.\le  goldhordea."—  Aitcrm  liiwlc, 
p.  342. 

*  gold  house,  *  golde  ho  ws,  s.  [Eng.  gold> 
and  Ivouse.]    A  treasury. 

"The  kyng  to  bye  goldehowa  toke  hysway." — MM.,  in 
J/uUiwcll,  p.  408. 

gold  le,  s.  [Eng.  gold ;  -he  =  -y.]  A  local 
name  given  to  the  goldfinch  (q.v.). 

gold   i  locks,    gold   ie  locks,   gold'-y- 

locks,  s.     [Eng.  gold  or  goldie,  amllocks.] 

Jiot.  :  Various  plants,  or  plant  genera. 
Specially,  (1)  Linosyris  or  G'hrysocoma,  (2) 
Helichrysum  Stceclias,  (3)  Ramtnmlus  auri- 
comns,  (4)  H  ymcnophyllum  tunbridgense. 

gold  irig,  m.  [Eng.  gold;  suff.  -ing.]  A  sort 
of  apple. 

gold   ins,  s.     [A  corrupt,  of  goldings  (?).  ] 

Lot.  :  Chrysanthemum  segetum. 

■  gold  ish, *  gold  isshe,  a.  [Eng.  gold;  -ish.] 
Resembling  or  like  gold. 

"  Al  Is  not  golde  that  Bhynethc  goldisshe  hewe." 

Lydgate :  Minor  Poems,  p.  100. 

gold' -lace,  s.  \Eng.  gold,  and  lace.]  A  kind 
of  lace  made  of  gold  wire,  flattened  between 
two  polished  steel  rollers,  into  a  ribbon  which 
is  twisted  round  a  core  of  silk. 

gold  laced,".  [Eng.  gold,  and  laced.]  Orna- 
mented or  embroidered  with  goldlace. 

gold  leaf,  s.  [Eng  gold,  and  leaf.]  Fine 
gold  beaten  into  thin  leaves.  A  small  per- 
centage of  silver  and  copper  is  added  to  the 
gold  for  beating,  about  H  per  cent,  of  alloy. 
The  ingot  is  rolled  into  a  ribbon  by  repeated 
passage  between  rollers,  and  this  ribbon  has  a 
thickness  of  ^  of  an  inch,  a  surface  of  five 
hundred  square  inches  to  an  ounce  of  gold. 
It  is  then  cut  into  pieces  of  about  an  inch 
square,  placed  between  pieces  of  goldbeater's 
skin  four  inches  square,  and  beaten  with  a 
ponderous  hammer  on  a  smooth  marble  slab 
until  the  gold  has  thinned  and  expanded  to 
the  sizeof  the  vellum.  Each  piece  of  gold  is 
then  again  divided  into  four,  placed  between 
pieces  of  goldbeater's  skin  as  before,  and 
again  beaten  till  it  expands  to  the  size  of  the 
skin.  A  third  and  a  fourth  beating  follow, 
until  the  gold  has  been  reduced  to  the  neces- 
sary degree  of  thinness.  The  hammers  vary 
in  degrees  of  heaviness.  [Goldbeater's-ham- 
mer.]  An  ounce  of  gold  in  the  form  of  a 
cube,  5}  lines  in  length,  breadth,  and  thick- 
ness can  be  so  extended  by  the  goldbeaters  as 
to  cover  a  surface  of  more  than  14664  square 

goldlcaf  electroscope,  s. 

Elect.  Mach. :  An  instrument  forascertaining, 
by  means  of  goldlcaf,  the  presence  of  elec- 
tricity in  a  body.  There  is  a  tubular  glass 
shade  standing  on  a  metallic  foot  in  contact 
with  the  ground.  In  the  tubulure  of  the 
shade,  the  neck  of  which  is  coated  with  insu- 
lating varnish,  there  fits  a  metal  rod,  termi- 
nating at  the  upper  extremity  in  a  knob,  and 
holding  at  the  lower  end  two  narrow  strips  of 
goldleaf.  The  air  in  the  interior  is  dried  by 
quicklime  or  chloride  of  calcium.  When  the 
knob  is  touched  with  a  body  charged  with 
positive  or  negative  electricity  the  leaves  di- 
verge. To  ascertain  the  kind  of  electricity 
requires  a  more  intricate  process.  This  instru- 
ment is  also  called  from  its  inventor  Bennett's 

1  gold  less,  «.  [Eng.  gold;  -less.]  Destitute 
of  gold. 

gold   ncy,  gold   ny,  s.     [Eng.  golden,  and 
suff.  -y  (?)?] 

Ichthy. :  Tho  Golden  Wrasse  (CmiLlabnts 
tinea).  It  is  one  of  the  fishes  called  the  Gilt- 
head  (q.v.). 

"  The  gotdvy  of  Cilicia,  Chios  scallops."— Vavics :  An 
Extasie,  p.  04. 

gold   sin  ny,  s.    [Goldfinny.] 

1[  Jago's  goldsinny :  Crenilabrus  rvpestris. 
Its  prevailing  colour  is  orange,  sometimes 
with' green  above.  It  has  several  times  been 
taken  in  Britain. 

gold'  smith,  *  gold  -  smeth,  *  gold  - 
smithe,  gold-smyth,  s.  [A.S.  goldsmith; 
O.  H.  Ger.  goldsmid;  Dut.  goudsmid ;  Icel. 
gidlsmidhr ;  Dan.  &  Hw.  guldsmed.] 

1.  An  artisan  who  manufactures  articles  in 
gold  ;  a  worker  in  gold. 

"I  promised  your  presence  and  the  chain, 
But  neither  chain  nor  goldsmith  came  to  me." 
Shakesp.  :  Comedy  of  Errors,  iv.  1. 

*  2.  A  banker  ;  one  who  managed  the  money 
matters  of  others. 

"lam  a  goldsmith,  and  live  by  lending  money  as 
well  aa  by  Belling  plate." — Scott :  Fortunes  of  Nigel, 
ch.  iv. 

goldsmith's- note,  s.  The  name  given 
to  an  order  to  pay  money  on  demand,  similar 
to  the  modern  banknote,  issued  by  the  gold- 
smiths or  bankers  of  Lombard-street. 

*  gold  Smith-ry,  5.  [Eng.  goldsmith;  -ry.] 
Goldsmith's  work. 

"  Of  goldsmithry,  of  browdyng,  and  of  steel." 

Chaucer:  C.  T.,  2,438. 

gold  stick,  s.  [Eng.  gold,  and  stick.]  A 
court  official,  so  called  from  the  gilt  rod  or 
wand  borne  by  him  when  in  attendance  on 
the  sovereign  on  state  occasions. 

gold' -thread,  s.     [Eng.  gold,  and  thread.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  A  flatted,  silver-gilt  wire, 
wrapped  or  laid  on  a  thread  of  yellow  silk  by 
twisting  with  a  wheel  or  bobbins ;  also  called 
gold-wire  or  spun-gold. 

2.  Bot. :  Coptis  trifoliti,  a  ranunculaceous 
evergreen,  so  called  from  its  yellow  fibrous 

gold'- Wire,  s,  [Eng.  gold,  and  wire.)  Gold 
reduced  to  the  form  of  wire.  Goldwire,  so 
called,  has  usually  a  core  of  silver,  and  is 
made  by  preparing  a  round  bar  of  silver, 
plating  it  thickly  with  gold,  and  then  draw- 
ing it  through  a  series  of  holes  of  gradually 
decreasing  diameter.  The  gold  may  be  T^j  of 
the  thickness  of  the  silver  at  first,  and  shares 
all  its  mutations  in  the  drawing,  retaining  the 
same  relative  thickness. 



gold'  y  locked,  a.    [Eng.  goldy,  lock  (s)  ;  -ed.] 
Golden-haired  ;  having  a  profusion  of  beauti- 
ful auburn  hair. 
"  Thence  it  fled  forth,  and  made  quick  transmigration 
To  goldy-locked  Euphorbus." 

lien  Jonson  :  The  Fox,  i.  1. 

*  gol-et,  s.     [Fr.  goulet ;   Pro  v.  golet,  a  dimin. 
of  0.  Fr.  gole,  goule  =  the  throat ;   Lat.  gala.) 
[Gullet.]    The  throat  or  gullet. 
"  Throwghe  golct  and  gorgere  he  hurltz  hym  ewyne." 
Morte  Arthurs,  1,772. 

golf  (also  pron.  gof),  *golf,  *  go  iff,  '  gouff, 

s.  [But.  kolf—  a  club  to  strike  balls  with  ;  cogn. 
with  Icel.  kdlfr  =  a  clapper  of  a  bell,  a  bolt; 
kylfa  =  a  club  ;  Ger.  kolbe  =  a  club,  a  mace.] 

1.  A  game  extensively  played  in  Scotland, 
and  of  late  years  introduced  into  England. 
It  is  played  with  club-headed  sticks  and  very 
hard  small  balls,  on  a  large  common  or  down, 
technically  called  links,  in  which  small  holes 
have  been  made  at  distances  of  from  100  to 
500  yards  apart,  according  to  the  extent  of 
the  ground.  The  game,  which  may  be  played 
by  two  persons,  or  by  four  (two  against  two), 
consists  in  driving  the  ball  into  each  of  the 
holes  in  succession  in  as  few  strokes  as  pos- 
sible ;  the  side  making  the  round,  that  is, 
placing  his  or  their  ball  in  each  hole  succes- 
sively in  the  fewest  strokes,  winning  the  game. 

"That  the  futball  and  golf  be  vtterly  cryit  downe, 
and  not  to  be  vait."— Act  Jas.  II.  (1457),  c.  71. 

*  2.  A  blow,  a  stroke. 

"She  lends  me  a.govf,  and  tells  me  I'm  douf, 
I'll  never  be  like  her  last  goodman." 

A.  Jficol:  Poems  (L739),  p.  53. 

golf-club,  s. 

1.  The  club  used  in  playing  golf.  There 
are  various  sorts,  according  to  the  purpose  for 
which  they  are  intended  :  as,  the  driver,  the 
putter,  the  spoon,  <fec. 

2.  A  club  or  association  formed  for  the 
practice  and  promotion  of  golfing. 

golfe,  goulfc,  s.  [Icel.  golf;  Dut.  gulv.] 
A  mow,  stack,  or  heap  of  hay,  corn,  &c. 

"  Golfe  of  come.    A  rchonium. "— Prompt.  Parv. 

golf'-er  (also  pron.  gof'-er),  *gow-fer,  *. 

Eng.  golf;  -er.]    A  player  at  golf. 

"  Driving  their  baws  frae  whin  or  tee, 
There's  no  uae  gowfer  to  be  seen." 

Ramsay  .-  Poems,  ii.  205. 

golf  ihg  (also  pron.  gof  '-fcrig),  s.  [Eng.  golf; 
■ing.]    The  act  or  science  of  playing  at  golf. 

*  Gol'-g6-tha,  s.  [Gr.  roA-yofli  {Golgotha), 
from  Aramaean  NF^aSll  (Gulgdlta);  Heb.  rtyaba 
(Gulgoleth)  ~  a  skull  (Luke  xxiii.  3.1)  or  the 
place  of  a  skull  (Matt,  xxvii.  33,  Mark  xv.  22, 
John  xix.  17).]    A  charnel-house. 

Gd'-li-ard,  *  gol  i  -ar  dels,  *  gol-y-ar- 

deys,  s.    [Golias.j 

Ch.  Hist.  :  One  of  the  authors  of  the  poems 
bearing  the  name  of  Golias  (q.v.),  hence  gene- 
rally a  writer  of  satirical  poetry  ;  a  satirist. 

"The  (foliards  became  a  kind  of  monkish  rhapao- 
dints,  the  companions  and  rivals  of  the  jongleurs  (the 
reciters  of  the  merry  and  licentious  Tableaux. "—Mil' 
man:  Latin  Christianity,  ix.  189. 

G6'-li-ard-er-$r,  &.    [Golias.] 

Ch.  Hist.  :  The  name  given  to  the  series  of 
satirical  Latin  poems  directed  against  the 
abuses  of  the  Roman  Church  in  the  thirteenth 
century.  Wright  considers  thein  to  have  been 
the  immediate  predecessors,  and  in  some  sense 
the  cause,  of  the  Crede  of  Piers  the  Ploughman 
and  of  the  writings  of  Wycliffe,  and  thus  to 
have  contributed  to  the  Reformation.  From 
a  classical  standpoint,  the  majority  of  them 
are  generally  below  criticism ;  from  a  moral 
point  of  view  they  are  vigorous  and  healthy, 
though  in  studying  them  nineteenth-century 
readers  must  bear  in  mind  the  great  jealousy 
nf  monastic  orders  which  has  in  all  ages 
existed  amongst  the  secular  clergy,  and  the 
tendency  in  minds  ecclesiastical  to  exaggerate 
into  grave  sins  what  ordinary  men  would  be 
inclined  to  consider  as  mere  peccadilloes. 
With  this  preface,  a  few  lines  from  the  Invec- 
tive of  Golias  against  the  Cistercians  may  bo 
quoted  : — 

"  Nil  nisi  praaentia  sitiunt  aut  quaerunt ; 
Farclunt  maraupia,  metunt  quae  mm  seruut ;, 
Pauperum  penuria  sese  ditaverunt 
Satauas  inancipia  sunt  et  Beinper  erunt." 

Occasionally  Golias  seems  to  have  relinquished 
his  moral  mission,  and  to  have  degene- 
rated into  a  convivial  rhymester  ;  of  this  style 
examples  maybe  found  in  Longfellow's  Golden 
Legend  (iv.),  where  Lucifer,  disguised  as  a 
friar,  finds  admission  to  the  refectory.  These 
verses  are  genuine  products  of  the  late  Middle 
Ages.  A  less-known  example  from  the  Con- 
fessio  Golifc  runs  thus  : — 

"  Mihl  nunquam  spirituu  poetrhw  datur 
NiBi  tunc  cum  fuerit  venter  bene  satur 
Cum  in  arce  cerebri  Bacchus  domiuatur 
In  me  Phaubus  irruit  et  miranda  fatur." 

These  poems  are  rhymed,  but  now  and  again 
there  crops  up  evidence  that  the  writer  was 
capable  of"  better  things.  For  example,  in  the 
Prmdicatio  Golim  one  meets  witli  lines  like 
these : — 

"  Et  ne  forte  cogita  '  Vivam  decern  annis 
Tune  mo  vilioribus  e:wtigabo  pannia, 
(.'uiii  induar  veBtibua  Pauli  vel  Joannis ; ' " 

and  then,  by  a  marvellous  compensation,  a 
dainty  classic  gem  : — 

"  Sic  expectat  rusticus,  Bed  defluat  amnis." 

which,  by  its  brilliance,  almost  compensates 
for  the  tawdriness  of  the  setting. 

Go  -li  as,  s.     [For  etym.  see  def.] 

Ch.  Hist.  :  The  name  under  which  certain 
satirical  poems  on  ecclesiastical  subjects  were 
given  to  the  world  in  the  thirteenth  century. 
Many  of  them  have  been  attributed  to  Walter 
de  Mapes,  though  there  is  little  ground  fortius 
opinion.  Wright  considers  Golias  to  be  a 
pseudonym,  ' '  apparently  from  gula,  and 
having  nothing  in  common  with  the  French 
gaillard."  (Latin  Poems  attributed  to  Walter 
de  Mapes,  xii.)  Du  Cange,  in  support  of  the 
opinion  that  Golias  was  a  real  personage, 
quotes  Silvester  Giraldus  : — 

"F.irasitus  Oolias  nomine  .  .  .  qui  <! alias 
melius,  quia  guise  et  crapulre  per  omnia  deditus,  diti 
potuit.  —  Speculum  Ecelesice,  lib.  iv.,  cap.  xvi. 

The  balance  of  testimony,  however,  inclines 
to  the  view  advanced  by  Wright : — 

"  Golias,  the  burlesque  representative  of  the  clerical 
order,  the  instrument  through  which  their  vices  were 
satirized."—  W right ;  Latin  Poems  attributed  to  Walter 
de  Mapes,  xii. 

Go  li  -ath,  s.  [Heb.  T\ty(G6lyath)  =  the  cele- 
brated giant  of  Gath  whom  David  slew  (1  Sam. 
xvii.  1-54).]    (For  def.  see  compound.) 

goliath-beetle,  s. 

Entom. :  A  huge  lamellicorn  beetle,  Goliatlnts 

boll,  bo*y;  pout,  jo%l;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    ph  -  t 
-clan.    Man  =  shan.    -tion.  -sion  ~  shun :  -tion.  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c  =  bel,  del. 


goliathidae— gone 

giganteus.  It  comes  from  the  west  coast  of 
Africa.  In  1805  a  salesman  refused  £30  for  a 
single  specimen,  demanding  £50.  He  had 
afterwards  to  sell  the  insect  for  £10. 

gd-li-ath'-l-da%  s.  pi.  [Lat.  goliath(us),  and 
fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idee..] 

Entom. :  A  family  o!"  lamellicorn  "beetles. 
The  chin  is  large,  broad,  and  covers  the  jaws. 

go-li-a-thus,    go-li'-ath,  s.    [Goliathus  is 

the  Latinised  form  of  Heb.  goliath  (q.v.).] 

Entom. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family. 
[Goliath-beetle.]  The  hood  is  deeply  two- 
lobed,  the  segments  resembling  two  horns. 

*  go  -  li  -  one,  *  go  -  ly  -  on,  *  gu-li-on,   s. 

[Etym.  doubtful.  Prob.  from  0.  Fr.  goule  = 
the  throat.]    A  collar. 

"He  .  .  .  cast  on  her  biagulion."       &ow&;  li.  858. 

goi'-lach  (ch  guttural),  s.  [Gael,  gobhlach  = 
forke'd.]  A  name  applied  to  the  earwig,  and 
to  several  species  of  beetle. 

*  gollS,  *  gols,  s.  pi.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  The 
hands,  the  paws.    (Used  in  contempt.) 

"Make  them  hold  up  their  spread  golls."—Ben  Jon- 
son  :  Poetaster,  v.  1, 

*g6ll'-sheaf,  s.  [Etymol.  of  first  element 
doubtful ;  Eng.  sJimf.]  Apparently  a  sheaf  of 
dry  withered  corn ;  hence,  anything  of  little 
use  or  weight. 

"  All  the  rest  of  the  articles  [i.e.,  of  accusation]  were 
gollsheavcs  that  went  out  in  a  Budden  blaze." — Racket : 
Life  of  Williams,  pt.  ii..  p.  92. 

*  go-loe-shoe,  s.  [Galoche.]  A  galoche;  an 

g3-Ioshe',  s.  [Galoche.]  An  overshoe,  now 
generally  made  of  vulcanized  india-rubber. 



*gom(l),  gome,  *gume,  #.  [A.  8.  guma; 
Icel.  gumi ;  O.  S.  girmo ;  O.  H.  Ger.  gomo ; 
Dut.  bruidegom ;  Svv.  brudgum;  Dan.  brud- 
gom.]    A  man,  a  person.     [Bridegroom.] 

"  Havelok  was  a  f  ul  god  gome."         JIavelok,  7. 

G6'-mar-ite§,  o.  pi.  [For  etym.  see  def.] 
Ch.  Hist. :  The  followers  of  Francis  Gomar, 
who  was  born  at  Bruges  on  January  30,  1563, 
and  in  1594  was  appointed  Professor  of  Divinity 
at  Ley  den,  obtaining  as  his  colleague  in 
1603  the  celebrated  Arminius.  Gomar  was 
strongly  Calvinistie,  and  opposed  the  views 
of  his  associate  with  much  zeal.  When  Ar- 
minius, about  a  year  before  his  death,  pre- 
sented a  remonstrance  to  the  States-General, 
Gomar  and  his  followers  came  out  so  strongly 
on  the  other  side  that  they  were  called  Anti- 
Remonstrants.  Gomar  was  present  at  the 
Synod  of  Bort  in  1618,  and  there  and  else- 
where was  so  distinctly  the  leader  of  the  Cal- 
vinistic opponents  of  Arminius,  that  the  Anti- 
Remonstrants  were  often  called  Gomarites. 

go-mash'-ta,  go  -  mash  -  tan,  s.  [Hind. 
gumashta.]  An  agent,  a  factor,  a  commis- 
sioner.   (Anglo- J  ndian.) 

gom   do,  gom- bant,  s.    [Gobbo.] 

*gome  (1),  s.    [GOMME  (l),  s.] 

"  A  gome :  vbi  a  godnioder."—  Cathol.  Anglicum. 

gome  (2),  s.    [Gom  (1).] 

*  gome  (3),  *  gom  (2),  s.    [Icel.  gaumr ;  O.  H. 

Ger.  gouma;  O.  Dut.  goom.]    Care,  attention, 

"Thereof  nemath  gome." 
*•  Sir  Ferumbras,  1,745. 

*gome  (4),  *gomme,  s.    [Gum,  s.] 

*  gome  (5),  s.  [Coom  (2),  s.]  The  black  grease 
which  accumulates  on  the  axle  of  a  cart- 

G5-mei'-sa,  s.  [Corrupted  Arabic  (?).  Cf. 
Arab,  ghdmmaz  —  a  talebearer ;  gliamz  = 
making  a  sign  with  the  eye ;  ghamzat  =  an 
amorous  glance,  &c.  ;  also  jamus  =a  buffalo  ; 
jumax  ul  awwal  =  the  fifth  month  of  the 
Arabian  year.] 
Astron  :  A  star,  called  also  (3  Canis  Minoris. 

gd'-mer  (1),  s.  [Sept.  Gr.  yip.6p  (gomor) ;  Heb. 
"tips  (orner,  homer,  gamer,  or  ghomer).  There  is 
no  consonant  in  English  exactly  correspond- 
ing to  the  Heb.  letter  w  with  which  the  word 
commences.  It  may  be  pronounced  gh  or  g 
or  h  or  be  left  unpronounced.  Gomer  is  there- 
fore another  spelling  for  homer  occurring  in 

Lev.  xxvii.  16,  Isa.  v.  10,  Ezek.  xlv.  11,  14; 
and  Hosea  iii.  2,  and  omer  found  in  Exod,  xvi. 
16-36.]    [Homer.] 

gd'-mer  (2),  s.     [Named  after  its  inventor.] 
Ordn.  :  A  form  of  chamber  in  ordnance, 
consisting  of  a  conical  narrowing  of  the  bore 
towards  the  inner  end. 

gom'-er-il,  gom'-rell,  gam-phrel,  s.  &  a. 

[Etym.  doubtful.] 

A.  As  subst. :  A  fool,  a  blockhead. 
"Amaiat  as  Billy  as  our  auld  daft  laird  here  and 

his  gomerUs  o'  son9."— Scott :  Hob  liny,  ch.  xiv. 

B.  As  adj.  :  Foolish,  stupid. 

*gom-man,  s.     [A  contraction  of  gods-man  or 
n.]    A  godfather. 

*gomme   (1),    s       [An  abbreviated    form    of 

gotwmp/r  (q.v.).] 

"  Commere.  A  she-gossip  or  godmother ;  ajomme."' 

gomme  (2),  s.    [Gum,  s.] 

gom'-me-lin,  s.     [Fr.  gommeline.] 

Chem.,  &c.  ;  The  same  as  Dextrine  (q.v.). 
Called  also  British-gum,  Starch-gum,  and 
Fruit-gum.    (Spon.) 

*gom'-mer,  *.    [Gammer.] 

gom'-phi-a,  s.  "[Gr.  y6fj.cpos  (gomphos)  =  a 
bolt :  named  from  the  shape  of  the  fruit.] 

Sot. :  A  genus  of  Oehnacea\  The  bitter 
root  and  leaves  of  Gomphia  angitstifolia,  are 
given  in  Malal  tar  in  a  decoction  of  milk  or  water 
as  atonic,  stomachic,  and  anti-emetic.  G.hexa- 
spermn  and  G.  Jabotapita  are  taken  as  medi- 
cinal bitters  in  Brazil.  The  oil  of  G.  parvi- 
flora  is  used  in  that  country  in  salads. 

gom-phl'-a-SlS,  s.  [Gr.  yo^ufuao-i?  (gomphia- 
sis)  =  toothache.] 

Path.  :  Looseness  of  the  molar  or  other 
teeth  in  their  sockets. 

gom-pho-car'-piis,  s.  [Gr.  yofjuftos  (gomphos) 
=  a  bolt,  and  Kapiros  (Jcarpos)  =  fruit.] 

Bot.  :  A  genus  of  Asclepiadaceas,  tribe 
Asclepiadem    verce.     The    leaves    of   Gomplio- 

carpus  fruticosus,    called    in   Syria  Argel  or 
Arghel,  are  used  to  adulterate  senna. 

gomph-6c'-er-as,  s.  [Gr.  yo><£os  (gomphos) 
=  a  bolt,  and  Kipas  (keras)  =  a  horn.] 

Paheont.  :  A  genus  of  Cephalopods,  family 
Orthoceratidse.  There  are  many  species  from 
the  Lower  Silurian  to  the  Carboniferous  for- 

t  gom'-pho-lite,  s.  [Gr.  y6fj.<}>os  (gomplws)  *= 
a  bolt,  and  \C6os  (Hthos)  —  a  stone.] 

Petrol.  &  Geol. :  The  name  given  by  Brongniart 
to  conglomerate  rocks  of  Tertiary  age,  called 
in  Switzerland  Nagelflue. 

gom-pho-ld'-bi-um,  s.  [G..  y6/x<^os  (gom- 
jylios)  =  a  bolt,  and  \ofi6?  (lobos)  =  (l)the  lobe 
of  the  ear  ;  (2)  a  legume.] 

Bot. :  A  genus  of  papilionaceous  plants, 
tribe  Podalyrieffi.  Stamens  ten,  free — i.e.,  not 
unitedinto  two  bundles.  About  thirty  species 
are  known,  all  from  Australia.  Gompholobiuvi 
uncinatum  is  said  to  be  poisonous  to  sheep. 

gomph-o-ne'-ma,  s.  [Gr.  yo/x<f>os  (gomplws) 
=  a  bolt,  and  vijixd  (nema)=tlvdt  which  is  spun, 

Bot. :  A  genus  of  Diatomacese.  Kiitzing 
enumerated  thirty  species,  twelve  of  which 
are  stated  by  Smith  to  be  British.  Gomphonevia 
Berkeleii  is  common  in  spring  in  brooks,  oc- 
curring as  cushion-like  gelatinous  masses  ad- 
hering to  stones. 

gom-pho  -sis,  s.  [Gr.  yo^oxrK  (gomphosis) 
=  (1)  a  bolting  together  ;  (2)  see  definition.] 

Anat  :  A  kind  of  articulation  or  impaction 
by  which  the  roots  of  teeth  are  implanted  in 
their  sockets.  Quain  considers  thatthis  should 
not  be  reckoned  among  the  articulations. 

gom-pbre'-na,  5.  [Altered  from  Lat.  grom- 
phcena  =  a  kind  of  amaranth,  probably  ^Ama- 

ranthus  tricolor.] 

Bot.  :  The  typical  genus  of  the  Gomphrenese 
(q.v.).  The  species  are  called,  from  the  rotun- 
dity of  their  flowers,  Globe  Amaranths.  About 
four  have  been  introduced  into  Britain.  The 
best-known  is  Gomphrena  globosa.  If  its 
heads  of  flowers  are  gathered  before  they  are 
too  far  advanced,  they  will  retain  their  beauty 

foryears  G.  officinalis  and  G.  macrocephato 
are  used  in  Brazil  in  intermittent  fever,  colic, 
diarrhoea,  &c.  Their  root  is  considered  a 
stimulating  tonic. 

gom-phre'-ne-se,  *.  pi      [Mod    Lat   gom- 
phrenia),  and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -**s.] 
Bot.  .'  A  tribe  of  Amaranthacese. 

gd-mu'-ti,  go-mu'-to,  s.    [Malayan.] 

1.  Bot.  :  TheAreng  Palm,  Sequent*  saocharl- 
fer,  common  in  the  southern  Asiatic  islands. 

2.  Comm. :  The  same  as  GoMUTi-FiBKE(q.v.). 

gomuti  fibre,  s, 

Comm  :  The  fibre  of  the  Gomuti,  or  Areng. 
It  is  derived  from  the  -leaf-stalks  which  it 
surrounds,  is  black,  and  like  horsehair.  It  is 
used  for  cordage,  for  thatching,  &c.  It  is  called 
also  Ejoo. 

gdn'-a-gra,  s.  [Gr.  yovdypa.  (gonagra),  ^see 
def., "from"  y&w  (gonu)  =  the  knee,  and  aypa. 
(agrd)  =  a  catching.] 

Pathol. :  The  name  given  by  the  old  Greek 
physicians  to  gout  in  the  knee.  (Parr,  Tan- 
ner, &c.) 

gon-a'-kie,  s.    [An  African  word.] 

Bot.  :  Acacia  Adansonii.  It  yields  good 

*gon,  v.i.    [Go,  v.] 

*gon,  pret.  &  pa.  par.     [Go,  v.] 

gd-nan'-gi-um,  s.     [Gr.  yoVos  (gonos)  =  off- 

spring,  seed,  and  ayyelov  (anggeion)  =  a  vessel.] 

Zool.:  The  chitinous  receptacle  in  which  the 

reproductive  buds  of   certain  hydrozoa    are 


gon  do-la,  '  gon  dole,  *  gun-da-loe,  s. 
[Ital.  diniin.  of  gonda  =  a  boat ;  from  Gr. 
kovSv  (lcondu)  =  a  drinking-vessel,  from  the 

1.  A  Venetian  pleasure  boat.  A  gondola 
of  middle  size  is  thirty  feet  long,  four  feet 
beam,  and  is  rowed  by  one  man  standing  at 

the  stern  and  using  one  oar.  It  has  a  well- 
furnished  cabin  amidships,  and  is  painted 
black.  The  stem  and  stern  rise  in  pointed 
elevations,  the  former  being  surmounted  by 
the  ferro,  a  bright  iron  cleaver. 

"  Didst  ever  see  a  Gondola  }    For  fear 

You  should  not,  I'll  describe  it  you  exactly : 
Tis  a  long  covered  boat  that's  common  here, 

Carved  at  the  prow,  built  lightly,  but  compactly; 
Rowed  by  two  rowers,  each  called  Gondolier, 

It  glides  along  the  water  looking  blackly, 
Just  like  a  coffin  clapt  in  a  canoe. 
Where  none  can  make  out  what  you  s?iy  or  do." 

Byron  •  Beppo,  19. 

2.  A  flat-bottomed  boat  for  carrying  produce 
and  goods.    (American.) 

3.  A  railway-platform  car,  with  low  or  no 
sides.    (American.) 

*  gon'-do-letf   s.     [A   dimin.    from  gondola 
(q.v.).]    A  little  gondola.    (Moore.) 

gdn'-do-lier,  *  gun-de-lier,  s.     [Ital.  gon- 
doliere.]    A  man  that  rows  a  gondola. 

"  Startled  at  the  sound,  1  sprang  upon  my  feet,  while 
the  gondolier,  letting  slip  hia  single  oar,  lost  it  in  the 
pitchy  darkuess  beyond  a  chance  of  recovery  "— £  a 
Poet  The  Assignation. 

gone,  *  gon,  pa.  par.  &  a.     [Go,  v.] 

A.  As  pa.  par.  :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  -4s  adjective : 

L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Departed,  moved,  or  started  away. 

fate,  fat,  tare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pit, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who\  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     se,  ce  =  e;    ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

gone— goniometer 

*  gong-farmer,  s.  A  night  man ;  a  cleaner 
of  privies  or  cesspools. 

*  gong-house,  *gong-husets.  A  privy, 
a  house  of  office. 

*  gong  man,  *  gang-man,  s.  A  gong- 

gong  (2),  s.    [Malay  agdng,  gong  =  a  gong.] 

*  1.  (See  extract.) 

"There  is  one  that  strikes  on  a  small  gong,  or  a 
wooden  instrument,  before  every  stroke  of  the  oar, 
then  the  rowers  answer  all  at  once  with  a  sort  of  a 
hollow  noise,  through  the  throat,  and  a  stamp  on  the 
deck  with  one  foot,  and  immediately  plunge  their 
oars  into  the  water.  Thus  the  gong  and  the  rowers 
alternately  answer  each  other,  making  a  sound  that 
seems  very  pleasant  aud  warlike  to  those  who  are  at  a 
small  distance  on  the  water  or  snoar."  —  Dampier: 
Voyage,  Tonquin  (an.  1688). 

2.  A  musical  instrument  used  principally  in 
the  East.  It  is  tambourine -shaped,  a  disc  of 
thin  bronze  with  an  upturned  flange  forming  a 
rim.  The  metal  consists  of  seventy-eight  parts 
copper,  twenty-two  parts  tin.  The  bronze  is 
of  such  proportions  as  to  be  naturally  brittle 
when  cast.  Gongs  are  beaten  with  a  padded 
drum-stick,  and  are  used  in  the  East  for 
making  signals,  and  adding  intensity  to  the 
clangour  of  martial  music.  In  many  houses 
in  England  gongs  have  replaced  dinner-bells. 
The  gong  has  no  distinct  or  appreciable  note, 
but  gives  out  a  sound  consisting  of  a  combina- 
tion of  harmonics. 

"  And  loud,  amid  the  universal  clamour, 
O'er  distant  deserts  sounds  the  Tartar  gong." 

Longfellow:  Arsenal  at  Springfield, 

3.  A  stationary  bell  whose  tongue  is  moved 
by  a  wire  or  string.  Commonly  used  as  an 
alarm  or  call-bell  on  steamers. 

2.  Dead,  departed,  deceased. 

"A  dog,  that  has  his  nose  held  in  the  vapour,  loses 
all  signs  of  life ;  but  carried  into  the  air,  or  thrown 
into  a  lake,  recovers,  if  not  quite  gone."— Addison:  On 

3.  Departed ;  lost. 

"  Speech  is  confined  to  the  living,  and  imparted  to 
■only  those  that  are  in  presence,  and  is  transient  and 
ifone."— Holder :  On  the  daisies. 

4.  Ruined,  undone. 

"  He  must  know  'tis  none  of  your  daughter  nor  my 
sister;  we  are  gone  else."—  Shakesp. :  Winter's  Tale, 
iv.  3. 

5.  Advanced  ;  forward  in  progress. 

"  I  have  known  sheep  cured  of  the  rot,  when  they 
have  not  been  far  gone  with  it,  only  by  being  put  into 
broomlands." — Mortimer:  Husbandry. 

II.  Archery  ;  Applied  to  an  arrow  shot 
beyond  the  mark. 

*  gone, 


'  gon-el,  s,  [0.  Fr.  gonelle,  gonele;  Prov. 
gonel,  gonella;  Ital.  gonnella,  from  O.  Fr.  gone, 
Prov.  gona,  Ital.  gonna,  Low  Lat.  guna,  gunna, 
Gael,  gun,  Wei.  gwn,  =  a  gown  (q.v.).]  A 
mantle,  a  cloak. 

gon-ep'-ter-yx,  s.  [Gr.  ytwl*  (gonia)  =  a 
corner,  an  angle,  or  7610;  (gonu)  =  a  knee,  and 
iTTe'pvf  (ptertix)  =  a  wing.] 

Entom.  :  A  genus  of  butterflies,  family 
Papilionidge,  sub-family  'Pieridi.  Gonepteryx 
rhamni  is  the  Brimstone  Butterfly.  Its  wings 
have  an  angular  projection  [etym.],  and  are 
brimstone  -coloured.  Expansion  of  wings 
about  2&  inches.  It  is  common  in  the  south 
of  England,  but  does  not  extend  to  Scotland, 
for  its  caterpillar  feeds  on  the  Common  Buck- 
thorn (Rhamnus  catharticus)  which  does  not 
grow  there.  It  is  velvety-looking,  dark  green, 
with  a  pale  line  on  each  side.    (Stainton,  &c.) 

goii'-fa  -Ion,  gon'-fa-non,  *  gof-fa-noun, 
*  gon -fa-noun,  *  gon-fa-nun,  *  gon- 
fay-noun,  *  gon-fe-noun,  *  goun-fa- 
noun,  *  gun-fa-noun,  *gun-fan-un,  s. 

[O.  Fr.  gun/anan,  gonfanon  ;  Fr.  gonfalon ;  Sp. 
Gonfalon;  Ital.  gonfalone,  from  M.H.Ger.  gun- 
fano  =  a  battle  standard,  from  gunt,  gund  — 
battle,  and/awo,  vano  (Ger.  fahne)  =  a  banner.] 


A  small  flag  attached  to  the  pole  of  a  lance.  It 
differed  from  a  banner  in  this  respect,  that, 
instead  of  being  square,  and  fastened  to  a  ton- 
sure bar,  the  gonfalon,  though  of  the  same 
figure,  was  fixed  in  a  frame  made  to  turn  like 
a  modern  ship's  vane,  with  two  or  three 
streamers  or  tails.  The  object  of  the  gonfanon 
was  principally  to  render  great  people  more 
conspicuous  to  their  followers,  and  to  terrify 
the  horses  of  their  adversaries. 

"  Standards  and  gonfalons  'twixt  van  and  rear 
Stream  In  the  air.  Milton :  P.  L.,  v.  589. 

gon-fa-ldn-ieV,  s.      [Ital.  gonfaloniere.]     A 
standard-bearer ;  the  person  entrusted   with 
the  public  gonfalon  in  medieval  Italian  cities. 
"  Was  not  the  rotation,  too,  provided  for  by  the 
annual  election  of  her  gonfalonier." — Bp.  Wren:  Mon- 
archy Asserted,  ch.  x.  (1659). 

*gong  (1),    *  gonge,    *  goonge,  s.    [A.S. 
gang  —  a  going,  a  passage,  a  privy.]    [Gang.] 

1.  Going,  motion. 

"  Honden  butes  felinge,  fet  bute  gonge." 

Legend  of  St.  Katharine,  499. 

2.  A  privy,  a  jakes,  a  house  of  office. 

"  As  he  com  bi  a  gong 
Amtdde  the  pit  he  hit  slong." 

Seven  Sages,  1,315. 

3-  A  pit. 

"  In  helle  gonge  to  ly  on  grounde." 

Coventry  Mysteries,  p.  345. 


A  gong. 

gong-metal,  *.  The  metal  of  which  gongs 
are  made. 

gon'-gon-ha,  s.     [A  Brazilian  word.] 

Bot. :  A  kind  of  holly,  Ilex  Gongonha,  used 
in  Brazil  for  making  tea.  It  is  a  diuretic  and 

gon-gor'-a,  s.  [Named  after  Antony  Cabal- 
lero  y  Gongora,  formerly  Viceroy  of  New 

Bot. :  A  tine  genus  of  orchids,  tribe  Vandeas. 
They  have  lance-shaped  leaves  more  than  a 
foot  long,  and  drooping  flower  racemes  two 
feet.  About  twelve  species  are  known.  They 
grow  on  stems  in  tropical  America.  Eight 
have  been  introduced  into  British  green- 

gSn'-g$rl-lte,  s.  [Gr.  yoyyuXos  (gonggulos)  = 
round,  andsuff.  -ite  (Min.)  (q.v.).] 

Min. :  A  yellowish  or  yellowish-brown  variety 
of  Agalmatolite,  from  Finland. 

gon-gyl-o-sper'-me-se,  s.  pi  [Gr.  yoyyvAos 
(gongulos)  =  round,  a-irepfLa  (sperma)  =  seed, 
and  Lat.  pi.  fern.  adj.  suff.  -ece.] 

Bot.  :  A  collection  of  rose-spored  Algee. 
The  spores  are  collected  without  order  in  a 
mucous  or  membranaceous  mother-cell.  The 
nucleus  is  sometimes  compound. 

gon'-gjMiis  (pi  gon'-gy-li),  *.    [Gr.  yoy- 
yuAos  (gongulos)  =  round.] 
Botany : 

1.  A  spore  of  certain  fungals. 

2.  A  round,  hard,  deciduous  body  connected 
with  the  reproduction  of  certain  sea-weeds. 

3.  One  of  the  granules  contained  in  the 
shields  of  certain  lichens. 

gd-ni-as'-ter,  s.  [Gr.  ytovCa  (g5nia)  =  an 
angle,  and  atrr^p  (aster)  —  a  star.] 

1.  Zool  :  A  genus  of  Echinoderms,  order 

2.  PalcBont. :  It  came  into  existence  at  least 
as  early  as  the  Jurassic  period. 

go  ma  tlte,  gd-ni-a-ti'-tes,  s.  [As  if  from 
a  Mod.  Lat.  term  goniotus.     Gr.  yotvCa  (gonia) 
=  an  angle,  and  suff".  -tnjs  (ites),  or  t  may  be 
Palaeontology,  Geology,  &c. : 

1.  (Of  the  form  goniatites) :  A  genus  of  Am- 
monitidae.  It  has  a  discoidal  shell,  lobed 
sutures,  and  the  siphuncle  dorsal.  Known 
species  197,  from  the  Upper  Silurian  to  the 

2.  (Of  ^e/ormgoniatite)  :  The  English  name 
for  any  species  of  the  genus  Goniatites  (q.v.). 

go-nl-a-tit -i-dae,  s.  pi    [Mod.   Lat. 
tit(es),  and  Lat.  fem.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idos.] 

Palwont. :  A  family  of  Cephalopods.  Mr. 
S.  Woodward  does  not  recognise  it,  but  leaves 
goniatites  in  the  AmmonitidEe. 

gd-nid'-i-a,    [Gonidium.] 

go-nid  -l-al,  a.     [Mod.  Lat.  gonidi(um);  Eng. 
adj.  suff.  -al] 
Bot.  :  Of  or  belonging  to  gonidia. 
gonidial-layer,  s. 

Bot.  :  A  layer  or  zone  of  variable  thickness, 
constituted  by  gonidia  at  the  place  where  the 
cortex  and  medulla  meet  in  the  thaUus  of  a 
lichen.    (Thome.) 

go-nid  -I-um  (pi.  go-nid'-i-a),  s.  [Mod. 
Lat.,  from  Gr.  yoVos  (gonos)  =  generation, 
and  elfios  (eidos)  =  form.] 

Bot. :  One  of  the  green  spherical  cells  which 
exist  in  the  thallus  of  lichens,  and  distinguish 
them  from  fungals.  These  cells  are  of  various 
forms  ;  they  produce  zoospores. 

go-ni-6m'-e-ter,  s.  [Gr.  ytovCa.  (gonia)  =  a 
corner,  an  angle,  and  nerpov  (metron)  =  a 

Min.  &  Mach. :  An  instrument  for  measuring 
angles,  and  specially  those  of  crystals.  There 
are  two  forms  of  it,  the  common  and  the  re- 
flecting goniometer.  The  former  was  in- 
vented by  Carangeau.  Its  principle  is  the 
movements  of  a  movable  arm  constituting  the 
radius  of  a  graduated  semicircle.  It  is  best 
adapted  to  take  the  angles  of  a  crystal  free 
from  the  gangue,  and  even  then  is  not  very 
precise  in  its  indications.  It  is  now  rarely 
if  ever  used. 

The  reflecting  goniometer  is  founded  on  the 
reflecting  power  of  the  polish  on  the  natural 
planes  or  fracture  surfaces  of  minerals.  In  the 
figure  a  &  is  the  principal  circle  graduated  on 
one  edge  to  half  degrees,  and  divided  for  con- 
venience into  two  parts  of  180"  each;  c  is  a 
brass  plate  screwed  upon  and  supported  by 
the  pillar  d,  and  graduated  as  a  vernier ;  /  is 
the  axle  of  the  circle  a  b,  and  passes  through 
the  upper  parts  of  the  two  pillars  d  e,  the 
other  ends  of  which  are  inserted  into  a  wooden 
base  m;  g  h  is  an  axle  enclosed  within  /, 
and  turned  by  means  of  the  smallest  circle  i, 
which  corn- 

wax  to  one  end  of  a  plate  of  brass,  n,  the 
other  end  of  the  plate  being  placed  in  a 
slit  in  the  upper  part  of  the  circular  brass 
stem  0,  which  passes  through  the  tube  p,  to 
which  it  is  so  adjusted  as  to  allow  of  being 
moved  either  up  or  down,  or  circularly  by 
means  of  the  circle  q.  The  tube  p  is  fixed  to 
the  curved  brass  plate  r,  which  is  attached, 
but  so  as  to  allow  of  motion,  to  another  curved 
plate  s,  by  means  of  a  pin  t ;  the  other  end  of 
the  latter  plate  being  connected  with  the  con- 
cealed axle  g  h,  to  which  a  motion  is  given  by 
turning  the  half  circle  i.  The  stem  0,  which 
may  be  raised  or  depressed  at  pleasure,  should 
be  used  to  place  the  crystal  as  nearly  as  pos- 
sible on  a  line  with  the  inner  axle.  Let  it 
now  be  supposed  that  the  instrument  is 
placed  from  eight  to  twenty  feet  distant  from 
a  window.  Let  a  black  line  v  be  drawn  on 
the  wainscot  between  the  window  and  the 
floor,  and  perfectly  parallel  with  the  hori- 
zontal base  of  the  window.  If  then  the  eye 
be  placed  almost  close  to  the  crystal  I,  a  re- 
flection of  one  of  the  bars  will  be  seen  on  one 
of  its  planes.  Adjust  it  till  it  is  parallel 
with  the  black  line  v,  the  crystal  is  then 
turned  by  turning  the  little  circle  i,  until  the 
reflection  of  the  same  bar  is  seen  on  the  next 

boll,  bo"^;  pout,  J6%1;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;   go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  ^enophon,  eyist.    -ing, 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhiin.      -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  fiti-.  =  bel.  deL 


goniometric— good 

plane  perfectly  on  a  line  with  and  upon  the 
black  line  v.  Both  reflections  being  kept 
accurate,  it  is  next  needful,  by  means  of  the 
circle  k,  to  turn  the  principal  circle  until  it  is 
arrested  by  the  stop  %  or  the  pillar  d;  it  will 
then  be  found  that  ISO0,  or  the  principal 
circle,  coincides  with  o  on  the  vernier.  If  the 
circle  k  be  then  turned  with  the  eye  close  to 
the  crystals  till  the  reflection  of  the  same  bai- 
ls seen  on  the  adjoining  plane  precisely  upon 
the  black  line  v,  the  distance  moved  by  the 
principal  circle  will  indicate  in  degrees  the 
angle  of  the  crystal.  The  small  crystals  of 
bodies  are  generally  more  regular  than  the 
larger  ones,  and  a  surface  of  rfc  part  of  an 
inch  in  length  if  perfect  and  brilliant  will  be 
sufficiently  large  to  be  accurately  measured 
by  the  reflecting  goniometer.    (TV.  Phillips.) 

go-ni-6-met'-ric,     gd-ni-o-met'-ri-cal, 

a.  [Eng.  goniometr(y) ;  -ic,  -ical.]  Pertaining 
to  goniometry  or  goniometers  ;  measured  by 
a  goniometer. 

go-m-om'-e-try,  s.  [Gr  yayia (gonia)  =  an 
angle,  and  fierpov  (metron)  =  a  measure  ;  Fr. 
gouiometrie.]  The  art  or  science  of  measuring 
solid  angles. 

g6-nI-6ph'-6-llS,  s.  [Gr.  ytavia.  (gonia)  =  a 
corner,  an  angle  ;  and  <f>o\U  (pholis)  ~  a  horny 

1  scale  of  a  reptile,  in  reference  to  the  rectangu- 
lar form,  size,  number,  and  firm  junction  of 
the  osseous  scales.    (Owen.)] 

Palceont. :  A  genus  of  fossil  crocodiles, 
placed  by  Sir  Richard  Owen  under  his  sub- 
order Amphiccelia,  and  by  Professor  Huxley 
doubtfully  under  that  which  he  terms  Meso- 
suchia.  The  remains  on  which  the  genus  was 
founded  were  found  in  1835  in  a  quarry  near 
Swanage,  and  Mr.  Robert  Trotter  purchased 
them  for  Dr.  Mantell.  They  are  now  in  the 
British  Museum.  The  species  is  Goniopholis 
crassidens,  sometimes  called  the  Swanage 
Crocodile.    (Mantell,  Owen,  &c). 

*  gonne,  s,    [Gun.] 

*  gonne,  v.i.    [Go,  v.] 

*gonn-en,  *  gonne,  pret  of  v.    [Go.] 

gd3no:blas-tid'-i-um    (pi.    go  no  bias 
tld'-l-a),  s.     [Gr.  yovoq  (gonos)  =  that  which 
is   begotten,  a    child,   also   seed,   &c. ;    and 
dimin.  of  /SAaoro?  (blastos)  =  a  sprout.] 

Zool.  (PI.) :  Special  processes  from  the  body- 
wall,  or  coenosarc,  of  Hydractinia,  Dicoryne 
and  other  Corynida.  They  are  atrophied,  or 
undeveloped,  polypites,  differing  from  perfect 
ones  in  being  usually  destitute  of  a  mouth 
and  in  having  shorter  tentacles.  They  carry 
the  reproductive  receptacles  or  gonophores  in 
certain  hydrozoa.  Allman  calls  them  Blasto- 

go-no-cal'-y-clne,  a.    [Mod.  Lat.  gonocalyx 
(genit.  gonocalycis)  [Gonocalyx]  ;  suff.  4ne.] 
Zool. :  Of  or  belonging  to  a  gonocalyx. 

""     "Disguised  medusoids,  in  which  there  is  a  central 

*  manubrial  process  and  a  rudimentary  system  of  gono- 

calydne  canals."— Nicholson :  Zool.  (5th  ed.),  p.  110. 

rjo-no-ca'-lyx,  s.  [Gr.  yovo<;  (gonos)  ~  a  child, 
■and  Lat.  calyx ;  Gr.  kol \v£  (kalux)  =  a  covering.  ] 
Zool.  :  A  bell-shaped  disc,  attached  by  the 
base  to  the  parent  organism  in  the  Corynida, 
the  swimming-bell  in  a  medusiform  gonophore, 
or  the  same  structure  in  a  gonophore  which 
is  not  detached.    (Nicholson.) 

*gon-of,  ^gon-oph,  s.  [A  corrupt,  of  gone- 
off.]    A  thief,  a  pickpocket. 

gd-no-lo'-be-se,  s.  pi.    [Mod.  Lat.  gonolob(us), 
and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ece.] 
Bot. :  A  tribe  of  Asclepiadaceae. 

g6-n6l'-6-bus,  s.  [Gr.  yoivCa  (gonia)  =  angle, 
and  Ao0os  (lobos)  =  a  pod.  Named  from  the 
angular  pods.] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  tribe  Gono- 
lobeee.  It  consists  of  twining  or  shrubby 
North  American  plants,  with  racemes,  or 
corymbs  of  greenish  or  dingy  purple  flowers. 
About  sixty  species  are  known.  Several  have 
been  introduced  into  British  greenhouses,  The 
juice  of  Gonolobus  macrophyllus  is  said  to  be 
used  by  the  North  American  Indians  to  poison 
their  arrows. 

gon-6-phbre,  go-noph'-o-riim,  s.     [Gr. 

yoco?  (gonos)  =  seed,   and  <£op6s   ( phoros)  =■ 

1.  Bot. :  A  short  stalk  which  bears  the  sta- 
mens and  carpels  in  such  plants  as  Anonads. 

2.  Zool. :  The  name  given  by  Prof.  Allman 
to  the  bud  or  sac  containing  the  reproductive 
elements  in  the  Corynida  and  other  hydrozoa. 
It  is  used  whether  the  buds  become  detached 
or  not. 

go-no- pla'-ci-ans,  s.  pi.    [Gonoplax.] 

Zool.  :  The  English  name  for  the  Gonopla- 
cidiB  (q.v.). 

go-no-pla'-ci-dae,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  gono- 
plax,  genit.   gonoplac(is) ;   Lat.   fern.  pi.   adj. 

surf.  -ido3.] 

Zool. :  A  family  of  brachyurous  Crustaceans 
having  the  carapace  either  square  or  rhom- 
boidal,  and  much  broader  than  it  is  long. 
Milne  Edwards  places  it  between  the  Ocypo- 
diaus  and  the  Grapsoidians. 

go'-xio-plax,  s.     [Gr.  -ycW  (gonu)  =  the  knee, 
and  0ao££  (pkix)  =  anything  flat.] 
Zool. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family  Go- 

noplacidte  (q.v.).   Gonoplax  angulata,  or  angu- 
latus,  is  found  in  Britain. 

gd-nop'-ter-a,  s._  [Gr.  yow  (gonu)  =  the 
knee,  or  yoivla.  (gonia)  =  an  angle,  and  irrepa. 
(ptera),  pi.  of  Trrepdc  (pteron)=a  feather,  a 

Entom. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family 
Gonopterida?  (q.v.).  Only  British  species, 
Gonoptera  libatrix. 

gO-nop-teV-i-dse,  s.  pi.     [Mod.  Lat.  gonop- 
ter(a)  (q.v.).,  and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idas.] 
Entem :  A  family  of  moths,  group  Noctuina. 
British  species  only  one.     [Gonoptera.] 

gon-6r-rhce'-a,  s.     [Lat.,  from  Gr.  yovop'poia. 

(gonorrhoia)  (Galen):  y6vo<;  (gonos)  =  seed, 
and  pew  (rJieo)  =  to  flow.  The  etymology  does 
not  name  the  disease  accurately.  (See  def.).] 
Pathol.  :  A  specific  disease,  chiefly  affecting 
the  urethra,  but  sometimes  also  other  mucous 
surfaces,  accompanied  by  inflammation  and 
muco-purulent  discharge ;  in  the  chronic  form 
it  is  termed  gleet,  the  discharge  then  being 
thinner,  sometimes  lasting  for  months,  or 
even  years. 

gd-noHsd'me,  s.  [Gr.  yoVo?  (gonos)= offspring, 
seed,  and  a-u)p.a  (soma)  =  the  body.] 

Zool.  :  The  name  applied  by  Prof.  Allman  to 
the  reproductive  zooids  of  a  hydrozoon  taken 

go-nd-the'-ca,  s.  [Gr.  70V0S  (gonos)  =  off- 
spring, seed,  and  Lat.  theca;  Gr.  #77*03  (theke) 
=  a  box  or  chest.] 

Zool. ;  The  chitinous  receptacle  within 
which  the  gonophores  of  certain  hydrozoa  are 

go'-nys,  s.    (Gr.  gonu  =  the  knee.] 

Ornith.  :  The  keel  or  ridge  of  the  lower  man- 
dible in  the  bill  of  a  bird. 

good,  *  god,  *  gode,  *  goad,  *  guod, 
*  gud,  *  guid,  '  gude,  a.,  adv.,  interj.,  & 
s.(  [A.S.  god;  cogn.  with  Dut.  goed ;  I  eel. 
godhr ;  Dan.  god;  Goth,  gods;  Sw.  god;  Ger. 
gut;  O.  H.  Ger.  guot;  O.  Fris.  and  O.  S.  god.~\ 
A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Having  such  physical  qualities  as  are 
useful,  proper,  expected,  or  desired  ;  not  bad  ; 
not  ill  j  worthy  of  praise. 

"  God  saw  everything  that  he  had  made,  and  behold 
it  was  very  good.  '—Genesis  i.  31. 

2.  Fit,  proper,  convenient,  useful. 

"  A  universe  of  death  !  which  God  by  curse 
Created  evil ;  for  e/il  only  good." 

Milton:  P.  L.,  ii.  622. 

3.  Fit,  adapted,  useful;   capable  of  being 

used  or  employed.    (Followed  by  for.)     • 

'■  All  quality,  that  is  good  for  anything,  is  originally 
founded  upon  merit." — Collier  :  On  Envy. 

4.  Wholesome,  proper,  useful. 

"The  water  of  Nilus  is  sweeter  than  other  waters  in 
taste,  and  it  is  excellent  good  for  the  stone  and  hypo- 
chondriack  melancholy.  '—Bacon  :  Nut.  Ilist.,  §  767. 

5.  Proper,  right. 

"In  government  it  is  good  to  use  men  of  one  rank 

equally."— Bacon;  Essays;  Of  Followers  &  Friends. 

6.  Conducive  to  happiness. 

"It  is  not  good  that  man  should  be  alone. "—Genesis 

ii.  is. 

7.  Kind,  benevolent,  merciful,  gracious, 

"  Upon  the  man  of  Thy  right  hand 
Let  thy  good  hand  be  laid." 

MUton:  Trans,  of  Psalm  Ixxx. 

8.  Friendly,  kind,  gracious.  (Followed  by 
to  or  unto.) 

"  The  men  were  very  good  unto  us.1'— 1  Samuel  xxv.  15. 

9.  Uncorriipted,  undamaged,  uninjured, 
without  deterioration. 

"He  also  bartered  away  plums,  that  would  have 
rotted 1  in  a  wSjiur  nuts.  W  would  last  good  for  his 
eating  a  whole  year."— Locke. 

10.  Pleasant  to  the  taste,  agreeable. 

"Eat  thou  honey,  because  it  is  good ;  and  the  honey- 
comb, which  is  sweet."— Proverbs  xxiv.  1J. 

11.  Pleasant,  agreeable,  advantageous. 

"  Behold  how  good  and  how  pleasant  it  is  for  brethren 
to  dwell  together  in  unity."— Psalm  cxxxui.  1. 

12.  Possessed  of  moral  excellence  or  virtue ; 
worthy,  upright,  virtuous,  righteous,  religious, 

"  For  a  good  man  some  would  even  dare  to  die."— 

Romans  v.  7. 

13.  Trustworthy,  genuine. 

"  He  is  neither  a  good  Irishman  nor  a  good  French- 
man."— Macaulay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xii. 

14.  Honourable,  noble,  distinguished ;  as, 
He  comes  of  a  good  family. 

15.  Not  blemished  or  impeached  ;  as,  a  good 

"Moreover,  he  must  have  a  good  report  of  those 
which  are  without."— 1  Timothy  iii.  7. 

*  16.  Of  credit,  rich,  able  to  fulfil  engage- 
ments ;  solvent. 

"Antonio  in  a.  good  man  :  my  meaning  in  saying  that 
he  is  a  good  man,  is  to  have  you  understand  me  that  he 

is  sufficient."— Shakes  p.  :  Mercliant  of  Venice,  i.  3. 

TT  Only  used  now  with  for,  as,  He  is  good  for 
any  amount. 

17.  Companionable,  sociable,  jovial,  merry. 

"  Though  he  did  not  draw  the  good  fellows  to  him  by 
drinking,  yet  he  eat  well."— Clarendon. 

18.  "Worthy ;  used  as  an  address  of  respect ; 
as,  good  sir,  good  people. 

19.  It  is  used_  as  an  epithet  of  slight  con- 
tempt or  pity. 

20.  Hearty ;  earnest. 

"  The  good  will  of  the  nation  to  the  present  war  has 
been  since  but  too  much  experienced  by  the  successes 
that  have  attended  it." — Temple. 

21.  Real ;  serious  ;  genuine  ;  not  feigned. 

"Love  not  in  good  earnest,  nor  no  farther  in  sport 
neither,  than  with  safety  of  a  pure  blush  thou  may'st 
in  honour  come  off  again."— Shakcsp. :  As  You  Like  Si, 
i.  2. 

22.  Sound  ;  not  false  ;  not  fallacious  ;  well- 

"  He  is  resolved  now  to  show  how  slight  the  proposi- 
tions were  which  Luther  let  go  f ur  good." — Atterbury. 

23.  Adequate ;  weighty. 

"My  reasons  are  both  good  and  weighty.  "—Sliakcsp.: 
Taming  of  the  Shrew,  i.  1. 

24.  Confirmed  ;  attested  ;  proved. 

25.  Legal ;  valid. 

"  If  they  had  held  their  royalties  by  that  title,  either 
there  must  have  beeu  but  one  sovereign  over  them  all, 
or  else  every  father  of  a  family  had  been  as  good  a 
prince,  and  had  as  good  a  claim  "to  royalty,  as  these."— 

26.  Skilful  ;  dexterous  ;  clever  ;  ready ; 
quick  :  as,  a  good  workman. 

"Art  thou  good  at  these  kickshaws?"  —  Shakesp.: 
Twelfth  Night,  i.  3. 

27.  Cheerful ;  gay  ;  of  good  heart  or  spirit. 

"  Be  of  good  comfort"— Matthew  ix.  22. 

28.  Fruitful ;  fertile. 

"  And  other  [seed]  fell  on  good  ground,  and  sprang  up 

and  bare  fruit  an  hundredfold." — Luke  viii.  8. 

29.  Abundant,  rich. 

"  Good,  pasture  makes  fat  sheep."— Shakesp. :  As  Yow 
Like  It,  Hi.  2. 

30.  Elegant ;  delicate  ;  courteous  ;  polite  : 
as,  He  is  a  man  of  good  breeding. 

31.  Correct,  grammatical,  according  to  rules  : 
as,  That  is  not  good  English. 

32.  Considerable ;  not  small  or  little,  though 
not  very  great. 

"  We  may  suppose  a  great  many  degrees  of  littleness 
and  lightness  in  these  earthly  particles,  so  as  many  of 
them  might  float  in  the  air  a  good  while,  like  exhala- 
tions, before  they  fell  down."— Burnet ;  Theory  of  the 

33.  Full ;  complete  ;  not  deficient. 

"  Good  measure,  pressed  down,  and  running  over, 
shall  men  give  into  your  bosom."—  l.uke  vi.  :i8. 

34.  That  may  or  can  be  recovered  ;  safe ; 
secure  :  as,  good  debts. 

35.  It  is  used  simply  to  raise  or  strengthen 
the  force  or  meaning  of  a  word  :  as,  in  good 
faith,  in  good  sooth. 

T  Good  is  largely  used  in  greeting  and  Heave- 
taking  :  as,  good  day,  good  morning,  &c. 

B.  As  adv.  :  "Well ;  not  ill. 

C.  As  interj.  ;  Well !  right !  used  in  answer 
to  a  remark  or  suggestion. 

"Ay,  Hamlet,  good/"         Shakesp. :  Hamlet,  iv.  3. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;   go,    pot 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,     ra,  cs  =  e.     ey  =  a.    qu  =  lew. 


D.  As  substantive  : 

1.  Anything  which  contributes  to  happiness, 
benefit,  advantage,  pleasure,  or  convenience ; 
that  which  is  right,  convenient,  useful,  service- 
able, advantageous,  benevolent,  &c. ;  an  advan- 
tage, a  benefit. 

Out  of  our  evil  seek  to  bring  forth  good." 

Milton:  P.  L.,i.  164. 

2.  An  upright,  honourable,  or  religious  man. 

"  All  the  virtues  that  attend  the  good." 

Shakesp. :  Henry  VIII.,  v.  2. 

3.  Welfare  ;  prosperity  ;  advantage  ;  ad- 
vancement ;  interest. 

"  No  less  importing  than  our  general  good." 

Shakesp.  :  Richard  III.,  iii.  7. 

4.  A  valuable  possession  or  piece  of  pro- 
perty ;  worldly  possessions,  as  wares,  mer- 
chandise, commodities,  chattels,  effects,  &c. 
(Almost  always  in  the  plural.) 

"  All  thy  goods  are  confiscate." 

Shakesp. :  Mercliant  of  Venice,  iv,  1. 

*  5.  Goodness,  good  qualities,  virtuous  and 
charitable  deeds. 

"  If  all  these  petty  illB  shall  change  thy  good." 

Slutkesp. :  Rape  of  Lucrece,  656. 

H  (1)  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  good 
and  goodness :  "  Good  and  goodness  are  abstract 
terms,  drawn  from  the  same  word  :  the  former 
to  denote  the  thing  that  is  good,  the  latter  the 
inherent  good  property  of  a  thing.  The  good 
we  do  is  determined  by  the  tendency  of  the 
action  ;  but  our  goodness  in  doing  it  is  deter- 
mined by  the  motive  of  our  actions." 

(2)  He  thus  discriminates  between  good, 
benefit,  and  advantage:  "Good  is  an  abstract 
universal  term,  which  in  its  unlimited  sense 
comprehends  everything  that  can  be  conceived 
of,  as  suited  in  all  its  parts  to  the  end  pro- 
posed. In  this  sense  benefit  and  advantage,  as 
well  as  utility,  service,  profit,  &c,  are  all 
modifications  of  good.  Good  is  mostly  employed 
for  some  positive  and  direct  good;  advantage 
for  an  adventitious  and  indirect  good:  the  good 
is  that  which  would  be  good  to  all ;  the  advan- 
tage is  that  which  is  partially  good,  or  good 
only  in  particular  cases." 

(3)  He  thus  discriminates  between  goods, 
chattels,  furniture,  movables,  and  effects :  "In 
the  strict  sense  goods  comprehends  more  than 
furniture,  including  not  only  that  which  is 
adapted  for  the  domestic  purposes  of  a  family, 
but  also  every  thing  which  is  of  value  to  a 
person :  the  chairs  and  tables  are  a  part  of 
furniture ;  papers,  books,  and  money,  are  in- 
cluded among  the  goods.  The  term  cluxttels  com- 
prehends that  species  of  goods  which  is  in  a 
special  manner  separated  from  one's  person 
and  house  ;  a  man's  cattle,  his  implements  of 
husbandry,  the  alienable  rights  which  he  has 
in  land  or  buildings,  are  all  comprehended 
under  chattels:  hence  the  propriety  of  the  ex- 
pression to  seize  a  man's  goods  and  chattels,  as 
denoting  the  disposable  property  which  he  has 
about  his  person  or  at  a  distance.  Movables 
comprehends  all  the  other  terms  in  the  limited 
application  to  property,  as  far  as  it  admits  of 
being  removed  from  one  place  to  another. 
Effects  is  a  term  of  nearly  as  extensive  a  signifi- 
cation as  goods,  but  not  so  extensive  an  appli- 
cation :  whatever  a  man  has  that  is  of  any 
supposed  value,  or  convertible  into  money,  is 
.entitled  his  goods ;  whatever  a  man  has  that 
can  effect,  produce,  or  bring  forth  money  by 
sale,  is  entitled  bis  effects."  (Crabb:  Eng. 

(4)  For  the  difference  between  goods  and  com- 
modity, see  Commodity. 

^[  1.  As  good  :  Equally  well. 

"  Was  I  to  have  never  parted  from  thy  side. 
As  good  have  grown  there  still  a  lifeless  rib." 

Milton  :  P.  X.,  ix.  1,154. 

2.  As  good  as:  Equally;  no  better  than; 
the  same  as. 

"  Being  many  times  as  good  as  in  possession  of  the 
victory.  —Knolles  :  Hist,  of  the  Turkes. 

3.  For  good,  for  good  and  all :  Completely  ; 
entirely ;  finally. 

"The  good  woman  never  died  after  this,  'till  she 
came  to  die  for  good  and  all." ~L' Estrange :  Fables. 

4.  Good  sooth,  in  good  sooth :  In  very  truth  ; 
really ;  most  assuredly. 

"  They  in  themselves,  good  sooth,  are  too  too  light." 
Shakesp.  -^Merchant  of  Venice,  ii.  6. 

5.  In  good  time : 

(1)  Ord.  Lang. :  In  proper  time ;  oppor- 
tunely ;  not  too  soon  or  too  late. 

(2)  Music  :  Correctly,  in  proper  time.' 

6.  Good  for  nothing : 
(1)  As  adj.  :  Useless,  worthless. 

"A  good-for-nothing  tfellow."  —  Bailey:  Erasmus, 
->.  187. 

boll,  bo^;  pout,  Je%l;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph  =  f. 
-cian.  -tian  =  shan.    -tion.  -sion  =  shun;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious.  -sious  --  shiis.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  deL 

(2)  As  subst :  An  idle  fellow,  a  vagabond. 

"  My  father  always  said  I  was  born  to  be  a  good-for- 
nothing." — Lytton  :  Godolphin,  bk.  iii.,  ch.  iii. 

7.  Good  heed :  Great  care,  heed  or  caution. 

8.  To  be  in  or  get  into  one's  good  graces:  To 
be  in  favour  with. 

"  Haviug  contrived  to  get  into  the  good  graces  of  the 
buxoui  widow."— Dickens :  Pickwick,  ch.  xiv. 

9.  To  do  one  a  good  turn :  To  do  a  kindness 
to  one. 

10.  To  hold  good : 

(1)  To  be  valid,  firm,  or  sure  :  as,  This  word 
holds  good. 

(2)  To  remain  in  force  or  effect :  as,  The 
rule  holds  good. 

11.  To  make  good : 

(1)  To  repair ;  to  replace  :  as,  To  make  good 

(2)  To  indemnify ;  to  give  an  equivalent  for : 
as,  To  make  good  any  loss. 

(3)  To  confirm  ;  to  establish ;  to  prove  ;  to 
verify  :  as,  To  make  good  a  charge. 

1 '  Each  word  made  good  and  true. " 

Shakesp. :  Hamlet,  i.  2. 

(4)  To  cany  out,  to  perform ;  to  fulfil ;  to 
carry  into  effect. 

"  Of  no  power  to  make  his  wishes  good." 

Shakesp. :  Timon  of  Athens,  i.  2. 

(5)  To  carry  out  safely :  as,  To  make  good 
one's  escape. 

(6)  To  supply  a  deficiency  ;  to  make  up  a 

"  Every  distinct  being  has  somewhat  peculiar  to  it- 
Belf,  to  make  good  in  one  circumstance  what  it  wants 
in  another."— V Estrange:  Fables. 

(7)  To  maintain  ;  to  secure. 

"  Convenient  numbers  to  make  good  the  city." 

Shakesp.  :  Coriolanus,  i.  5. 

*  (8)  To  prove  to  be  blameless  ;  to  clear. 

"  I  aay  good  queen. 
And  would  by  combat  make  her  good." 

Shakesp. :  Winter's  Talc,  ii.  3. 

12.  To  stand  good:  To  be  firm  or  valid  ;  to 
hold  good. 

13.  To  think  good:  To  consider  good,  ad- 
visable, or  expedient. 

"  If  ye  think  good,  give  me  my  price." — Zecltariah 
xi.  12. 

*  good-bodied,  a.    Having  a  good  figure. 
"A  pretty  good-bodied  woman."— Pep i/s :  Diary,  May 

31,  1666. 

good  -  breeding,  s.  Polite  manners 
formed  by  a  good  education  ;  the  manners  of 
a  gentleman. 

"So  eminently  distinguished  by  good  humour  and 
good  breeding." — Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  iv. 

gOOd-bye,  good-by,  phr.  (A  contrac- 
tion of  God  be  with  ye.)  A  form  of  salutation 
at  parting ;  farewell. 

*  good  -  conceited,  a.  Well-devised, 

"First,  a  very  excellent  good-conceited  thing." — 
Shakesp.  :  Cymbelinc,  ii.  3. 

*  good-conditioned,  a.  Having  good 
qualities  or  symptoms;  free  from  any  ill 

"  No  surgeon  dilates  an  abscess  of  any  kind  by  injec- 
tions, when  the  pus  is  good-conditioned." — Sharp. 

good-consideration,  s. 

Law:  (See  extract.) 

"A  good-consideration  is  that  of  blood  or  natural 
affection  between  near  relations ;  the  satisfaction 
accruing  from  which,  the  law  esteems  an  equivalent 
for  whatever  benefit  may  move  from  one  relation  to 
another." — Blackstone :  Commentary,  bk.  ii.,  ch.  26. 

good-day,  s.  or  interj.  A  form  of  saluta- 
tion at  meeting  or  parting. 

In  very  deed  ;  in 

*  good -deed,  adv. 
truth  j  assuredly. 

"Yet  good-deed,   Leontes,  I  love  thee."— Shakesp. : 
Winter's  Tale,  i.  2. 

good-e'en,  good-even,  good-even- 
ing, s.  or  interj.  A  kind  wish  or  salutation 
in  the  evening. 

*  good-faced,  a.  Having  a  handsome 
face ;  pretty. 

"No,    good-faced}  sir;    no,    sweet  sir." — Shakesp.  : 
Winter's  Tale,  iv.  2. 

good- fellow,  s.  A  person  of  a  good, 
easy  nature  ;  a  genial,  sociable  person. 

good -fellow,  v.t.     To   make  a  com- 
panion of ;  to  treat  or  salute  as  a  good  fellow. 
"  Let  me  rather  be  disliked  for  not  being  a  beast 
than  be  good-fellowed  with  a  hug  for  being  one."— 

good-fellowship,  s.  Sociableness,  com- 

"  Oh,  to  the  club,  the  scenes  of  savage  joys 
The  school  of  coarse  good-fellowship  and  noise." 
Cowper:  Conversation,  422. 

good-folk,  s.  pi.  A  popular  euphemistic 
name  for  the  fairies ;  also  called  good  people 
or  good  neighbours.     [Goodman,  5.] 

Good  Friday,  s. 

1.  Calendar  &  Eccles. :  The  comparatively 
modern  English  appellation  for  the  day  of  the 
Saviour's  crucifixion,  the  appellation  "good" 
possibly  referring  to  the  beneficial  effects  which 
flow  from  keeping  the  anniversary  ;  the  Conti- 
nental term,  which  is  of  great  antiquity,  being 
Holy  Friday.  The  Anglo-Saxons  again  deno- 
minated it  Long  Friday,  from  the  protracted 
religious  services  which  characterized  the  day. 
The  Church  of  England  regards  Good  Friday 
as  the  most  sacred  day  of  the  year,  and  has  ap- 
propriate services,  for  which  see  the  Liturgy. 

In  Roman  Catholic  countries  this  day  is  not 
a  holiday  of  obligation,  on  which  the  faithful 
are  bound  to  hear  mass  and  to  abstain  from 
servile  works.  It  is  observed  as  a  rigid  fast — 
in  some  of  the  stricter  religious  communities  a 
single  meal  of  bread  and  water  being  all  that 
is  allowed— and  the  church  services  are  sad 
and  mournful,  regard  being  had  to  the  terrible 
incidents  of  the  crucifixion  rather  than  to  the 
benefits  which,  as  the  Church  teaches,  that 
event  has  brought  to  mankind.  The  altar  is 
stripped  of  ornaments,  the  sanctuary  is  bare, 
the  sacerdotal  vestments  are  black.  The 
Passion  as  recorded  by  St.  John  is  chanted, 
and  then  follows  the  Adoration  of  the  Cross, 
which  is  kissed  first  by  the  celebrant  and  his 
assistants,  and  in  turn  by  the  congregation. 
The  consecrated  species  is  brought  from  the 
reposoir  (q.v.),  and  the  priest  receives.  [Pre- 
sanctified.]  Vespersimmediately  follow.  In 
the  evening  the  matins  and  lauds  for  Holy 
Saturday  [Tenebrae]  are  usually  recited  in 
public.     [Holy-week.] 

2.  Law  :  By  39  and  40  Geo.  III.,  and  7  and  8 
Vict.,  c.  15,  §  3,  bills,  &c,  falling  due  on  Good 
Friday  shall  be  paid  the  day  preceding. 

good  humour,  s.  A  cheerful  pleasant 
temper  or  disposition  ;  a  feeling  of  satisfaction. 

"I  was  a  lover  of  mirth,  good-humour,  and  even 

Bometnnes  of  fun."— Goldsmith  :  Essays,  i. 

good-humoured,  a.  Of  a  cheerful 
temper  or  disposition  ;  characterized  by  good 
humour ;  not  easily  provoked  or  annoyed. 

good-humouredly,  adv.  In  a  good- 
humoured,  cheerful  manner. 

good-king-Harry,  s. 

Bot. :  Chenopodium  (Blitum),  Bonus  Henricus. 

good-lack,  interj.  An  exclamation  of 
surprise,  wonder,  or  admiration. 

If  Lack  here  is  probably  a  corruption  of 
ladykin  or  lakin,  a  diminutive  from  lady,  as 
applied  to  the  Virgin  Mary,  Our  Lady. 

good-looking,  a.  Of  a  pleasing  coun- 
tenance ;  well-favoured. 

good-looks,  s.  pi.    Pleasing  features. 

good-luck,  5.  Fortune,  prosperity,  suc- 

good-manners,  s.  pi.  Politeness,  de- 
corum ;  propriety  of  behaviour. 

good  -  morning,  *  good -morrow,  l. 

A  kind  wish  or  salutation  in  the  morning. 

"  Good-morrow  to  the  sun.     Hail,  thou  fair  heaven  * 
We  house  i'  the  rock,  yet  use  thee  not  so  hardly." 
Sliakesp.  :  Cymbeline,  iii.  3. 

good-nature, ». 

*  1.  Among  the  older  divines,  the  amount 
of  good  of  which  man  is.capable  when  unaided 
by  the  grace  of  God. 

"  Good-nature,  being  the  relics  and  remains  of  that 
shipwreck  which  Adam  made,  is  the  proper  and  imme- 
diate dispositionto  holiness."— Jeremy  Taylor:  Sermon 
at  the  Funeral  of  Sir  George  Dalstone. 

2.  Natural  kindness  or  mildness  of  disposi- 

"The  good-nature  and  generosity  which  belonged  to 
his  character." — Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xi. 

good-natured,  a. 

*  1.  Naturally  disposed  to  goodness  or  holi- 

2.  Of  a  mild,  kind,  and  benignant  temper 
or  disposition ;  benignant. 

A  gay,  good-natured,  easy  friend," 

Cowper :  Horace,  aat.  i.  5. 


good— goods 

good-naturedly,  adv.  In  a  good-na- 
tured manner  ;  with  good  nature  or  kindness. 

good  naturedness,  s.  The  quality  or 
state  of  being  [good-natured  ;  good-nature, 

good-neighbours,  s.  pi. 

1.  A  euphemistic  title  for  the  fairies. 

"  In  the  hinder-end  of  harvest  on  Allhallow  even, 
When  our  good-neighbours  dois  ride,  if  I  read  right." 
Montgomerle;  Flyting. 

2.  Witches. 

good-night,  *. 

I.  Ordinary  Language . 

I.  A  kind  wish  or  salutation  at  parting  at 

"  *  Beware  the  pine-tree's  withered  branch ! 
Beware  the  awful  avalanche  !* 
This  was  the  peasants  last  good-night.  * 

Longfellow :  Excelsior.  '■ 

*  2.  A  short  poem,  probably  to  be  sung  as 
a  serenade. 

"  Sure  they  were  hia  fancies  or  good-nights." 

Shakesp. :  2  Henry  IV.,  iii  2. 

II.  Bot. .-  Argyreia  bona-nox. 

good-people,  s.  pi.  The  fairies ;  the  good- 

good-sense,  s.  A  sound  and  clear  un- 
derstanding ;  good-judgement,  common-sense. 

'*  Good-nature  and  good-sense  must  ever  join, 
To  err  is  human,  to  forgive  divine." 

Pope :  Essay  on  Criticism,  524. 

good-speed,  s.  &  interj.  Good-luck  ; 

*  good-tasted,  a.  Having  a  pleasant  taste 
or  flavour. 

"They  then  brought  up  a  dish  of  apples,  and  they 
were  very  good-tasted  fruit."— Jiunyan :  Pilgrim's  Pro- 
gress, pt.  ii. 

good-tempered,  a.  Having  a  mild 
temper  ;  not  easily  provoked  or  irritated  ; 

good  -  temperedly,  adv.  In  a  good- 
tempered  manner ;  with  good-temper. 

Good  Templar,  s.  A  member  of  a 
society  of  which  the  condition  of  membership 
is  a  pledge  never  to  make,  buy,  or  sell  intoxi- 
cating liquors,  or  offer  them  to  others  as  a 
beverage.  It  arose  in  America,  in  1851, 
whence  it  spread  to  this  country,  the  first 
lodge  in  England  being  formed  in  Birming- 
ham in  May,  1868.  It  has  since  spread  every- 
where through  the  country  and  become  a 
social  and  political  power.  The  members  pass 
through  an  initiatory  rite,  and  the  organization 
is  somewhat  similar  to  that  of  Freemasonry. 
There  are  in  the  United  Kingdom  about  230,000 
adult  and  junior  members,  of  whom  60,000 
adults  and  50,000  juniors  are  under  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  England.  The  Juvenile  Section  of 
the  Order  enjoins  abstinence  from  strongdrink, 
tobacco,  gambling,  and  bad  words. 

Good  Templarism,  Good  Tern  - 
plary,  s.  The  principles  professed  and  car- 
ried out  by  the  Good  Templars.  [Good 

good-wife,  s.    [Goodwife.] 

good-will,  a.    [Goodwill.] 

*  good-wilier,  s.  One  who  wishes  well 
to  another  ;  a  well-wisher. 

' '  The  earle  Douglas  wold  nevir  give  ear  to  hie  good- 
neilleris  and  favoureris."— Pitscottie :  Cron.,  pp.  41,  42. 

*  good-woman,  £  The  mistress  of  a 
(family  ;  a  goodwife. 

good-works,  s.  pi. 

1.  Theol. :  Works  the  fruit  of  faith. 

2.  Ch.  Hist.  :  There  was  a  dispute  from  1548 
to  1552  between  Melanchthon  and  Nicholas 
Amsdorf,  the  latter  being  an  enthusiastic  fol- 
lower of  Luther,  as  to  the  necessity  of  good 
workB  to  salvation.  Melanchthon  took  the 
positive  and  Amsdorf  the  negative  side.  (Mo- 
eheim:  Ch.  Hist.,  cent,  xvi.,  pt.  ii.,  ch.  i.,  §  29.) 

*  good,  *  god-en,   v.t.  &  i.      [A.S.  gddian; 
O.  H.  Ger.  guotjan ;  M.  H.  Ger.  gueten.] 
A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  make  good  ;  to  turn  to  good. 

"  Usa  birrth  soue  these  te  hett, 
And  teas  te  mare  uas  godenn." 

Ormulum,  11,881. 

2.  To  manure,  to  improve. 

"A  fruitful  hill  not  by  nature,  but  by  grace  .  .  . 
God  hath  taken  it  from  trie  barren  downs,  and  gooded 
it."— Dp.  Hull :  East  Sermon,  1628. 

B.  Intrans.  .-  To  become  good ;  to  turn  to 

what  is  good. 

"  God  maun  .  .  ,  godethth  azy  and  heghethth." 

Ormulum,  6,014. 

t  good-en'-i-a,  s.  [Named  after  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Goodenough,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  and  a  lover 
of  botany.] 

Bot.  :  The  typical  genus  of  the  order  Good- 
eniacefe  (q.v.).  They  are  generally  herbaceous 
plants  with  axillary  or  terminal  yellow  flowers. 

good-en-i-a'-ce-se,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  good- 
eni(a)t  and  Lat.  fem.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ctcece.] 

Bot. :  An  order  of  calyciferal  exogens,  alli- 
ance Campanales.  It  consists  of  herbaceous 
plants  or  rarely  shrubs  without  milk,  the 
hairs  of  any  one  present  simple  or  glandular. 
Leaves  scattered,  often  lobed,  without  stipules. 
Inflorescence  terminal,  flowers  never  capitate, 
usually  yellow,  blue,  or  pink.  Calyx  usually 
superior,  rarely  inferior,  in  three  to  five  divi- 
sions ;  corolla  monopetalous,  irregular,  with- 
ering after  splitting  into  five  pieces.  Stamens 
five,  distinct  style,  one  simple  fruit,  a  two  or 
four-celled  capsule  with  many  seeds.  There 
are  twenty -four  genera  and  200  known  species. 
They  are  from  Australia  and  the  Southern 
Pacific.    Some  are  esculent  vegetables. 

good-en'-i-ads,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  goodeni(a)  ; 
Eng.,  &c.  pi.  suff.  ads.] 

Bot.  :  The  name  given  by  Lindley  to  the 
order  Goodeniacese  (q.v.). 

good-en' -i-e-se,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  goodeni(a), 
and  Lat.  fem.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -em.] 

Bot.  :  A  tribe  of  Goodeniacese,  having  cap- 
sular fruit. 

t  good'-e-no"w,  s.    [Goodenougr.] 

*good'-ful,   *god-ful,    *god-fulle,   a. 

[Erig.  good;  ful(l).~]     Kind,  gracious,  benevo- 

"  Magan  thene  king  graette  mid  god.fu.lle  worde." 

Layamon,  ii.  236. 

*  good'-f ul-ly,   *  good- ful-ly che,   adv 

[Eng.  goodful ;  -ly.]    In  a  kind,  gracious  man" 
ner ;  kindly. 

"The  martyrs  the  vnderstonde 

Godfullydie  in  heore  honde." 

Old  Eng.  Miscell ,  p.  90. 

goodg'-eons,  o.  pi.    [Googings.] 

good  iri g  (1),  s.  [Eng.  good  ;  -ing.]  (Fol- 
ded, see  extract.) 

"  To  go  a  gooding  ia  a  custom  observed  in  several 
parts  of  England  on  St.  Thomas's  Day.  by  women  only, 
who  ask  alms,  and  in  return  for  them  wish  all 
that  is  good,  such  as  a  happy  New  Year,  &c,  to  their 
benefactors,  sometimes  presenting  them  with  sxJrigs  of 
evergreens.  In  some  parts  of  Smrey  and  Kent  the 
custom  is  thus  kept  up  ;  and  in  other  counties  goading 
is  the  word  among  the  poor  for  collecting  before 
Christmas  what  may  enable  them  to  keep  the  festi- 
val. •'—Todd. 

good'-ish,  a.  [Eng.  good  ;  -ish.]  Rather  good 
tlian  bad ;  pretty  good ;  fair,  tolerable,  passable. 

*  good- less,    good-les,   a.     [Eng.   good; 

-less.]     Destitute  ;  having  no  goods  or  money. 

"  Goodies  for  to  ben  it  is  no  game." 

Chaucer  :  C.  T.,  13,220. 

good  -li-ness,  *  good-li-nesse,  *  good 

ly-nesse,  s.    [Eng.  goodly;  -ness.] 
1.  Kindness,  benevolence. 

2.  The  quality  of  being  goodly ;  grace,  ele- 
gance, beauty. 

"  In  boldness,  greatness,  godliness,  and  might, 
Above  the  princes  born  of  human  seed." 

Fairfax :  Godfrey  of  Boulogne,  xx.  107. 

good'-ly,  *god-li,  *god-liche,  *god- 
lyche,  *  good  -liche,  *  goode-ly,  *gude- 
11,  *  gud-  liche,  *  gude-ly,  a.  &  adv.  [A.S. 
godlic;  O.  S.  godlik;  O.  Fris.  gddilik ;  O.  H. 
Ger.  guotlih;  Icel.  gddhligr.] 
A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Noble,  excellent,  fine,  elegant,  handsome, 

"The  goodelyeste  mayde  .  .  in  al  the  town  of  Troye." 
Chaucer :  Troilus,  iL  880. 

2.  Kind,  friendly,  gracious,  benevolent. 

"  Syn  ye  so  goodlieh  have  be  unto  me." 

Chaucer :  C.  T.,  12,981. 

3.  Pleasant,  agreeable. 

"  Of  flowers  perpetual,  goodly  to  the  eye 
And  blooming  from  afar." 

Logan  :  Episode  of  Levina. 

i.  Pretty  large  or  considerable  :  as,  a  goodly 

*  5.  It  is  used  ironically  for  fine,  noble. 

•"Tin  a  goodlu  credit  for  you."  .      . 

Shakesp.  :  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,  iv.  3. 

*  B.  As  adverb : 

1.  Finely,  splendidly,  nobly,  elegantly,  ex- 

"  With  sper  and  ^^*  ^aine,  832. 

2.  In  a  friendly  manner  ;  kindly.. 

"  Ye  hen  wel  and  goodly  ad^sed." 

Chaucer  :  MelibeuB,  p.  192. 

3.  Happily. 

"And  then  shall  hartie  loue  continue  long  togith*  r 
goodly,  in  case  both  parties  doe  theyr  duties  accord- 
ingly."—  Udal :  Ephesians  vL 

*  good  -ly-head,  *  good'-li-head,  *  good- 
li-hede,  goodly-hood,  *gude-li- 
hed,  s.  [Eng.  goodly ;  -head.]  Goodness, 
grace,  elegance,  goodliness. 

"  For  ouer  this,  to  spake  of  goodlikede 
She  passeth  all  that  I  can  of  rede. 

Chaucer  :  The  Flower  of  Curteaie. 

good-man,   *  gude-man,   s     [Eng.  good, 

and  man.] 

*  1.  A  familiar  appellation  of  civility  ;  a 
rustic  term  of  compliment ;  gaffer ;  frequently 
used  ironically. 

"  Til  lay  my  head  to  any  goodman's  hat." 

Shakesp.  :  Love's  Labour's  Lost,  i.  L 

2.  A  proprietor  of  land  ;  a  landowner,  a 
laird.    (Scotch.) 

*  3.  The  bead  of  a"  family  ;  the  master  of  a 

"And  how  in  three  minutes  the  goodman  of  the 
house  had  been  wallowing  in  a  pool  of  blood  at  his  own 
door." — Macaulay  :  Mist.  Eng.,  ch.  lilt 

*  4.  A  gaoler. 

"That  morning  before  his  death,  February  17,  the 
goodman  of  the  lolbootih  came  to  him  in  his  chamber, 
and  told  him  he  might  save  his  life,  if  he  would  sign 
the  petition."—  Wodrow:  History,  ii.  636. 

*  5.  Used  euphemistically  for  the  devil. 
From  the  earliest  ages  there  has  been  a  ten- 
dency to  treat  the  various  personifications  of 
evil  with  respect.  Thus  the  Erinnys  of  Greek 
mythology  became  the  (renvoi  0eaC  (  =  vener- 
able goddesses)  of  popular  phrase,  and  the 
Eumenides  (well-meaning  ones)  of  later  poets. 
In  Jude  9  we  read  that  "Michael  the  arch- 
angel, when  contending  with  the  devil,  he 
disputed  about  the  body  of  Moses,  durst  not 
bring  against  him  a  railing  accusation,  but 
said,  The  Lord  rebuke  thee."  As  an  instance 
of  the  survival  of  this  custom,  Moncure  D. 
Conway  (Demonology,  i.  13)  relates  a  story  of  a 
Hampshire  lady  who  asked  a  friend  of  his  if 
she  made  her  children  bow  when  they  men- 
tioned the  devil's  name,  adding  solemnly,  "I 
do,  I  think  it's  safer." 

goodxnan's-croft,  s. 

Anthrop. :  A  strip  of  ground  or  corner  of  a 
field  formerly  left  untilled,  in  Scotland,  in  the 
belief  that  unless  some  such  place  were  left, 
the  spirit  oF  evil  would  damage  the  crop. 

"Scotchmen  stiU  living  remember  the  corner  of  a 
field  being  left  untitled  for  the  goodman 's-croft."— 
Tyler  :  Primitive  Culture,  ii.  370. 

good  ness,  *  god-nesse,  *  gode-nes, 
gode-nesse,  good-nesse,  *gud-nes, 
*guid-ness,  *  gud -ness,  s.  [A.S.  g6d)iessj 
M.  H.  Ger.  guotnisse.] 

1.  The  quality  of  being  good  morally; 
virtue,  excellence  of  character. 

"  You  could  not  know,  nobody  but  myself  could 
know,  hex  goodness."— Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xx. 

*2.  That  which  is  good  ;  right. 

"  Flee  schame  and  schrewednesse  and  doo  goodneste  " 
—Chaucer :  Melibeus,  p.  189. 

3.  Kindness,  mercifulness,  benevolence, 

"  Poor  soul,  God's  goodness  has  been  great  to  thee  * 
Let  never  day  nor  night  unhaUowed  pass." 

Shakesp.  :  2  Henry  VI.,  ii.  1. 
i.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  good,  un- 
damaged, or  free  from  deterioration. 

5.  Used  as  a  euphemism  for  God  :  as,  Good- 
ness knows. 

goods,  s.  pi.     [Good,  5.  (4).] 

goods-engine,  s. 

Railway  Eng. :  A  heavy  engine  for  drawing 
goods-trains ;  a  freight-locomotive. 

goods-shed,  s.  A  covered  or  inclosed 
shed  or  shelter  for  goods  at  railway  stations, 
docks,  &c.  ' 

goods-train,  s.  pi.  A  train  consisting 
of  waggons  or  trucks  laden  with  goods. 

goods-truck,  s.    a  goods-waggon. 

late,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pot 
or,  wore.  wolf,  work,  who.  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     se,  oe  =  e;  ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw 

gooasnip—  goosegrass 


goods-waggon,  s.  A  railway  waggon,  or 
truck  used  in  the  transportation  of  goods  : 
called  in  America  a  freight-car. 

*gOOd'-ship,  *  good-schipe.  s.    [Eng.  good; 
-ship.]    Goodness,  grace,  kindness,  mercy. 
"  In  whom,  of  whom,  thorw  whom  heoth 
Alle  the  goodschipes  that  we  her$  ieepth." 

Castel  of  Love,  15. 

good- wife,  gude-wife,  s.    [Eng.  good,  and 

1.  The  wife  of  a  landed  proprietor  or  laird  ; 
a  farmer's  wife. 

"This  sameii  Sunday  the  lady-  Pittmedden,  the  good- 
wife  ol  Iden,  Mr.  William  Lumsden  and  his  wife,  &c. 
were  excommunicate." — Spalding,  L  238, 

2.  The  mistress  of  a  house. 

"  When  the  lad  came  to  the  house,  the  goodtoife 
hasted,  and  gave.himlraeat  "—Peden :  Life,  p.  37. 

good-Will',  o.     [Eng.  good,  and  will] 
L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Benevolence ;  kindly  or  favourable  dis- 
position or  feelings. 

"  Peace,  goodwill,  order,  and  esteem."  —  Burke  : 
American  Taxation. 

2.  Heartiness,  zeal,  earnestness,  readiness. 
II,  Comm.  :    The   custom  of   any  trade  or 

business ;  the  influence  of  the  seller  of  any 
business  to  secure  to  his  successor  the  custom 
already  existing ;  the  right  or  title  to  keep  up 
and  continue  the  business  purchased  from  an 
outgoing  tenant ;  the  money  paid  for  such 
right  or  title. 

good'-y,      good-die,    *good-ie,  «.  &  e. 

[Eng.  good;  -y.] 
*  A.  As  adj.  :  Simple,  innocent,  silly. 
"So  goodie  agent?  and  you  think  then  there  is  no 
punishment  due  for  your  ag'entahip?"  —  Beaum.    <fc 
Flet. :  Lover's  Progress,  v.  1. 

B.  As  substantive : 

1.  A  term  of  civility  applied  to  women  : 
corresponding  to  goodman  as  applied  to  men. 

2.  The  kernel  of  a  nut.    (American.) 

3.  (PL):  Sweetmeats,  bonbons. 

"  Adjourning  from  time  to  time  to  Borne  cafe  for  the 
purpose  of  e&tiug  icen  or  sucking  goodies." — E.  A. 
Murray:  Lands  of  the  Slave  &  the  Free,  ch.  xii. 

■gOod-y-eV-a,  s.  [Named  after  John  Goodyer, 
aii  English  botanist.] 

Bot. :  A  genus  of  orchids,  tribe  Neottidete, 
and  that  section  of  it  which  has  the  upper 
lobe  of  the  lip  flat,  the  lower  one  two-lobed. 
The  lip  is  free  from  the  base  of  the  column 
and  saccate.  Goodyera  repens,  a  plant  with 
ovate,  acute,  reticulate  leaves  and  cream- 
white  flowers,  is  found  in  woods  in  the  east 
of  Scotland  as  well  as  in  continental  Europe, 
in  Asia,  and  in  North  America. 

*  good'  -  y  -  ship,  s.  [Eng.  goody  ;  -ship.} 
Goodness ;  the  personality  of  a  goody. 

"  The  more  shame  for  her  goodyship, 
To  give  so  near  a  friend  the  Blip." 

Butler  :  Eudibraa,  pt.  L,  c.  iii. 

*googe,  v.t.    [Gouge.] 

goog-Ihgs,     goodg-eons,    good'-ings, 

s.  pi.     [Gudgeon.] 

Ship-build.  :  The  metallic  eyes  bolted  to  the 
stern-post,  on  which  the  rudder  is  hang.  In 
each  there  is  a  hole  to  receive  a  correspondent 
pintle  bolted  on  to  the  hack  of  the  rudder, 
which  this  turns  from  side  to  side,  as  on  an 
axis.  They  are  generally  four,  five,  or  six  in 

*godl,  *gule,  goold,  a.  &  s.  [A.S.  geolo.] 

A.  As  adj.  (Of  the  two  first  forms) :  Yellow. 

"  Thou  art'now  both  qool  and  green. "    Sir  Egeir,  p.  8. 

B.  As  subst.  (Of  the  forms  gool  and  goold). 
Bot. :  Various  plants,  as  Calendula  officinalis, 

Chrysanthemum  segetum,  and  Caltha  palustris. 

goole,  s.  [O.Fr.goule  =  the  throat ;  Lat.  gula.] 
A  breach  in  a  sea-wall  or  bank ;  a  passage 
worn  by  the  flux  and  reflux  of  the  tide. 

gooni,  ghoom,  s.    [Mahratta  mar-glwom.  ] 
Bot. :  One  of  the  Mahratta  names  for  Bearded 
Wheat  (Triticum  aistivum),  a  grass  cultivated 
in  parts  of  India. 

*  goon,  v.i.    [Go,  v.] 

goonch,  s.    [Mahratta.] 

Bot. :  The  Mahratta  name  for  Abrus  precato- 
rius.    [Aerus.] 

goor,  s.  [Hindust.  <?ttr;  Mahratta,  gool.]  Raw 
sugar,  jaggree  made  in  India,  from  the  juice 
of  the  date-palm.  Goor  was  eaten  by  the 
Thugs  as  the  initiatory  rite,  pledging  them 
to  their  nefarious  occupation. 

goor  -a-koo,  good  -a-koo,  s.  [Hind,  goora- 
khoOj  guraku;  Mahratta  goodakhoo,  gudakhu.] 
The  name  given  in  parts  of  India  to  balls, 
prepared  of  different  ingredients,  to  be  smoked 
by  the  natives  in  a  hookah,  or  pipe. 

g6o'-ro6,  gu'-ru,  s.  [Mahratta  gooroo,  guru  ; 
Sansc.  guru.]  A  spiritual  preceptor  among  the 

goo-san  der,  s.  [A  tautological  formation  ; 
Eng.  goose,  and  guilder.] 

Ornith. :  Mergus  merganser,  a  natatorial  bird 
of  the  family  Anatida;  (Ducks),  and  the  sub- 
family MerginEe.  The  male  is  variegated  with 
black,  greenish -black,  rose-coloured,  and  white. 
Most  of  the  bill  dark-red,  the  feet  very  clear 
red ;  the  female  whitish-ash,  ash,  reddish- 
brown,  white,  &c.  ;  the  bill  faded  red,  the 
feet  yellowish -red.  It  occurs  in  Britain,  where 
it  is  sometimes  called  the  Jack-saw.  It  is 
found  also  in  the  northern  parts  of  conti- 
nental Europe  and  America. 

goose,  s.    [A.S.  gos.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Lit. :  In  the  same  sense  as  II. 

2.  Figuratively : 

(1)  A  silly  person,  a  simpleton. 

(2)  A  tailor's  smoothing  and  pressing  iron, 
from  the  handle  being  like  the  neck  of  a  goose. 

"  Come  in,  tailor ;  here  you  may  roast  your  goose." 
Shakesp. :  Macbeth,  ii.  3. 

*.(3)  A  game  of  chance  played  on  a  card 
divided  into  small  compartments,  number 
from  one  to  sixty-two,  and  arranged  in  a  spiral 
form  round  an  open  central  space.  It  was 
played  by  two  or  more  persons,  who  moved  their 
counters  over  the  compartments,  according  to 
the  numbers  which  they  threw  on  dice.  The 
name  was  derived  from  the  figure  of  a  goose 
being  depicted  on  every  fourth  and  fifth  com- 
partment in  succession ;  if  the  throw  of  the 
dice  carried  the  counter  of  a  player  on  to  a 
goose  lie  was  entitled  to  move  forward  double 
the  actual  number  thrown. 

II.  Ornithology : 

1.  Sing  :  Any  bird  of  the  genus  Anser.  The 
domestic  goose  is  believed  to  have  descended 
from  Anser  ferus,  called  in  books  the  Greylag 
goose.  The  other  British  species  are,  A.  segetum, 
the  Bean-goose  ;  A.  brachyrhynchus,  the  Pink- 
footed  goose ;  A.  albifrons,  the  White-fronted 
or  Laughing  goose  ;  A.  leucopsis,  the  Bernicle 
goose ;  A.  torqitatus,  the  Brent-goose ;  A. 
ruficollis,  the  Red-breasted  goose  ;  A.  aigyp- 
tiacus,  the  Egyptian  goose  ;  A.  gambensis,  the 
Spur-winged  or  Gambo-goose  ;  and  A.  cana- 
densis, the  Cravat  goose. 

2.  PI.  :  Anserinse,  a  sub-family  of  Anatidse 
(Ducks).  The  body  is  large  and  heavy,  the 
neck  long,  the  head  small,  and  the  bill  conical, 
the  wings  long  and  powerful,  the  feet  some- 
what long,  with  small  toes.  In  summer  they 
inhabit  the  polar  regions,  migrating  southward 
in  flocks  on  the  approach  of  winter.  The  nest, 
which  is  of  coarse  grass,  and  situated  in 
marshy  places,  is  large  ;  the  eggs  several. 

If  Obvious  compounds  :  goose-hera,  goose- 
pie,  &c. 

goose-and-goslings,  s, 

Bot.  :  Orchis  Morio. 

goose-corn,  & 

Bot. :  The  Heath-rush,  Juncus  squarrosus. 
It  is  not  a  genuine  grass.    (Loudon,  &c.) 

goose-dung  ore,  s. 

Min. :  The  same  as  Ganomatite  (q.v.). 

goose-feast,  «.    Michaelmas. 

goose-flesh,  s.  The  same  as  Goose-skin 

t  goose-mussel,  s. 

Zool. .-  A  barnacle.  It  is  not  a  genuine 
mussel,  which  is  a  mollusc,  but  is  a  crusta- 
cean or  crustaceous  family. 

goose-skin,  s.    A  peculiar  roughness  of 
the  human  skin  produced  by  cold,  fear,  &c. 
"  Her  skin  began  to  rise  into  what  ia  vulgarly  termed 
goose-skin. "—Miss  Ferrier  ;  Inheritance,  ch.  ii. 

goose-step,  s. 

Mil. :  The  act  of  a  recruit  in  balancing  him- 
self on  one  foot  while  moving  the  other  back- 
wards and  forwards  without  taking  a  step. 

goose-tansy,  s. 

Bot. :  Potentilla  anserina. 

*T  (1)  To  cook  one's  goose :  To  do  for  one. 

(2)  A  wild  goose  cliase :  A  striving  after  im- 

goose,  v.t.    [Goose,  s.] 

1,  To  hiss  ;  to  condemn  by  hissing.   (Slang.) 
"  He  was  goosed  laBt  night,  he  was  goosed  the  night 
before  last.'  — Dickens :  Hard  Times,  ch.  vi. 

*  2.  To  iron  linen  clothes. 

goose'-ber-ry,  s.  &  a.  [Goose  has  lost  r ;  it 
was  originally  groise  or  grose,  from  0.  Fr. 
groisele,  groselle,  groiselle ;  Ir.groisaid;  Gael. 
groiseid  =  a  gooseberry  ;  Wei.  grwys  =  a  wild 
gooseberry,  from  M.  H.  Ger.  &  Ger.  krU-s  ; 
Dut.  kroes  ;  N.  H.  Ger.  kraus  =  crisp,  crisped. 
Cf.  Scotch  grozet.     (Skeat  &  Mann.)] 

A.  .4s  substantive : 

1.  Ord.  Lang.,  Bot,  &c.  :  The  fruit  of  Ribes 
Grossularia,  also  the  bush  itself.  Sir  Joseph 
Hooker  places  it  under  a  first  section  Grossu- 
laria, of  the  genus  Ribes,  with  the  character 
branches  spinous ;  leaves  plaited  in  bud ; 
peduncles  one  to  three  flowered.  There  are 
two  varieties  of  the  wild  gooseberry,  Ribes 
Grossularia  proper,  with  the  leaves  thinning 
above,  and  the  fruit  glandular  hairy ;  and  R. 
Uva  cri-tpa,  with  the  leaves  smaller  and  the 
ripe  fruit  glabrous.  It  is  wild  in  the  hilly 
districts  in  the  north  of  England,  ascending 
to  nearly  1,000  feet,  elsewhere  in  this  country 
it  is  an  escape.  It  is  indigenous  also  in  con- 
tinental Europe,  in  the  north  of  Africa,  and  in 
the  Himalaya  mountains.  Essentially  a  plant 
of  cold  climates,  the  cultivated  gooseberry 
flourishes  better  in  Scotland  and  the  north  of 
England  than  around  London. 

^[  The  Barbadoes  gooseberry  is  PeresHa 
aculeata;  the  Cape  gooseberry,  Physalis  pubes- 
ceus ;  that  of  Coromandel,  Averrhoa  Caram- 
bola ;  the  Indian  Hill  gooseberry  Rhodomyrtus 
tomentosa,  and  the  Tahiti  gooseberry  Cicca 
dtstieha.    (Treas.  of  Bot.) 

2.  Fig. :  A  silly  person. 

B.  As  adj. :  Of,  belonging  to,  or  resembling 
the  gooseberry. 

If  (1)  To  play  gooseberry :  To  play  propriety  ; 
to  accompany  two  young  lovers  in  public. 

(2)  To  play  old  gooseberry  ;  To  play  the  deuce, 
to  act,  to  throw  everything  into  confusion. 

The    same    as 

gooseberry  -  bush, 

Gooseberry  (q.v.). 

gooseberry  -  fool,  s.  A  compound 
made  of  gooseberries  scalded  and  pounded 
with  cream.     [Fool.] 

"  Then  came  sweets  .  .  .  some  hot,  some  cool. 
Blancmange,  and  quince  custards,  and  gooseberry- 
Barham :  Ingold.  Leg.  ;  Lay  of  St  Romwald. 

gooseberry-moth,  s. 

Entom. :  The  Magpie-moth,  Abraxas  grossu- 
lariata.    [Magpie-moth,  Abraxas.] 

*  godse'-cap,  s.  [Eng.  goose,  and  cap  =  Lat. 
caput  =  the  head.]  A  silly  fellow,  a  simple- 
ton, a  goose. 

"  Why,  wha,t  a  goosecap  would'st  thou  make  me  1 " 
Beaum.  &  Flet.  -.  Beggar's  Bush,  iv.  4. 

goose-foot,  s.  [Eng.  goose;  -foot;  from  the 
shape  of  the  leaves  in  some  species  of  the 

1.  The  genus  Chenopodium  (q.v.). 

2.  Aspalathus  Chenopoda. 
U  The  goosefoot  tribe : 

Bot. :  The  order  Chenopodiacese. 

goose' -grass,  s.  [Eng.  goose,  and  grass;  from 
the  common  idea  that  it  is  a  favourite  food  or 
medicine  for  geese.  ] 

Bot. :  Galium  ApaHne,  a  common  British 
plant.  Its  leaves,  six  or  eight  in  a  whorl,  are 
hispid,  their  margins,  midribr  and  the  angles 
of  the  stem  very  rough,  with  reflexed  prickles, 
which,  if  dragged  along  the  tongae,  will  bring 
blood.  The  Sowers  are  white-.  Called  also 
Cleavers  or  Clivers. 

"  Goosegrms^  or  wild  tansy,  ia  at  weed1  that  strong 
clays  are  very  subject  to." — Mortimer  ;  Eusbartdry. 

boll,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  oat,  cell,  chorus, 
-cian,  -tian  --  shan.    - tion.  -slon  -  shun 

£bin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;   sin,  as;    expect.  Xenophon.  exist.       ing 
;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhiin.    -tious,   -cious,  -sious  =  steus.     -tale,  -die,.  &c.  —  bel,  del. 


gooseneck— gorge 

goose '-neck,  s.     [Eng.  goose,  and  neck.] 

1.  Nautical : 

(1)  An  iron  fitted  at  the  end  of  a  yard  or 
boom  for  various  purposes. 

"  The  gooseneck  must  bespread  out  by  the  armourer." 
— .Warryat:  Peter  Simple,  ch.  vL 

(2)  A  davit. 

2.  Hydraul. :  A  nozzle  having  a  universal- 
joint  connection  to  a  tire-engine  stand-pipe. 

3.  Agrlc.  .-  A  stick  used  in  thatching. 

"  goose  pad  -  die,  r.t.  [Eng.  goose,  and 
paddle.]  To  row  in  an  awkward,  irregular 

goose  -quill,  s.  [Eng.  goose,  and  quill.)  One 
of  the  quills  or  large  wing-feathers  of  a  goose  ; 
a  pen  made  of  such  a  feather. 

*  goos'-er-y,  s.    [Eng.  goose;  -ry.] 

1.  A  place  for  keeping  geese. 

2.  Silliness,  stupidity  like  that  of  a  goose. 

"  Who  will  booh  look  through  and  through  .  .  .  the 
finical  goosenj  of  your  neat  sermon  actor." — Milton: 
Apology  for  Smectyninus. 

goose -share,  a.    [Eng.  goose,  and  share.] 
Hot.:  Galium  Aparine. 

goose -tongue,  s.     [Eng.  goose,  and  tongue.] 
But. :  A  composite  plant,  Achillea  Ptarmica, 
wild  in  Britain. 

goose-wing,  s.    [Eng.  goose,  and  whig.] 

I.  Orel.  Lang.  :  The  wing  of  a  goose  used  as 
a  dust-brush. 

II.  Nautical : 

1.  Another  name  for  a  studding-sail. 

2.  One  of  the  clews  or  lower  corners  of  a 
square  mainsail  or  fore-sail,  when  the  middle 
part  is  furled  or  tied  up. 

gods  -  ey  -  gan-  der,  s.  [Eng.  goose,  and 

1.  A  gander. 

2.  A  silly  fellow,  a  simpleton,  a  goose. 

*gOOt»».     [Goat.] 

gopher  (1),  s.  [Fr.  ganfre=(l)  a  honey- 
comb, (2)  a  wafer,  a  kind  of  cake.] 

Zool. :  A  name  given  by  the  early  French 
settlers  in  America  to  various  animals  which 
honeycomb  the  ground  by  burrowing  in  it. 
In  Canada  and  Illinois  it  was  given  to  a  grey 
burrowing  squirrel,  Spennophilus  Franklini, 
west  of  the  Mississippi  to  S.  Ricliardsonii,  in 
"Wisconsin  to  a  striped  squirrel,  and  in  Mis- 
souri to  a  burrowing-pouched  rat,  Geomys 
bursarius.  All  these  are  mammals ;  but  in 
Georgia  the  term  was  applied  to  a  snake, 
Coluber  eoupen,  and  in  Florida  to  a  turtle, 
Testudo  polypliemus.     {Goodrich  &  Porter.) 

gopher-hole,  s. 

I.  Ord.  Lang. :  The  burrow  of  a  gopher, 
[Gophkb  (1).] 

II.  Fort. :  A  small  bomb-proof  in  a  line  of 
rifle-pits.     {American.) 

"  Against  [mortar  shells]  rifle-pits  are  no  protection, 
and  the  soldiers  burrow  into  the  earth  places  known 
as  gopher-holes." — Harper's  Weekly,  Aug.  6,  1864,  p.  502. 

gd'-pher  (2),  s.  [Heb.  "ip'3  (gopher),  from  the 
obsolete  verb  *1S|  (gdphar)  —  to  cover.]  For 
def.,  see  etyra.  and  compound. 

gopher-wood,  s. 

1.  Scrip. :  The  wood  of  which  Noah's  ark  was 
directed  to  be  made.  Various  attempts  have 
been  made  to  identify  the  tree.  The  most 
probable  view  is  that  it  was  the  cypress  ;  Lat. 
cupressus;  Gr.  Kun-apttro-o?  (kupiarissos) ;  the 
c,  p,  r  of  the  Latin  and  k,  p,  r  of  Greek  being 
the  Hebrew  g,  ph,  r,  differently  pronounced. 

"  Make  thee  an  ark  of  gopher-wood." — Gen.  vL  14. 

2.  Bot. :  Lawso nia  alba. 

*gop'-pish,a.  [Cf.  Icel.  gopi  =  a  vain  person.] 
Proud,  pettish. 

gor'-al,  t>.    [A  Nepaulese  word.] 

Zool. :  Nemorhedus  goral,  an  antelope  found 
in  the  Himalaya  mountains.  It  is  about  the 
size  of  the  common  goat,  has  black  horns 
about  four  and  a  half  inches  long,  the  general 
colour  of  the  body  mouse-gray. 

gbr'-a-my,  gour'-a-mi,  s.  [A  Javanese 

Ichthy. :  Osphromenus  olfax,  a  fish,  a  native 

of  China,  but  has  been  introduced  into  the 
Mauritius,  and  into  remote  Cayenne.  It  is 
about  the  size  of  a  turbot,  possesses  great 
tenacity  of  life  even  when  out  of  the  water, 
and  is  much  valued  for  the  table.  The  female 
is  said  to  form  a  cavity  in  the  sand  for  the 
reception  of  her  eggs. 

gor'-bel-lied,  «.  [Eng.  gorbelly ;  -ed.]  Fat, 

"  Nero  did  not  take 
A  noble  clubfoot,  stripling  ;  ne'er  contract 
With  one  throat-swoln,  gorbellied,  ur  crump-backed. " 
Holiday ;  Juvenal,  sat  x. 

*  gor'-bel-ly,  5.  [A.S.  gov  =  dirt,  filth,  and 
Eng.  belly.] 

1.  A  fat  belly  or  paunch. 

"  With  crump  shoulders,  side,  and  gorbcllies."  — 
P.  Holland :  Camden,  p.  53. 

2.  A  fat-bellied  person. 

gorce,  s.  [Norm.-Fr.  gorse;  O.  Fr.  gorge,  from 
Lat.  gurges  =  a  whirlpool.]  A  weir ;  a  pool 
of  water  to  keep  fish  in. 

gor'-COCk,  s.  [Etym.  of  first  element  doubt- 
ful, but  perhaps  A.  S.  gor  =  dirt  ;  Eng,  code] 
The  moor-cock,  red-grouse,  or  red-game. 

"  'Mongst  desert  hills,  where,  leagues  around. 
Dwelt  but  the  goreoek  and  the  deer." 

Scott:  Bridal  of  Triermain,  iii.  6. 

gor'-crow,  gore-crow,  s.  [A.S.  #or=dirt, 
filth,  and  Eng.  crew.]    The  carrion-crow. 

"  It  will  also  eat  grain  and  insects,  and  like  the 
raven  will  pick  out  the  eyes  of  young  lambs  when 
just  dropped,  for  which  reason  it  was  formerly  dis- 
tinguished from  the  rook,  which  feeds  entirely  on 
grain  and  insects,  by  the  name  of  the  gor  or  yorewow." 
— Pennant:  British  Zoology ;  Carrion  Crow. 

gor-dl-a'-ce-a,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  goreli(us), 
and  Lat.  neat.  pi.  adj.  sutf.  -acea.] 

Zool.  :  Hair-worms :  an  order  pf  Scolecida, 
consisting  of  vermiform  or  thread-like  animals 
with  distinct  sexes,  having  their  alimentary 
canal,  if  present  at  all,  imperfectly  developed, 
and  their  water-vascular  system  rudimentary 
or  absent.  During  a  portion  of  their  existence 
they  live  in  the  interior  of  insects. 

gor'-di-an,  a.  [Named  after  Gordius,  a  half 
mythic  king  of  Phrygia,  father  of  Midas.]  Of 
or  pertaining  to  Gordius,  or  the  knot  tied 

by  him  :  hence,  intricate,  complicated. 

gordian  -  knot,  s.  A  knot  tied  by 
Gordius  in  the  rope  which  bound  the  yoke  of 
his  chariot  to  the  draught-tree  in  such  an  art- 
ful manner  that  the  ends  of  the  cord  could 
not  be  perceived.  So  intricate  was  it  that  the 
report  went  abroad  that  the  empire  of  Asia 
was  promised  by  the  oracle  to  him  who  could 
untie  it.  Alexander  the  Great,  wishing  to  in- 
spire his  soldiers  with  courage  and  his  enemies 
with  the  belief  that  he  was  born  to  conquer 
Asia,  cut  the  knot  with  his  sword,  and  so 
claimed  to  have  fulfilled  the  oracle.  Hence,  the 
term  gentian-knot  is  used  for  any  apparantly 
inextricable  difficulty  or  deadlock  ;  and  to  cut 
tlie,  gordian-knot  is  equivalent  to  removing 
or  solving  a  difficulty  by  bold  or  unusual 

"Whatsoever  it  was,  I  mu3t  be  fain  to  leave  it  as  a 
Gordian-knot,  wnich  no  writer  helps  ine  to  untie," — 
Baker:  King  Stephen  (an.  1154). 

*  gor'-di-an,  v.t.     [Gordian,  «.]    To  knot  or 

tie  up. 

"Locks  .  .  .  simply  gordian  ed  up  and  braided." 

KeaU  :  Endymlon,  bk.  i. 

gor'-di-iis,  s.  (pi  gor'-di-i).    [Gordian.] 

Zool. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  order  Gor- 
diacese  (q.v.).  It  consists  of  those  extra- 
ordinarily thin  and  long  inhabitants  of  the 
water,  popularly  believed,  at  least  till  recently, 
to  be  animated  horse-hairs,  and  producible 
by  the  simple  process  of  putting  horse-hairs 
into  a  pond,  ditch,  or  country  well.  After  a 
time  they  bore  their  way  into  the  bodies  of 
insects.  When  mature  they  quit  their  insect 
residence  and,  returning  to  the  liquid  element, 
deposit  their  eggs  in  long  chains.  When  gordii 
are  dried  they  become  hard  and  brittle,  and 
apparently  dead,  but  water  returns  them  to 
their  wonted  suppleness  and  vitality.  Gordius 
aquaticus  is  the  Common  Hair-worm. 

gore  (1),  s,  [A.S.  gor  =  filth,  dirt :  cogn.  with 
Icel.  gor  —  gore,  the  cud  in  animals  ;  Sw. 
gorr  =  dirt,  matter  :  cf.  Gr.  xopSij  (chorde)  = 
a  gut,  a  cord ;  Lat.  hira  =  gut ;  Icel.  gamir, 
gorn  =  guts.] 
*  1.  Dirt,  filth. 

"  Gore  and  ferr  and  full  wast 
That  was  out  ykast."    Lybeaus  Dtsconus,  1,471. 

out  at  any  part;  a 

2.  Clotted  or  congealed  blood  ;  blood  which 
has  become  inspissated  after  effusion. 

"  But  the  bloody  fact 

Will  be  avenged,  and  th'  other's  faith  iippp-'yed 
Lose  no  reward,  though  here  thou  see  him  die, 
Rolling  iii  dust  and  gore."      Milton :  P.  L.,  xi.  460. 

*  3.  Blood  flowing  from,  a  wound. 

."  Now    warriors,  grieve  no  more  ; 
Lo,  there  the  Trojans  !  bathe  your  swords  In  wore." 
Pope :  Homer ;  Iliad  xv.  240. 

*  1.  Filth,  loathsomeness,  wickedness. 

"  With  her  vn  worth  el^-eh  werk  me  wlatez  withiune 
The  gore  ther  uf  me  hatz  greued." 

E.  Eng.  AH  it.  Poems;  Cleanness,  30o. 

*  5.  A  clotted  mass. 

"  They  were  in  one  gore  of  blood,"— &■  Brooke :  Fool 
of  Quality,  i.  68. 

*  gore-blood,  *  goare-bloud,  s.    Gore, 

"Downe  strait  he  falles,  &  armour  large  with  goarc- 
Woiirfembrues."     Phaer.  .-   Virgill ;  .Eneidos  xii. 

gore  (2),  *■  gair,  *gare,  "goore,  s.  [A.S. 
gdra  =  a  projecting  point  of  land,  from  gar  = 
a  spear ;  Icel.  geiri  =  a  triangular  piece  of 
land  :  geirr  =  a  spear  ;  O.  H.  Ger.  kero  ;  M.  H. 
Ger.  gere  =  a  promontory  ;  Ger.  gehre  =  a 
wedge,  a  gusset ;  Dut.  geer  =  &  gusset,  a  gore.] 
L  Ordinary  Language : 

I.  A  triangular  or  wedge-shaped  piece  :  as— 

(1)  A  triangular  piece  sewed  into  a  dress, 
a  sail,  &c.j  to  widen  it 

(2)  An  angular  piece  of  planking  used  in 
fitting  the  skin  of  a  vessel  to  the  frames. 

*  (3)  A  triangular  or  pointed  piece  of  land. 

*  2.  Dress. 

"  Geynest  under  gore,  herkne  to  my  roune." 

Lyric  Poems,  p.  29. 

II.  Her.  :  A  charge  consisting  of  two  curved 
lines,  one  from  the  sinis- 
ter chief  point,  the  other 
from  the  base  middle 
point,  meeting  in  an 
acute  angle  in  the  middle 
of  the  fesse  point. 

gore-bill,  s.  A  name 

given  to  the  garfish  (q.v.) 
from  its  long  beak  or  nose. 

gore-strake,  s.  GOre. 

Ship-build.  :   A  strake 
which  terminates  before  reaching  the  stem  or 
stern-post.     Such  strakes  are  at  or  near  the 
centre  of  the  ship  to  lessen  the  spiling  of  the 

gore  (1),  v.t.    [A.S.  gar  =  a  spear  ;  Icel.  gein  ; 
M.  H.  Ger.  ger;  O.  H.  Ger.  Ur.] 

1.  To  pierce,  to  stab,  to  penetrate  with  a 
pointed  instrument. 

"  0  let  no  noble  eye  profane  a  tear 
r-  For  me,  if  I  be  gored  with  Mowbray's  spear." 
Sfiakesp. :  Richard  II..  i.  3. 

2.  To  pierce  as  with  a  horn. 

"  An  ox  that  attempts  to  gore  the  attendants." — 
Cogan:  Ethical  Treatise,  Dis.  2,  §  1. 

*  3.  To  wound,  to  tear,  to  lacerate. 

"  The  willing  redbreast,  flying  through  a  thorne, 
Against  a  prickle  gored  his  tender  side." 

Browne  :  The  shepherd's  Pipe,  Eel.  1. 

*gbre  (2),  v.i.     [Gore(1),  s.]    To  bleed  pro- 

gore  (3),  v.t.    [Gore  (2),  s.] 

*  1.  To  break  a  passage  into,  as  with  a  wedge. 

"And  now,  their  mightiest  quelled,  the  battle  swerved, 
With  many  an  iurodeffored."    Milton  ;  P.  /,„  vi,  587. 

2.  To  cut  in  a  triangular  shape;  to  furnish 
with  a  gore  or  gores. 

gor -fly,  s.    [\.i 

species  of  fly. 


■■  dung;  Eng.  jfy.J    A 

gorge,  s.     [Fr.,  from  Low  Lat.  gorgia  =    the 
throat,  a  narrow  pass  ;  Lat.  gurges  =  an  abyss; 
the  throat ;  Ital.  gorga,  gorjia.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  The  throat,  the  gullet. 

"  He  with  him  closed,  and,  laying  mighty  hold 
Upon  his  throte  did  gripe  his  gorge  so  fast 
That  wanting  breath  him  down  to  ground  he  cast." 
Spenser:  F.  Q.,  VI.  iv.  22." 

2.  That  which  is  swallowed  oe  gorged; 
swallowed  food  caused  to  rise  by  nausea  or 

"  And  all  the  way,  most  like  a  brutish  beast 
He  spewed  vp  his  gorge,  that  all  did  him  deteast.- 
Spenser:  F.  Q.,  I.  iv.  21. 

3.  The  act  of  gorging  ;  a  heavy  meal. 

"  T!ie  cpunseler  heareth  causes  with  lease  pain  beinc 
emptie,  then  he  shal  be  able  after  a.  fal  oorae  "~Wd 
son  :  Arte  of  Jlhetoru/ue,  p.  112. 

fate,  fSt,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine  ;  go,  pot, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son ;   mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,    se,  ce  —  e ;  ey  =  a.     q,u  =  Itw.. 

gorge— gormandise 


4.  A  narrow  passage  or  entrance ;  a  pass 
between  hills. 

"  I  heeded  not  the  eddying  surge  ; 
Mine  eye  but  saw  the  Trosach's  gorge." 

Scott:  Lady  of  the  Lake,  vi.  19. 

5.  Disgust.    (Shalcesp.  1  Hamlet,  v.  1.) 
*  6.  Indignation,  temper. 

"My  gorge  began  to  rise.  'Yes,'  said  I,  sulkily,  'iny 
family  does  live  at  Richmond.'"—  Washington  Irving: 
lialph  Ringwood. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Arch. :  The  narrowest  part  of  the  Tuscan 
and  Doric  capitals  between  the  astragal,  above 
fhe  shaft  of  the  column,  and  the  annulets  ; 
also,  a  cavetto  or  hollow  moulding. 

2.  Fort. :  A  line  joining  the  inner  extremi- 
ties of  a  work;  as— 

(1)  A  line  drawn  between  the  rear  ends  of 
the  faces  of  a  redan. 

(2)  A  line  across  the  narrow  portion  of  a 
bastion,  from  the  points  of  junction  of  its 
flanks  with  the  curtains. 

3.  Mason.  :  A  small  groove  at  the  underside 
of  a  coping,  to  keep  the  drip  from  reaching  tlie 
wall ;  a  throat. 

4.  Naut. :  The  groove  or  score  of  a  pulley. 

gorge-hook,  s.  Two  fish-hooks  separated 
by  a  piece  of  lead. 

gorge,  v.t.  &  i.     [Fr.  gorger.]    [Gorge,  s.] 

A.  Transitive  : 

1.  To  swallow  greedily  or  in  large  mouthfuls. 
"  Dislodging  from  a  region  scarce  of  prey, 

To  gorge  the  flesh  of  lambs*  or  yeanfing  kids." 
Milton:  P.  L.,  iii.  434. 

2.  To  fill  up  to  the  throat,  to  glut,  to  satiate. 
"  The  full-fed  hound  or  gorged  hawk, 

Unapt  for  teuder  smell  or  speedy  flight, 

Make  slow  pursuit  or  altogether  balk." 

Shafcesp.:  Rape  of  Lucrece,  G94. 

3.  To  fill  to  overflowing,  to  glnt. 

"A  house  in  England  which  has  been  gorged  with 
undeserved  riches.'—  Maeaulay:  Hist,  Eng.,  ch.  xxiii. 

B.  Intrans. .  To  feed  greedily,  to  stuff  one- 

"When  the  Bushmen  of  South  Africa  have  enough 
food,  they  gorge  and  sleep." — Lindsay  :  Mind  in  the 
Lower  Animals,  i.  41. 

¥  gorged*  a.     [Eng.  gorge,  s.  ;  -ed.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  Having  a  gorge,  or  throat ; 

2.  Her. :    Encircled  round    the  throat,   as 
when  an  animal  is  repre- 
sented bearing  a  crown  or 
the  like  round  the  neck. 
It  is  blazoned  as 
with  a  crown,  &c. 

gor'-ge-ous,  a.     [O.  Fr. 

gorgias,  gorgiais  =  gor- 
geous, from  gorgias  =  a 
gorget,  from  gorge  =  the 
throat.]  Splendid,  mag- 
nificent, showy,  glittering  gorged. 
with  splendid  colours, 
resplendent,  sumptuously  adorned,  or  gay. 

gorgeous  tabards."— Maeatday-'  Hist.  Eng,,  ch.  x. 

gor'-ge-oiis-ly,  adv.      [Eng.   gorgeous;  -ly.] 
In  a  gorgeous  manner,   splendidly,  magnifi- 
cently :  with  showy  magnificence. 
"  Golden  and  red  above  it 
The  clouds  float  gorgi-ously." 

Longfellow  •  The  Castle  by  the  Sea. 

gor'-ge-ous-ness»  s.  [Eng.  gorgeous ;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  gorgeous  ;  showy 
or  sumptuous  magnificence  ;  splendour. 

"  It  seemed  to  outvye  whatever  had  been  seene  be- 
fore of  gallantry  and  riches,  and  gorgeousiiesx  of 
apparel."— Baker:  Charles  II.  (an.  1661.) 

*  gorg'-er ,  *  gorg-ere,  a.  [O.  Fr.  gorgierc, 
from  gorge  =  the  throat ;  Ital.  gorgiera.] 

1.  A  piece  of   armour    for  the  throat  ;    a 


"Hys  vyser  and  his  gorgere. 

Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  521. 

2.  A  kerchief  for  the  neck. 

;  gor'-ger-in,    «.        [Fr.,    from   gorge—  the 

Arch.  :  The  neck  of  a  capital ;  more  com- 
monly the  pnrt  forming  the  junction  between 
the  shaft  and  the  capital. 

gor'-get,  s.      [Fr.   gorgette,  from  gorge  =  the 

-*  1.  Arm. :  A  metal  covering  for  the  throat, 
worn  by  an  armed  man,  to  protect  the  junc- 

ture between  the  helmet  and  the  breast-plate  ; 
also  a  kind  of  breast-plate  like  a  half-moon. 
The  camail  (q.v.),  or  throat  covering  of  chain- 
mail,  is  sometimes  called  the  gorget  of  mail. 

"See  how  his  gorget  peers  above  his  gown 
To  tell  the  people  in  what  danger  he  was." 

Den  Jonson :  Catiline,  iv.  2. 

*  2.  Dress :  A  kind  of  ruff  formerly  worn  by 

3.  Mil. :  A  small, 
crescent-  shaped, 
metallic  ornament 
worn  on  the  breast 
by  officers  on  duty. 
The  gorget  was  the 
last  remnant  of  body 
armour  worn  by  in- 
fantry in  England. 

4.  Surgery : 

(1)  A    lithotomic 
cutting-instrument.  oorget. 

(2)  A  canulated  or 

concave  conductor  used  in  operation  for  fis- 
tula ;  called  also  a  blunt  gorget. 

Gor-gon,  s.  &  a.  [Lat.  Gorgon,  Gorgo,  from 
Gr  ropyw  (Gorgo)  —  the  Gorgon,  from  yopvos 
(gorgos)  =  fearful,  terrible.] 

A.  As  substantive : 

1.  Lit.  &  Gr.  Mythol.  :  One  of  three  female 
monsters  of  terrible  aspect.  They  were  the 
daughters  of  Phorcys  and  Ceto,  and  were 
named  Euryale,  Stheno,  and  Medusa,  the  two 
first  being  immortal.  Their  hair  was  entwined 
with  serpents,  their  hands  were  of  brass,  their 
bodies  covered  with  impenetrable  scales,  their 
teeth  resembling  the  tusks  of  a  wild  boar,  and 
their  eyes  possessing  the  power  of  turning  all 
on  whom  they  fixed  them  to  stone.  By  the 
aid  of  Minerva  they  were  finally  conquered  by 
Perseus,  and  the  drops  of  blood  which  fell 
to  the  ground  from  Medusa's  head  were 
changed  into  serpents,  which  have  ever  since 
infested  the  sandy  deserts  of  Libya.  The  head 
was  placed  on  the  aegis  of  Minerva,  and  re- 
tained its  power  of  turning  the  beholder  into 

"  But  brave  Aconteus,  Perseus'  friend,  by  chance 
Looked  back,  and  met  the  Gorgon's  fatal  glance." 
Maynwaring :  Ovid;  Metamorphoses  iv. 

2.  Fig. :  Anything  very  ugly  or  horrid ;  a 
woman  of  repulsive  manners  or  appearance. 

B.  As  adj. :  Like  a  Gorgon  ;  terrific ;  fearful. 

"  Pallas,  holding  forth 
The  terror  of  the  Gorgon  shield  iu  vain." 

C'owper:  Nature  Unimpaired  by  Time. 

gorgon  steam-engine,  s.    A  form  of 

direct-acting  steam-engine,  invented  as  a 
means  of  obviating  the  use  of  the  beam  in 
marine-engines.  It  is  called  the  "Gorgon" 
engine,  from  having  been  first  employed  in  an 
English  government  steamer  of  that  name. 

gor-go'-ne-an,  gor-go'-m-an,  a.  [Lat. 
Gorgoneus,  from  Gorgon,  or  Gorgo  =  a  Gorgon  ; 
Gr.  ropyoretos  (Gorgoneios).'] 

1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  Gorgon  ;  like  a  Gor- 
gon ;  terrific. 

"  Medusa,  with  Gorgonian  terror,  guards 
The  ford."  MUton;  P.  L.,  ii.  611. 

2.  As  though  caused  by  a  Gorgon  ;  petrified  ; 


"  The  rest  his  look 
Bound  with  Gorgonian  vigour  not  to  move." 

Milton:  P.  L.,  x.  297. 

gor-go-nei'-a,  s.  pi.  [Gr.,  neut.  pi.  of  ropyo- 
veios  (Gorgoneios)  =  pertaining  to  a  Gorgon; 
Topyoi  (Gorgo)=a,  Gorgon.] 

Arch.  ;  Masks  in  relief  representing  the  Gor- 
gon's or  Medusa's  head  ;  one  of  the  grotesque 
representations  of  forms  of  terror  which  oc- 
cupied a  considerable  rank  in  the  plastic  art 
of  the  Greeks.  They  were  used  as  key-stones 
in  an  arch. 

gor-go'-ni-a,  s.  [Lat.,  =  a  kind  of  coral  with 
a  rigid  framework.    (Plivy.y] 

Zool. :  Sea-fan  ;  the  typical  genus  of  the 
family  Gorgonidae  (q.v.).  The  selerobasis  is 
horny  and  more  or  less  arborescent.  Four 
species  are  described  by  Johnson  as  British. 

gor-go'-ni-an,  a.    [Gorgonean.] 

*  gor-gon' -l-calf  a.  [Eng.  gorgon;  -icol.] 
The  same  as  Gorgonean  (q.v.). 

gor-gon'-i-dse,  s.  pi*.  [Lat.  gorgonia,  and 
fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idee.] 

1.  Zool.  ;  Sea-shrubs  ;  a  family  of  Aetinozoa, 
order  A\cy  on&ria,  (Asteroid  ]'>oly2ies).  Thecceno- 

sarc,  which  is  arborescent,  is  permanently 
rooted,  and  has  a  grooved  or  furrowed  branch- 
ing selerobasis  with  dermosclerites — i.e., 
tissue  secretions.  The  species  occur  mostly 
in  shallow  water  in  the  warmer  seas,  attaining 
their  maximum  in  the  tropics.  Besides  Gor- 
gonia, the  family  contains  the  genus  Corallium, 
of  which  the  type  is  Corallium  rubrum,  the  red 
coral  of  commerce. 

2.  Palceont. :  The  Gorgonidae  have  existed 
at  least  from  Eocene  and  perhaps  from  Oolitic 

gor'-gon-ize,  v.t.  [Eng.  gorgon;  -ize.]  To 
petrify  as  though  by  the  glance  of  a  Gorgon  ; 
to  turn  to  stone. 

"Whose  eies  so  gorgonized  that  can  endure 
To  see  the  all-upholder  forced  to  bow  " 

Davies  :  Holy  Roode,  p.  15. 

gor'-hen,  s.  [Gorcock.]  The  female  of  the 

gor-il'-la,  s.  [The  name  was  found  current 
in  parts  of  "Western  Africa,  when,  in  the  fifth 
century  B.C.,  the  Carthaginian  navigator 
Hanno  -visited  it  on  his  exploratory  and 
colonizing  expedition.  It  was  applied,  how- 
ever, not  to  an  ape,  but  to  a  negro  tribe, 
members  of  which  he  invited  to  Carthage,  but 
they  could  not  be  prevailed  upon  to  accom- 
pany him.] 

Zool. ;  A  celebrated  anthropoid  ape  (Trog- 
lodytes Gorilla),  generally  believed  to  come 
nearer  than  any  known  one  to  man,  though 
some  contend  that  the  affinity  of  the  gibbon  is 
closer.  [Gibbon.]  The  number  of  teeth  in 
the  gorilla,  and  all  the  old  world  monkeys, 
except  the  lemurs,  is  thirty-two,  the  same  as 
in  man.  The  hand  has  the  same  bones  as  in 
man.  Professor  Huxley  considers  Cuvier's 
order  Quadrumana  (four-handed)  inaccurate, 
maintaining  that  the  hinder  extremities  of  all 
the  monkeys  and  lemurs  are  framed  anatomi- 
cally as  feet  and  not  hands.  The  height  is 
about  five  feet,  almost  the  same  as  man.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  greatest  capacity  of  the 
gorilla's  brain  is  only  34$  cubic  inches,  the 
least  23,  against  G2  in  the  least  capacious 
human  skull,  and  114  in  the  greatest.  The 
formidable  canines,  so  conspicuous  in  the 
specimens  in  the  Natural  History  Department 
of  the  British  Museum  at  South  Kensington, 
look  very  brutal,  but  they  are  only  sexual 
characteristics,  being  of  more  moderate  size  in 
the  female.  The  low  facial  angle  also,  and  the 
abundant  hair,  with  the  extraordinary  breadth 
of  the  chest,  diminish  the  resemblance.  The 
last-mentioned  characteristic  imparts  to  the 
animal  colossal  strength,  which  it  is  said  to 
use  in  its  native  haunts  against  man.  It  is  a 
native  of  Lower  Guinea  and  the  interior  of 
equinoctial  Africa.  It  has  a  congener  in  the 
same  region,  Troglodytes  niger,  the  Chim- 
panzee (q.v.). 

gor'-ing  (1),  pr.  par.,  >:.,  &  s.    [Gore  (1),  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  £  particip.  adj.  :  (See 
the  verb). 
C.  As  subst. .  A  prick,  a  puncture. 

gor'-ing  (2),  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Gore  (3),  v.] 

A.  As  pa.  par. :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective : 

Naut. :  A  term  applied  to  a  sail  cut  gradu- 
ally sloping,  so  as  to  be  broader  at  the  clew 
than  at  the  earing. 

C.  -4s  substantive  : 

Naut. :  That  part  of  the  skirts  of  a  sail 
where  it  gradually  widens  towards  the  bottom 
or  foot ;  a  goring-cloth. 

goring  cloth,  s. 

Naut. :  The  same  as  Goring  (2),  C. 

gor'-mand,  s.  &  a.  [Fr.  gourmand.]  [Gour- 
mand. ]" 

A.  As  subst. :  A  greedy  or  ravenous  eater;  a 

glutton,  a  gourmand. 

■'  Many  are  made  gormands  and  gluttons  by  custom 
that  are  not  so  by  nature." — Locke. 

B.  As  adj.:  Greedy,  gluttonous,  voracious, 

"  The  sillie  sauls,  that  bene  Chris  tea  sheip, 
Sould  nocht  be  givin  to  gormand  u-olfts  to  kein." 
Lyndsay,  <»'.  /'.  R.,  ii.  235. 

*  gor'-mand-erf  s.    [Gourmander.] 

1  gor'-mand-l§e,  s.  [0.  Fr.  gourmandise.l 
Gluttony,  greediness. 

"  With  the  fish  which  in  your  banks  do  breed 
And  daily  there  increase,  man's  gormandise  can  feed." 
Drayton  :  Poly-Olbion,  a.  •!. 

boll,  boy;  pout,  jo%l;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph      f. 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,    sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c  =  bel,  deL 


gormandism— gossamer 

*gor'-mand-ism,  s.  [Bng.  gormand;  -ism.] 
Gluttony.         * 

gor'-mand  lze,  v.i.  &  t,    [Gormandise,  s.] 
A.  Jntrans.  :    To    eat   greedily    or   like    a 
glutton;  to  gorge. 

"  Who  on  occasion  in  a  dark  hole 
Can  gormandize  ou  lighted  charcoal" 

King :  Orpheus  &  Eurpdice. 

H,  Trans.:  To  swallow  anything  greedily. 
"  The  pampered  stomach,  more  than  well  sufficed, 
Casts  up  the  surfeit  lately  gormandized." 

Drayton :  Baron's  Wars,  vi.  28. 

gOf-man-dl-zer,  s.  [Bng.  gormandise); 
•er.]  One  who,  gormandizes;  a  glutton;  a 
greedy  or  voracious  eater. 



?orse,  *gorst,  *gorste,  s.  [A.S.  gorst 
=  a  bramble-bush,  the  origin  of  which  is  un- 

Bot. :  One  of  the  names  of  the  Furze,  or 
Whin  (Ulex  europmts). 

"There's  neither  Johnny  nor  his  horse 
Among  the  fern  or  in  the  gorge." 

Wordsworth :  Idiot  Boy. 

gor'-S^,  gors'-ty,  a.  [Eng.  gors(e)  ;  -J/,]  Of 
the  nature  of,  resembling,  or  abounding  in 

gor-ter'-l-a,  s.  [Named  after  David  Gorter, 
Professor  of  Botany  at  Hardewyok.] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  sub-tribe 
Gorteriese  (q.v.).  They  are  herbaceous  plants 
from  South  Africa. 

gor-ter'-i-e-flB,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  gorteri(a), 
and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ece.] 

Bot. :  A  sub-tribe  of  composite  plants,  tribe 
Cyn  areas. 

gor-ty'-na,  s.  [Lat.  Gortyna,  Gortys,  Gortyn 
(from  Gr.)*  =  (I)  a  city  in  the  Morea,  now  in 
ruins  ;  (2)  a  city  in  Crete.] 

Entom. :  A  genus  of  moths,  family  Apamidse. 
Gortyna  fiavago  is  the  Frosted  Orange. 

g6Y-y,    *goar'-y,  a.     [Eng.  gore(\),  s.  ;  -y.] 

1.  Covered  with  gore  or  congealed  blood. 

"  Hospitahle  beds 
To  rest  the  stranger,  or  the  gory  chief." 

Dyer :  Fleece,  bk.  ii. 

2.  Bloody,  deadly,  murderous. 

"  The  obligation  of  our  blood  forbids 
A  gory  emulation  'twixt  us  twain." 

Shakesp.  :  Troilus  &  Cressida,  iv,  5. 

gory-dew,  s. 

Bot. :  Palmella  omenta,  an  algal  of  simple 
organization,  common  on  damp  walls  in  shady 
places.  It  appears  at  first  in  the  form  of  rosy 
gelatinous  patches,  ultimately  becoming  con- 
fluent over  a  wide  expanse,  presenting  the 
appearance  of  coagulated  venous  blood,  whence 
its  English  name.     (Griffith  &  Henfrey,  &c.) 

*gOS,  s.     [Goose.] 

gosba,  ».    [Arab.] 

Mus. :  An  Arabian  flute.  There  are  two 
sorts  of  the  gosba,  the  one  with  three  holes  in 
the  lower  extremity,  producing  four  sounds 
■which,  with  their  harmonics  at  the  fifth,  com- 
plete the  octave.  The  instrument  is  employed 
to  guide  the  voice  of  a  singer.  ,  The  other 
gosba  is  larger  and  pierced  with  six  holes, 
with  a  double  hole  at  the  back.  (Stainer  & 
Barrett. ) 

gOB  -hawk,  gos-hauk,  s.     [Properly  goose- 
hawk;  from  A.S.  gdshafiic,  from  gds  =  a  goose, 
.  and  hafuc  =  a  hawk  ;  Icel.  gds-haukr.] 

Ornith. :  Astur  palumbarius,  a  bird  of  prey 
found  in  Britain,  &c.  It  is  brown  above, 
white  underneath,  barred  across  with  brown, 
with  fi  ve  browner  bands  on  the  tail ;  the  eye- 
lids whitish.  When  immature  it  has  dots 
instead  of  bars.  The  female  is  twenty-four 
or  twenty-five  inches  long,  the  male  almost 
one-third  less.  It  is  rare  in  Britain,  but 
abundant  in  parts  of  the  European  continent. 
It  occurs  also  in  the  north  of  Africa,  in 
America,  in  India,  &c.  It  can  be  used,  as  it 
often  is  in  the  East  Indies,  for  falconry.  _  It 
pursues  its  prey  directly,  instead  of  swooping 
down  upon  it  from  above  like  a  falcon. 

"  The  goshawk  was  in  high  esteem  among  falconers." 
—Pennant :  British  Zoology ;  Goshawk. 

gd'-shen-ite,   s.     [Named  from  Goshen,  in 
Massachusetts,  where  it  occurs.] 
Min.  .-  A  variety  of  beryl. 

gos'-lar-ite,  s.    [From  Goslar,  in  the  Harz, 
where  it  occurs.] 

Min. .-  An  orthorhombic,  white,  reddish, 
bluish,  transparent  or  translucent,  brittle 
mineral,  of  vitreous  lustre  and  nauseous  taste. 
Hardness,  2to2'5  ;  sp.  gr.,  l-9to2'l.  Compos. : 
Sulphuric  acid,  27*9  ;  oxide  of  zinc,  28*2  ;  water, 
43-9.  Found  in  mines  at  Holywell,  in  Wales  ; 
at  Fahlun,  in  Sweden,  &c.  Called  also  Gal- 
litzenite  (q.v.). 

gos'-ling,  *ges-lyng,  *gos-lyng,  *gos- 
lynge,  s.  &  a.  [A.S.  gds  =  a  goose,  and  Eng. 
djmin.  suff.  -ling.] 

A.  As  substantive : 

1.  A  young  goose ;  a  goose  not  yet  full 

"ni  never 
Be  such  a  gosling  to  obey  instinct" 

Sfiakesp. :  Coriolanus,  v.  3. 

2.  A  catkin  on  nut-trees  and  pines. 

3.  An  unfledged  bird. 

4.  A  goose,  a  silly  fellow,  a  simpleton. 

B.  As  adj. :  Silly,  stupid. 

"  Surprised  at  all  they  met,  the  gosling  pair  .  .  . 
Discover  huge  cathedrals,  built  with  stone." 

Cowper :  Progress  of  Error,  379. 

gos'-pel,  *  gods-pel,  *godds-pel,  *gods- 
pelle,  *  gos-pelle,  s.  &  a.  [A.S.  godspell, 
from  god  =  God,  and  spell  =  a  story,  a  history ; 
Icel.  gudhspjall  =  God-story  ;  O.  H.  Ger.  gots- 
pel.  It  is  not  from  A.S.  gdd  =  good,  and  spell, 
though  this  derivation  would  exactly  agree 
with  the  Gr.  euayyeAioi/  (euanggelion)  =  good 
message,  from  ev  (eu)  =  well,  and  ayyeAos 
(anggetos)  =  a  messenger.] 

A.  As  substantive : 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Literally : 

(1)  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  1. 

(2)  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  2. 

2.  Figuratively : 

(1)  Anything  which  announces  good  news, 
political,  social,  personal,  or  of  any  other 

(2)  Anything  accepted  as  infallibly  true ; 
as,  You  must  not  take  the  words  just  for 

(3)  Anything  constituting  a  powerful  prin- 
ciple of  action. 
II.  Technically : 

1.  Scrip.  &  TheoV:  A  term  signifying  good 
news,  founded  originally  on  certain  words 
used  by  the  angel  in  the  annunication  of 
the  Saviour's  birth:  ''Behold,  I  bring  you 
good  tidings  of  great  joy  "  (Luke  ii.  10).  It  is 
generally  held  to  signify  salvation  through 
the  atoning  death  of  Christ. 

"  Go  ye  into  all  the  world,  and  preach  the  gospel  to 
every  creature." — Matthew  xvi.  15. 

5T  Some  minor  Christian  sects  adopt  the 
word  Gospel  in  this  sense  as  part  of  their 
name.  In  the  Registrar-General's  report  for 
1S83  of  registered  places  of  worship,  the  fol- 
lowing sects  figure  :  (1)  Gospel  Army  Mission, 
(2)  Gospel  Band,  and  (3)  Gospel  Temperance 
Blue  Ribbon  Army,  Nos.  1  and  2  appearing 
for  the  first  time  in  the  list. 

2.  Script.  Canon,  <£c. :  The  four  canonical 
records  of  our  Saviour's  life,  by  St.  Matthew, 
St.  Mark,  St.  Luke,  and  St.  John.  This  signi- 
fication of  the  word  is  derived  from  the  first 
one.  It  is  the  historical  narrative  of  that  first 
advent  of  Christ,  the  announcement  of  which 
was  disclosed  by  the  angel  to  be  good  tidings 
[ii.  1].  The  titles  are  not  worded  the  Gospel 
by  Matthew,  by  Mark,  &c.  ;  it  is  the  Gospel 
according  to  Matthew,  according  to  Mark,  &c. 
This  implies  that  the  gospel  is  that  of  God 
(Rom.  xv.  16 ;  1  Thess.  ii.  2,  &c.)  or  of  Christ 
(Mark  i.  1;  Rom.  i.  16,  &c.)  as  related  by 
Matthew,  by  Mark,  &c.  In, one  place,  how- 
ever, St.  Paul  says  "  my  gospel "  (1  Tim.  ii.  8). 
In  the  New  Testament  the  word  gospel,  evay- 
yeKiov  {euanggelion)  is  used  only  of  communi- 
cations made  orally.  The  earliest  known  use 
of  the  term  for  written  accounts  of  the  Sa- 
viour's life,  is  in  Justin  Martyr's  first  "Apo- 
logy," about  a.d.,150.  He  speaks  of  "  Memo- 
ries of  the  Apostles,  called  Gospels."  Irenseus, 
Bishop  of  Lyons  from  177  to  202,  used  the 
word  gospel  for  the  four  evangelical  narratives 
taken  collectively  [Canon]  ;  but  he  also  employs 
it  of  each  of  them  taken  separately,  and 
speaks  of  their  "fourfoldness."  He  places 
them  in  the  order  -which  now  obtains,  as  do 
Clement  of  Alexandria,  Origen,  Eusebius,  and 
the  early  church  generally.  Some  investigators 
however,  think  that  Mark's  gospel  comes  first 
in  time  ;  that  the  next  was  perhaps  Matthew, 
that  Luke  was  the  third,  and  John  certainly 

the  last.  The  first  three  are  called  syjjpte, 
because  they  all  look  at  the  events  wh *h  tftey 
describe  from  the  same  point  of  view  , while 
the  stand-point  of  John  is  quite  ^ffeient 
[Synoptic]  Though  the  Gospels  stand  in  the 
New  Testament  before  the  Epistles,  some  of 
the  latter  undoubtedly  preceded  them  in  point 
of  time.     [John,  Luke,  Mark,  Matthew.] 

3  Jiturqy  •  The  part  of  the  gospels  pre- 
scribed in  the  Prayer-book  to  be  read  on  any 
particular  day  in  the  Communion  service. 

B.  As  adj.  :  Of  or  belonging  to  the  gospel 
in  any  of  the  senses  enumerated  under  A. 

IT  Obvious  compounds  :  Gospel-offer,  gospel- 
preacher,  gospel-sermon,  &c. 

*  gospel-book,  *godspel-bok, 

*  goddspell-boc,  s.    The  gospel. 

"  Noght  ne  sevyth  the  goddepnllboc 

Thatt  Joasep  wass  thserinne." 

Ormvlum,  6,-153. 

*  gospel-gossip,  $.  One  who  is  over-zeal- 
ous in  preaching  religion  to  his  neighbours. 

gospel-lights,  s.  pi. 

Secies.  &  Ch.  Hist. :  Two  lighted  candles 
borne  by  acolytes  who  stand  facing  the  deacon 
as  he  intones  the  gospel  at  high  mass. 

gospel-side,  s. 

Eccles.  &  Ch.  Hist. :  The  side  of  the  church 
corresponding  with  the  corner  or  horn  of  the 
altar  at  which  the  gospel  is  read. 

"  The  acolytes,  hearing  their  tapers  elevated,  and  the 
thurifer,  with  the  incense,  proceed  to  the  gospel-tide  of 
the  sanctuary." — Rock  :  Mierurgia,  p.  14. 

*gospel-wright,  goddspell- 
wnlrflte,  s.  The  composer  or  author  of  one 
of  the  gospels  ;  an  evangelist. 

"An  otherr  goddspellwrihhte  was  Marcus," 

Ormulum,  5,778. 

*  gos'-pel,  v.  t.    [Gospel,  s.  ]    To  instruct  in  the 

precepts  of  the  gospel ;  to  fill  with  sentiments 
of  religion. 

"  Are  you  so  gospelled 
To  pray  for  this  good  man  and  for  his  issue, 
"Whose  heavy  hand  hath  bowed  you  to  the  grave  V** 
Shakesp. :  Macbeth,  iii.  L 

gds'-pel-Ize,  v.t.    [Gospellize.] 

*  gos'-pel-la-ry,  a.  [Eng.  gospel;  •ary.']  Of 
or  pertaining  to  the  gospel ;  theological,  evan- 

"  Let  any  man  judge  how  well  these  gospeUary  prin- 
ciples  of  our  Presbyterians  agree  with  the  practice  and 
doctrine  of  the  holy  apostles." — The  Cloak  in  its 
Colours  (11579). 

gds'-pel-ler,  *  god-spel-ler,  *  gods-pel- 
lere,   *  gos-pel-e're,    *  gos  -  pel  -  lere, 

*  gos-pel-lour,  s.     [Eng.  gospel;  -er.] 

*  1.  One  of  the  four  evangelists. 

"  Mark  the  gospeller  was  the  goostli  son  of  Petre  in 
baptysm."—  Wycliffc  :  The  Prologue  of  Marke. 

*  2.  One  who  preaches  the  gospel ;  an  adhe- 
rent of  the  Reformed  faith,  in  contradistinc- 
tion from  a  Roman  Catholic,  the  former,  in 
the  sixteenth  century,  giving  a  prominence  to 
preaching,  in  which  they  were  not  imitated  by 
their  opponents. 

"  The  persecution  was  carried  on  against  the  gospel- 
lers with  much  fierceness  by  those  of  the  Roman  per- 
suasion."— Strype:  Memorials  of  Archbishop  Cranmer, 
bk.  iii.,  ch.  xvi, 

3.  The  priest  or  deacon  who  reads  the 
gospel  in  the  Communion  service. 

"The  Archbishop  of  York  was  the  celebrant,  the 
epistoller  being  the  Dean,  and  the  gospeller  the  Bishop 
of  Sydney."— Pall  Mall  Gazette,  Feb.  7, 1884. 

4.  A  contemptuous  term  for  an  evangelical 
preacher.    [Hot-gospeller.] 

*  g6s'-pel-llze,  v.t.     [Eng.  gospel;  ize.] 

1.  To  form  or  lay  down  as  gospel. 

"The  command  thus gospellized  to  us  hath  the  same 
force  with  that  whereon  Ezra  grounded  the  pious 
necessity  of  divorcing.''— Milton:  Doct.  &  Discipline  of 
Divorce,  bk.  i.,  ch.  vhi. 

2.  To  convert  by  preachiDg  the  gospel  to ; 
to  evangelize. 

"  In  the  meantime  give  me  leave  to  put  you  in  mind 
of  what  is  done  in  the  Corporation  (whereof  you  are  a 
member)  for  gospellizing  (as  they  phrase  it)  the  natives 
of  New  England."— Boyle:  Works,  vol. i.,  p.  109.   Life. 

I.}     Ac- 

*  gos'-pel-ly,  adv.     [Eng. 
cordinK  to  the  teaching  of 

cording  to  the  teaching  of  the  Gospel. 

*goss,  *  gosse,  s.    [Gorse.] 

gos'-sa-mer,  *  gos'-sa-mere,  "gose-so- 
mer,  *  gos-so-mer*  *  gos-som-mer, 
*  gos-so-myre,  *  gos-sum-mer,  s.  &  a. 

[Lit.  goose-summer;  cf.  Ger.  sommerfaden 
(summer- threads)  =  gossamer;  Dut.  zomer- 
draden  (summer-threads)  =  gossamer ;  3w. 
sommertrad  (summer-thread)  =  gossamer.] 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pit, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son;  mute,  cilb,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     se,  ce  =  e;    ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

gossamery— gothite 


*  1.  The  slender  cobweb-like  threads  which" 
are  seen  floating  in  the  air  in  calm  clear  wea- 
ther, especially  in  autumn.  They  can  also  be 
seen  on  a  clear  frosty  morning  on  furze- 
bushes,  grass,  &e. 

"  Four  nimble  guata  the  horses  were. 
Their  harnesses  of  gosstimere." 

Drayton  :  The  Court  of  Fairy. 

2.  A  thin,  filmy  silk  veil  or  gauze. 

*  gos'-sa-mer-y,  a.  [Eng.  gossamer;  ~y.] 
Like  gossamer ;  flimsy  ;  unsubstantial. 

gos'  san,  goz-zan,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.] 
Mining  :  The  upper  part  of  a  metallic  vein, 
presenting  a  red  and  ferruginous  appearance, 
produced  by  the  decomposition  of  the  iron 
pyrites  contained  in  or  associated  with  the 
ore  ;  the  matrix  in  which  a  metallic  ore  is  im- 

"There  [in  North  Devon]  the  matrix  or  gossan  of  the 
lode  [of  copper  ore]  is  suffused  by  particles  of  gold."— 
Murchison :  Siluria,  eh.  xvii, 

gOS-San-if-er-OUS,  a.  [Eng.  gossan;  -i 
connective ;  Lat.  fero  —  to  produce,  and  suff. 
-ous.]    Producing  gossan. 

gos'  sib,  s.    [Gossip.] 

gos  sip,  *  god-sib,  *  god-sibbe,  *  god- 
sybbe,  *  gos-sib,  *  gos-syp,  s.  [A.S. 
god  =  God,  and  sib  =  kin,  relative.]    [Godsib.] 

*  1.  A  sponsor  in  baptism ;  a  godfather  or 

"  They  had  mothers  as  we  had ;  and  those  mothers 
had  gossips  (if  their  children  were  christened)  as  we 
are."— Ben  Jonson  :  Staple  of  News.    (Induction.) 

*  2.  (PI.) ;  Sponsors  engaged  in  familiar  talk 
with  each  other. 

*  3.  (PI.) :  Those  who  engage  in  trivial  talk, 
whether  they  are  sponsors  or  not. 

"  The  gossips  report 
She  has  come  to  King  Olaf 's  court." 

Longfellow  :  Musician's  Tale. 

4,  A  friend ;  a  neighbour ;  an  intimate  ac- 

"  One  mother,  .  .  ,  her  little  babe  reuil'd, 
And  to  her  gossips  gan  in  counsell  say." 

Spenser:  F.  Q.,  I.  xii.  11. 

5.  One  who  runs  about  tattling  and  repeat- 
ing tales  ;  an  idle  tattler. 

"  The  common  chat  of  gossips  when  they  meet." 

Dryden  :  Hind  &  Panther,  iii.  903. 

*  6.  A  tippling,  gossiping  woman. 

"Sometimes  lurk  I  in  a  gossip's  bowl." 

Shakesp. :  Midsummer  Night's  Dream,  ii.  1. 

7.  Mere  tattle ;  idle  talk  ;  trifling  or  un- 
founded rumour  or  talk. 

"  Bubbles  o'er  like  a  city  with  gossip,  BcandaJ.  and 
spite."  Tennyson:  Maud,  I.  iv.  8. 

gos  sip,  v.t.  &  i.    [Gossip,  s.] 

*  A.  Trans. :  To  stand  gossip  or  sponsor  to ; 
to  christen. 

"Adoptions  Christendom, 
That  blinking  Cupid  gossips." 
Shakesp. :  All's  Well  That  Ends  Well,  i.  l. 
B.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  talk  familiarly ;  to  chat. 

"  Noisy  groups  at  the  house-door 
Sat  in  the  cheerful  sun,  and  rejoiced  and  gossiped 
together."  Longfellow :  Evangeline,  i.  4. 

2.  To  chatter ;  to  run  about  repeating  tales 
or  tittle-tattle. 

"Those  little  jarrings  and  dissonances  which  arise 
from  anger,  ceusoriousnesa,  gossiping,  and  coquetry." — 
Steele:  Spectator,  No.  147. 

*  3.  To  make  merry,  as  at  a  christening  feast. 

"  With  all  my  heart,  I'll  gossip  at  this  feast." 

Shakesp. :  Comedy  of  Errors,  v. 

*  4.  To  make  a  ceaseless  chattering  noise. 

"  Flax  for  the  gossiping  looms." 

Longfellow :  Evangeline,  i.  1. 

gds'-sip-er,  s.  [Eng.  gossip;  -er.)  One  who 
gossips ;  a  gossip. 

*  gos'-si-pred,  *  gos-si-predef  *god-si- 

Dredc,  s.    [A.S.  god  =  God  :  sibrcsden  =  re- 
lation, kin.] 

1.  The  condition  of  a  gossip  or  sponsor  in 
baptism;  relationship  through  baptism;  spon- 

"  Gossipred  or  coropaternity,  by  the  canon  law,  is  a 
spiritual  affinity ;  and  the  juror,  that  was  gossip  to 
either  of  the  parties,  might,  in  former  times,  have 
been  challenged  as  not  indifferent."— Davies. 

2.  Intimacy  ;  close  acquaintance. 

3.  Gossip  ;  idle  talk  ;  tittle-tattle. 

*gos'-sip-ry,  *  gos' -sip -lie,  s.  [Eng. 
gossip;  -ry.]  The  condition  or  state  of  gossips ; 
close  intimacy. 

"  He  was  seized  hard  4  fast  on  the  hiahoprick, 
■whereby  all  gossiprie  gade  up  between  him  and  my 
uncle  Mr.  Andrew."— Mellvill :  MS. ,  p.  36. 


[Eng.    gossip;  -y.]     Full   of 

gossip ;    inclined  to    gossip ;   as,    a   gossipy 

"Awriterof  amusing  gossipy  letters." — Athenaeum, 

Feb.  25,  1882. 

*  gos'-so-mer,  s.    [Gossamer.] 

gos-soo  n,  gor-soon,  s.  [Ft.  gargon  =  a 
boy.]    A  boy,  a  lad.    (Irish.) 

gOS-syp'-i-um,  s.  [Lat.  gossypion,  gossipion, 
gossympinus.    (Pliny. )] 

Bot. ;  A  genus  of  Malvaceae,  tribe  Hibiscea?. 
The  leaves  are  generally  three  or  five-lobed  ; 
around  the  flower  is  an  involucre,  cordate  at 
the  base,  and  terminating  at  the  apex  in  three 
broad,  deeply  -  cut  segments.  Calyx  five- 
toothed,  corolla  of  five  petals,  stamens  united 
into  a  column,  fruit  a  three  or  five-celled 
capsule,  each  cell  when  ripe  bursting  through 
the  middle  and  exhibiting  the  seeds  enveloped 
in  cotton.  The  species  cultivated  in  the 
United  States,  which  furnishes  so  much 
cotton  to  Lancashire,  is  Gossypium  barbadense, 
of  which  there  ard  two  well  marked  varieties, 
the  Sea-island  or  Long-staple  cotton,  and  the 
Upland,  Georgian,  Bowed,  or  Short-staple 
cotton ;  that  of  India,  largely  brought  into  use 
during  the  American  civil  war  of  1861  to  1865, 
is  G.  herbaceum.  How  many  more  species  exist 
has  not  been  determined,  the  genus  being  very 
variable.  A  bland  oil  is  made  from  the  seeds, 
which  also,  after  having  been  pressed,  have 
been  used  as  a  food  for  cattle.  Martius  states 
that  in  Brazil  the  young  leaves  and  seeds  of 
Gossypium  vitifolium  are  used  in  dysentery, 
and  steeped  in  vinegar  are  applied  to  the  head 
in  hemicrania. 

*gostf  5.    [Ghost.] 

*gdst'-ing,  a.    [Etym.  doubtful.] 

Bot. :  "  An  herb."  Ains worth,  quoted  by 
Johnson,  who  calls  it  Rubia.  If  so,  it  is  a 

got,  pret.  &  pa.  par.  of  v.     [Get,  v.] 

*  gotch,  s.  [Ital.  gozzo  —  a  kind  of  bottle  ; 
gotto  =  a  drinking-glass.]  A  water-pot,  a 

"  A  gotch  of  milk  I've  been  to  fill." 

Bloomfield :  Richard  &  Kate, 

gote  (1),  gowt,  s.  [Dut.  goot;  Low  Ger.  gate; 
Ger.  gosse.] 

1.  A  sluice,  a  drain,  a  gutter. 

"Gote,  or  water  schetelys.     Aquagium,  singlocito- 
rium." — PromjA.  Parv, 

2.  A  slough,  a  miry  place. 

*  gote  (2),  s.    [Goat.] 

*  got-er,  s.    [Gutter.] 

Goth,  s.     [Lat.  Gothi  =  the  Goths.] 

1.  Lit.  :  One  of  an  ancient  race  belonging 
to  the  Teutones,  who  originally  occupied  a 
great  portion  of  European  and  Asiatic  Russia. 
Firmer,  their  king,  conducted  a  body  of  his 
nation  to  the  coast  of  the  Euxine,  where  it 
afterwards  increased  into  a  numerous  and  for- 
midable people  under  the  names  of  Visigoths 
and  Ostrogoths,  the  former  occupying  the 
countries  to  the  west  of  the  Dnieper,  the 
latter  those  to  the  east.  The  Visigoths  crossed 
the  Danube,  plundered  Rome  and  Italy,  and 
fixed  their  residence  in  Spain,  while  their 
kindred,  the  Ostrogoths,  took  possession  of 
Italy,  which  they  held  till  a.d.  544,  when  they 
were  overthrown  by  Narses,  general  of  Jus- 
tinian. From  this  time  the  Goths  as  a  nation 
make  no  figure  in  history,  except  in  Spain ; 
but  traces  of  their  language,  manners,  and 
arts  are  still  to  be  found  in  every  country  of 
the  East.  A  branch  of  the  Visigoths,  settled 
in  Mcesia,  the  modern  Bulgaria,  are  known  as 
Mcesogoths,  and  the  translation  of  a  great  por- 
tion of  the  Bible  by  Wulfila,  or  Ulfila,  a  Chris- 
tian bishop,  about  a.d.  350,  fragments  only  of 
which  have  come  down  to  us,  is  the  earliest 
known  specimen  of  the  Gothic  or  Teutonic 
tribe  of  tongues. 

2.  Fig. :  A  barbarian ;  one  deficient  in  or 
utterly  without  taste ;  a  rude,  ignorant  person. 

go  -tham  1st,  s,  [See  def.]  An  inhabitant 
or  native  of  Gotham,  a  village  in  Nottingham- 
shire, said  to  be  celebrated  for  the  blunders 
made  by  its  inhabitants. 

go  -tham-ite,  s.    [Eng.  Gotham;  -ite.~\ 

1.  A  Gothamist. 

2.  A  term  applied  in  sport  to  an  inhabitant  of 
New  York  city,  sometimes  known  as  Gotham. 

got'-har-dite,  s.  [From  the  St,  Gothard 
Alps,  where  it  occurs.] 

Min. :  The  same  as  Dufrenoysite  (q.v.). 

'gothelen,  v.i.  [Cf.  Icel.  gutla.}  To  rumble, 
as  the  stomach. 

"  Hise  guttes  bigonne  to  gothelen.'* 

P.  Plowman,  3,167. 

goth-ic,  *g6th'-ick,  «..  &  s.    [Lat.  Gothicus.} 

A.  As  adjective : 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Lit.  :  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  Goths  ;  as, 
Gothic  customs,  &c. 

"  Confining  his  labours  almost  wholly  to  Teligious 
and  legendary  histories,  lie  [Albert  DurerJ  turned  the 
Testament  into  the  history  of  a  Flemish  village ;  the: 
habits  of  Herod,  Pilate,  Joseph,  &c„  their  dwellings, 
their  utensils,  and  their  custoras,  were  all  Gothic  and 
European." — Walpule:  Catalogue  of  Engravers,vtil.  v. 

2.  Fig. :  Rude,  uncivilized,  barbarous. 

"The  Gothic  cloud 
Of  time  and  language  o'er  thy  genius  thrown." 
Thomson  :  Summer,  1,573. 

II.  Arch.  .*  A  term  sometimes  used  to  dis- 
tinguish mediaeval  from  classical  architecture. 
In  a  more  limited  sense  it  comprehends  those 
styles  only  of  medieval  architecture  which 
are  characterized  by  the  pointed  arch.  In  the 
narrower  sense,  Gothic  architecture  dates 
from  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century; 
in  the  wider,  it  includes  as  well  Anglo-Saxon,, 
which  prevailed  from  the  close  of  the  sixth  to 
the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century,  and  also 
Anglo-Norman,  which  flourished  during  the 
succeeding  hundred  years.  The  latter  was 
followed  by  the  Semi-Norman  or  Transition  ; 
this  gave  place,  at  the  beginning  of  the  thir- 
teenth century,  to  Early  English,  and  this,  at 
the  commencement  of  the  fourteenth  century 
to  Decorated  English,  replaced  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  fifteenth  century  by  the  Florid,, 
or  Perpendicular.  Gothic  architecture  at- 
tained its  perfection  in  the  Decorated  English 
period.  The  free,  flowing  lines  and  the  chaste 
ornamentation  by  which  it  is  distinguished, 
degenerated  into  the  stiff,  staring  lines  and 
the  too-elaborate  decoration  of  the  Perpen- 
dicular ;  and  the  process  of  debasement  con- 
tinned  until,  in  the  early  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  Gothic  fell  into  entire  disuse. 
Towards  the  close  of  the  eighteenth  century  a. 
re-action  began,  and  the  movement  has  gone- 
on  gathering  strength  ever  since.  [Decorated, 
Harly  English,  Perpendicular,  Pointed.] 

B.  As  substantive : 

I.  Ord.  Lang.  :  The  language  of  the  Goths. 
It  belongs  to  the  Low  German  group  of  the 
Teutonic  dialects,  to  which  belong  English,. 
Frisian,  Dutch,  Flemish,  and  Old  Saxon.  It 
is  the  oldest  and  most  primitive  of  the  Teu- 
tonic dialects  of  which  any  remains  are 
known ;  it  was  spoken  by  the  eastern  ami 
western  Goths,  who  occupied  the  province  ot 
Dacia.  It  is  closely  akin  to  English  and  Dutch. 

II.  Techniccdly  : 

1.  Arch.  :  The  Gothic  style  of  architecture. 
[A.  II.] 

"  The  parish  church  of  Lambeth  1b  at  a  small  dis- 
tance from  the  Palace,  has  a  plain  tower,  and  the 

architectureia  of  the  ffoWiic  of  the  time  of  Edward  IV.' 
— Pennant :  London;  Lambeth  Church. 

2.  Print. :  A  name  given  to  a  bold-faced! 
type,  used  for  titling  and  jobbing  work. 

*  goth'-ic-al,  a.  [Eng.  gothio;  -al.]  The 
same  as  Go'thic  (q.v.). 

*  goth'-l-cism, s.     [Eng.  Gothic;  -ism.] 

1.  A  Gothic  idiom  or  custom. 

2.  Conformity  to  the  Gothic  style  of  archi- 

3.  Rudeness  of  manners ;  barbarousness. 

"  Night,  gothicism,  confusion,  and  absolute  chaos  are 
come  again."— Shenstone. 

goth'-i-clze,  v.t.  [Eng.  Gothic;  -ize.]  To 
make  Gothic  ;  to  bring  back  to  barbarousness. 

*  gdth'-ish,a.  [Eng.  Goth;  -ish.)  Pertaining 
to  or  resembling  the  Goths;  Gothic;  rude; 

goth'-Ite  (o  as  e),  s.  '■  [Named  after  the  great 
German  poet  Gothe,  or  Goethe,  who  was  born 
in  1749,  and  died  in  1832.] 

Min. :  An  orthorhombic,  yellowish,  reddish,, 
or  dark-brown  mineral,  sometimes  blood-red 
by  transmitted  light.  Lustre  imperfectly  ada- 
mantine. Hardness,  5  to  5"5  ;,  40  to  44. 
Compos.  :  sesquioxide  of  iron,  83*5  to  90'5 ; 
sesquioxide  of  manganese,  0  to  25 ;  silica,  0  to 
4-3  ;  and  water,  9-4  to  11'5.     Found  at  Clifton, 

boil,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     -ing. 
-dan,  -tian  =  shan.     -tion,  -sion  =  shun;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble.  -die,  &c  =  bel.  del. 

gotish— gout 

in  Gloucestershire  ;  near  Botallack  and  Lost- 

withiel,  in  Cornwall;  in  Saxony,  &c.  Called 
also  Pyrrhosiderite  and  Onegite(q.v.).  (Dana.) 
Mr.  W.  J.  Sollas  describes  it  also  as  occurring 
in  the  Rhymney  quarry  in  bedding-planes  of 
rooks  immediately  below  the  Rhymney  grit  of 
Silurian  age,  near  Cardiff.  (Quar.  Jour.  Geol. 
Soc,  xxxv.  505.) 

*  got-ish,  u.     [Goatish.] 

gOU-a'-ni-a,  5.  [Named  after  Anthony  Gouan, 
Professor  o*f  Botany,  at  Montpelier.] 

Bot. ;  A  genus  of  Rhamnacea?,  consisting  of 
evergreen  climbers,  Gouauia  dovuugensis,  a 
species  from  the  West  Indies  and  Brazil,  is 

*  goud,  s,    [Woad.] 

gouge,  *  goode,  *  gowge,  s.      [Fr.  gouge, 
from  Low  Lat.  guvia  =  a  kind  of  chisel;  Sp. 
gitbia ;  Port,  goiva.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Lit, :  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  3. 

2.  Fig. :  A  cheat ;  an  imposition  ;  an  impos- 
tor.   (Awier.) 

II.  Technically  : 

1.  Bcokbind.  :  A  finisher's  hand-tool  for 
blind-tooling  or  gilding,  having  a  face  which 
forms  a  curve. 

2.  A  shaped  incising-tool  used  for  cutting 
out  forms  or  blanks  for  gloves,  envelopes,  or 
other  objects  cut  to  a  shape  from  fabric, 
leather,  or  paper. 

3.  Wood-vjork.  :  A  chisel  with  a  curved  blade 
adapted  to  make  a  rounded  groove  in  cutting 
or  turning  wood.  They  are  known  as  Mat, 
middle,  and  quick  ;  their  curves  being  respec- 
tively obtuse,  medium,  and  acute.  The  gouge 
existed  in  early  ages  in  stoue,  bone,  and 

gouge-bit,  s.  A  wood-boring  tool  used 
in  a  brace.  It  has  a  rounded  end,  and  a  groove 
which  contains  the  chips. 

gouge-slip,  5.  An  oil-stone  or  hone  slip, 
for  sharpening  on  the  concave  side  of  the 
edge  of  the  gouge. 

gouge,  *  googe,  v.t.     [Gouge,  s.    Fr.  gouger.] 

I.  Lit. :  ,To  scoop  out  or  make  a  groove  in 
with  a  gouge. 

'■  Googing  of  hem  out 
Just  to  the  size  of  my  hottles,  and  uot  slicing." 

Sen  Jom,cm .   The  Devil  is  an  Ass,  ii.  1. 

II.  Figuratively : 

1.  To  force  out  the  eye  of  with  the  thumb  or 

2.  To  cheat;  to  impose  upon.    (Amer.) 

*gou-  jeers,  *good-ier,  *  good -year, 
^good-yere,  s.  [Fr.  goujere,  from  gouge  — 
a  trull.]    The  venereal  disease. 

"The  goodyears  shall  devour  them." 

Shakesp. :  Lear,  v.  3. 

r  goul,  s.     [Ghoul.] 

*goul,  *  goule,  *  goul-en,  *gowle,  v.i. 

[Icel.  gaula.]    To  howl,  to  yowl,  to  cry  aloud, 
to  shout. 

*  goul'-and,  s.  [A.S.  geolo  =  yellow.]  A 
flower ;  perhaps  the  gowan  or  mountain  daisy. 

Gou  lard',  s.  [Named  after  Thomas  Goulard, 
a  surgeon  at  Montpelier,  about  a.d.  1750,  who 
discovered  it.] 

Pharm, :  The  same  as  Goulard's-extract. 

goulard  s-extract,  s. 

Fliarm. :  A  saturated  solution  of  basic  lead 
acetate.  It  is  used  as  a  lotion  in  cases  of  in- 

goule  (1),  s.  [0.  Fr.  govle;  Fr.  gueule;  Lat. 
gala.}     The  throat. 

"  Thare  may  be  seiie  aue  throll,  or  ayuding  stede, 
To  Acheron  reuin  cloun  that  hellis  aye, 
li;qj;ind  with  his  pestiierus  gouh:  full  wyde." 

Douglas  ■    t'irgit,  227,  45. 

*  goule  (2),  s.     [Ghoul.] 

*  goules,  *  gowlys,  s.    [Gules.] 

*  goune,  s.     [Gown.] 

gour,  s.    [Gaur.] 

gou'-ra,  s.    [The  name  in  some  of  the  Eastern 
Omith,  :  Ground  pigeon  ;  the  typical  genus 

of  the  family  Gouridte.  Goura  coroniata  is  the 
size  of  a  turkey.  It  is  wild  in  the  Eastern 
Archipelago,  and  is  domesticated  in  Java. 

gdur'-a-mi, ».    [Goramy.] 

gourd  (1),  *  goord,  *  gourde,  *  gowrde, 

s.  [0.  F.  gouhourde,  coharrde,  congourde, 
choourde ;  Fr.  gourde,  from  Lat.  cucurbita  = 
a  gourd  ;  prob.  connected  with  corbis  —  a 

I.  Ordinary  Language  : 

1.  In  the  same  sense  as  II. 

"  The  gourd  and  olive  brown 
Weave  the  light  roof."  Dyer.  Ruins  of  Rome. 

2.  A  bottle  or  vessel  for  carrying  water,  so 
called  from  its  shape. 

"  I  haue  heer  in  a  gourde 
A  draught  of  wyn."  Chaucer:  C.  T.,  17,014. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Bot, :  Cucurbita  pepo ;  a  hispid  plant,  with 
tendrils,  large  yellow  flowers,  and  oblong  or 
ovate  fruit;  a  native  of  Astrachan,  but  culti- 
vated in  many  countries.  It  was  introduced 
into  England  in  a.d.  1570.  It  lias  run  into 
many  varieties.  The  fruit  is  used  as  a  culi- 
nary vegetable  in  soups  and  stews,  or  mixed 
after  being  sugared  and  spiced,  with  sliced 
apples,  to  constitute  pumpkin  pie.  Called 
also  the  Pumpkin-gourd  or  Pompion. 

2.  Scripture;  Hebrew  "[Vj^j?  (qigdyon) ;  Sep- 
tiuigint  ko\ok.vv9t)  (kotokuntlul).  The  Hebrew 
word  is  apparently  so  much  akin  to  the  Greek 
word  kuci  (kiki)  used  by  Dioscorides  for  the 
castor-oil  plant  (Riciuus  communis),  that  the 
"gourd"  of  Scripture  was  probably  that 
species.  It  is  a  euphorbiaceous  plant,  and 
not  of  the  order  Cucurbitaceae.  For  the  wild 
gourd  of  Scripture,  see  ^  (2). 

H  (1)  Of  the  genuine  Cucurbitaceae,  the 
Bitter  or  Colocynth  Gourd  is  CUrulltts  Colo- 
cynthis;  the  Bottle,  Club,  or  Trumpet  Gourd 
is  Lagenaria  vulgaris,  which  so  varies  in  the 
form  of  its  fruit  as  to  suggest  in  the  several 
individuals  all  these  appellations.  The  Goose- 
berry gourd  is  Momordicaechinata  ;  the  Orange 
gourd  is  Cucurbita  aurantia ;  Red  gourd  and 
Spanish  gourd  are  popular  names  for  Cucur- 
bita maxima,  the  flesh  of  which,  when  boiled, 
is  like  a  tender  carrot ;  the  Snake  gourd  is 
the  genus  Trichosantbes,  and  especially  T. 
colubrina ;  the  Squash  gourd  is  Cucurbita 
Melopepo ;  and  the  White  gourd  is  liennicasa 
cerifera.  It  is  extensively  used  by  the  natives 
of  India  in  their  curries. 

(2)  The  Wild  Gourd  of  Scripture :  Hebrew 
pi.  nirfTE  (paqquoth),  and  DTJJ7S  (peqdhn).  It 
is  from  3?j7E>  (paqa)  —  to  be  split  or  burst. 
It  is  a  plant  which  grew  on  a  wild  vine — i.e., 
was  procumbent,  and  bad  tendrils.  It  more- 
over produced  "death  in  the  pot ;  "  discover- 
able in  a  moment  by  the  taste.  It  was  pro- 
bably either  the  Colocynth  (Citrullus  Colocyn- 
thw),  or  the  Squirting  Cucumber  (Momordica 
Elaterium),  the  one  called  by  Gesenius  by  its 
ancient  name,  Cucumis  agrestis. 

(3)  In  Lindley's  Natural  System  of  Botany, 
the  older  Cucurbitaceae  is  called  the  Gourd 
tribe,  altered  in  his  Vegetable  Kingdom  to 

gourd-Shell,  s.     The  shell  or  rind  of  the 

gourd,  which  is  used  for  drinking-cups,  &c. 

"  It  [the  catalogue  of  household  utensils]  consists  of 
gourd-shells,  which  they  convert  into  vessels  that  aer\  e 
as  hottles  to  hold  water,  and  as  baskets  to  contain 
their  victuals  and  other  things,  with  covers  of  the 
same ;  and  of  a  few  wooden  howls  and  trenchers  of 
different  sizes." — Cook  :  Voyages,  vol,  vi.,  bk.  iii.,  ch.  •j. 

gourd-tree,  s. 

Bot. :  Crescentia  Cujete,  more  frequently  called 
in  English  the  Calabash  tree  (q.v.).    See  also 


gourd  worm,  * 

Zool. :  The  same  as  fluke  worm  (q.v.).  It 
infests  the  liver  of  the  sheep. 

v  gourd,  "  gord  (2),  s.  [O.  Fr.  gourt.]  A 
kind  of  false  dice,  probably  so  called  from 
being  hollowed  out. 

"To  eke  out  your  living  .",  . 
By  and  gourd." 

Srott:  Fortunes  of  Nigel,  ch.  xxvli. 

gourde  (1),  s.  [Sp.  gordo  =  large.]  The  Franco- 
American  name  for  the  colonial  dollar  in  use 
in  Hayti,  Cuba,  &c. 

1  gourde  (2),  *  gourd-er, ; 

fill.]    A  torrent. 

[Etym.  doubt- 

"  Let  the  gourders  of  raine  come  doune."  —Harding : 

Against  Jewel,  p.  189. 

gdurd'-i-ness,  s.    [Eng.  gourdy ;  -»«**■  J 

Fan-  :  The  quality  or  state  of  being  gourdy 
or  swelled  in  the  legs  ;  a  swelling  in  a  horse  s 
leg,  after  a  journey. 
*  gourd -Ing,  *■     [Eng.  gourd;  -ing.] 
Farr. :  The  same  as  Gourdiness  (q.v.). 

gourdy,  a.    [Eng-  gourd  (1) ;  -y.] 

Farr.  :  Swelled  in  the  legs,  as  a  horse  after 
a  journey. 

gour'-i-dse,  s.  pi  [Mod.  Lat.  goura  (q.v.),  and 
Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  sutf.  -idee.] 

OnuM.  .-Ground-pigeons;  a  family  of  pigeons 
having  certain  affinities  tu  the  gallinaceous 
birds.  They  feed  on  the  gruund  in  flock*. 
They  occur  in  the  hotter  parts  of  both  the 
Eastern  and  Western  hemispheres. 

gour-l'-nse,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  &c.  gour(a)t  and 
Lat.  fein.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -nice.] 

Oruith.  :  A  sub  -  family  of  Colurabidae 
(Pigeons),  sometimes  elevated  into  a  family 
Goundou  (q.v.). 

gour'-ll-e-a,  s.  [Named  after  Mr.  Robert 
Gourlie,  who  gathered  plants  at  Mendoza.] 

Bot.  :  A  genus  of  papilionaceous  plants, 
tribe  Sophoreae.  The  pulp  of  the  fruit  is  used 
at  Buenos  Ay  res  to  flavour  sweet  wine. 

gourmand,  •  gour-mond,  a.  &  a.    [Fr.] 

A.  As  substantive : 

1.  A  greedy  or  gluttonous  eater ;  a  glutton. 

"  That  great  gourmond,  fat  Aplcius." 

Jii'n  Jonsoti :  Sejanus,  i.  1. 

2.  An  epicure  ;  a  dainty  feeder. 

B.  As  adj.  :  Greedy,  gluttonous,  gormand- 

*  gour -man-der,  s.  [Eng.  gourmand ;  -er.] 
A  gormandizer. 

"The  Persians  are  great  gourmnuders  and  greedy 
gluttons," — P.  Holland:  Platan?:,  \>.  385. 

*  gour   mand  ize,  v.i.    [Gormandize,  v.] 

*  gour  -mand  Ize,  a.    [Gormandise,  s.] 

gour'-met  it  silent),  s.  [Fr.  =  a  connoisseur 
in  or  judge  of  wines.]  An  epicure  ;  a  dainty 
feeder  ;  a  connoisseur  in  wines  and  meats ;  a 
man  of  keen  palate. 

gour-net,  s.    [Gurnet.] 

gous-ly,  s.  An  old  form  of  harp  used  by  the 
Slavonians,  whose  bards  were  called  gouslas, 
the  poetry  which  they  chanted  being  called 


*  gOUS'-trous,  a.    [Gousty(2).]   Gusty,  dark, 

wet,  stormy  ;  as,  a  goustrous  night. 

*  goust'-y  (1),  goust'-ie,  a.    [Low  Lat.  guas- 

tus;  Ital.  guasto  ;  Fr.  gust  =  waste,  desert.] 

1.  Waste,  desolate,  deserted. 

"  Wind  like  this,  at  twal  o'clock  at  night,  to  thir 
wild gousty  wa's ?  " — Scott :  Antiquary,  ch.  xxv. 

2.  Ghostly ;  preternatural. 

3.  Ghastly. 

*  goust'-y  (2),  a.     [Gusty.] 

gout  (1),  *  goute,   *"  gowte,  a.     [Fr.  goutte, 
from  Lat.  gutta  =  a  drop.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  A  drop. 

"I  aee  thee  still. 
And  on  the  blade  o'  th'  dudgeon  gouts  of  blood  " 

8katees&>.  :  Macbeth,  ii.  1. 

2.  In  the  same  sense  as  II. 

"  The  goute  lette  hir  nothing  for  to  dauuee." 

Chaucer:  C.  T.,  1C.326. 

II,  Pathol. :  A  disease  produced  by  the  ex- 
cess of  uric  acid  in  the  blood  in  the  form  of 
urate  of  soda.  It  is  usually  hereditary,  is  rare 
before  the  age  of  thirty,  and  generally  arises 
from  excessive  indulgence  in  wines  or  malt 
liquors,  the  last  giving  rise  to  "  poor  man's 
gout."  It  is  rarely  produced  bytheuseof  spirits, 
and  is  therefore  much  less  common  in  Scotland 
than  in  England,  whisky  being  the  national 
intoxicant  in  the  former  country.  The  great 
toe  is  the  part  most  frequently  affected,  pain 
and  irritability  are  leading  symptoms  ;  it  may 
become  chronic,  and  is  very  intractable  to 
treatment.  When  it  attacks  internal  parts  it 
is  termed  irregular  or  retrocedent  gout,  and  is 
proportionately  more  dangerous.  Diet  re- 
quires strict  regulation,  with  abstemiousness 
or  abstinence  from  alcoholic  liquors.  Colchi- 
cum,   &c,   internally,    and    certain    mineral 

f5te,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pdt- 
or.  wore,  wolf,  work, -whd,  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full:  try,  Syrian.     £e,  ce  —  e  ;  ey~a.    qu-kw. 

gout— government 


waters,  such  as  Buxton  and  Bath  and  various 
German  waters,  are  useful  in  the  treatment 
of  this  complaint.  Excessive  exertion  and 
fitigue,  or  mental  labour,  have  been  known 
to  produce  gout  also,  but  whenever  it  is,  as  it 
usually  is,  hereditary,  extreme  precautions 
might  to  be  taken  to  prevent  the  occurrence 
or  recurrence  of  an  attack. 

gout-stones,  5.  pi. 

FatJiol, ;  The  same  as  Chalk-stones  (q.v.). 

gout  weed,  5. 

Bot. :  JEgopodiumpodagraria.  [Goat-weed.] 

*  gout  (t  silent)  (2),  s.  [Fr.  gout,  from  Lat. 
giisto  =  to  taste.]  A  taste  ;  a  relish ;  a  liking. 

**  Catalogues  serve  for  a  d  irection  to  any  one  that  has 
a  gout  for  the  like  studies." — Woodward :  On  fossils. 

*  goiit'-en,  *  gOWt-on,  v.  i.    [Fr.  gontter,  from 

Lat.  gutto,  from  guttata,  drop.]  To  drop  or 
gutter  as  a  candle. 

"Gowton,  as  caudelys.     Gutto." — Prompt.  Pare. 

gout'-i-ly^  adv.  [Eng. gouty;  -ly,]  Inagouty 

gout  l-ness,  s.  [Eng.  gouty;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  gouty. 

gout  ish,  a.  [Eng.  gout;  -ish.]  Inclined  or 
predisposed  to  gout ;  in  some  degree  affected 
by  gout ;  gouty. 

*  gout'-  ous,  *  gowt-us,  a.  [0.  Fr.  gutus, 
guteux.]    Gouty. 

"Aquene  gowtus  and  croket."— Reliquiee  Antiques, 
i.  196. 

gout  -wort,  s.  [In  this  word  gout  seems  to 
be  a  corruption  of  Eng.  goat,  and  wort.]  The 
same  as  Goat-weed  (q.v.). 

gout'-y,  a.     [Eng.  gout;  -y.] 
I.  Literally: 

1.  Suffering  from  or  diseased  with  the  gout ; 
subject  to  the  gout. 

"Not  giviug  like  to  those,  whose  gifts  though  scant 
Fain  them  as  if  they  gave  with  gowty  hand." 

Davenant ;  Gondibert,  i.  6. 

2.  Pertaining  to  the  gout. 

"  The  settlement  of  a  gouty  matter  in  the  substance 
of  the  lungs." — Blackmore. 

3.  Swollen  as  though  with  gout. 

"Which  makes  the  young  shoots  tumifyand  grow 
knotty  and  gouty." — Derham:  Physico-Theology,  bk. 
vL,  ch.  vL     (Note  22.) 
*  IL  Figuratively  : 

1.  Swollen  out  of  proportion. 

"ThiB  humour  in  historians  hath  made  the  body  of 
ancient  history  in  some  parts  so  gouty  and  monstrous, " 
— Spenser. 

2.  Boggy :  as,  gouty  land. 

gouty-bronchitis,  s. 

PatJiol. :  Bronchitis  arising  as  a  secondary 
disease  during  the  progress  of  gout. 

gouty-concretions,  5.  pi. 

Patlwl.,  Chem.,  &c.  :  Concretions  composed 
of  urate  of  soda,  occurring  in  the  joints,  the 
kidneys,  &c,  of  some  persons  affected  with 

gouty-kidney,  s. 

Patlwl.  :  A  kidney  morbidly  affected  during 
the  progress  of  gout.  It  usually  shrivels  to 
one-half  or  one-third  of  its  usual  size,  and  con- 
tains secretions  of  urate  of  soda.  [Gouty- 

gouty-neuritis,  s. 

Pathol. :  Inflammation  of  a  nerve  in  a  gouty 
or  rheumatic  subject.  It  is  believed  that  in 
such  a  constitution  it  may  occur  idiopathic 

gouty-stemmed,  a.  (See  the  compound.) 

If  Gouty-stemmed  tree : 

Bot. ;  An  Australian  name  for  Delabechea 
rupestris,  a  tree  with  a  bulged-out  stem ; 
called  also  the  Bottle-tree. 

*  gove,  s.  [Goff  (2).]  A  rick,  stack,  or  mow 
of  hay. 

*  gove,  v.i.  [Gove,  s.]  To  put  hay  into  a 
stack,  rick,  or  mow. 

*'  In goving  at  harvest,  learn  skillfully  how. 
Each  grain  for  to  lay  by  itself  ouh  mow." 

Tusser  :  August's  Husbandry. 

gov -era,  *gov-erne,  *gov-era-i,  *gov- 
ern-y,  *gov-ern-yn,  v.t.  &  i.  [O.  Fr. 
governer  (Fr.   gouvemer),  from  Lat.  gubtrno, 

from  Gr.  levBtpvu*  (kuberno)  =  to  steer  a  ship  ; 
Sp.  gobemar;  Port,  govemar;  Ital.  governare.] 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  Ordinary  Language : 

*  1.  To  steer,  to  manage  a  ship,  to  pilot. 
"He  lakked  schipmen  to  governe  here  schippes." — 

Trevisa,  iv.  63. 

2.  To  regulate  the  course  or  motion  of :  as, 
A  helm  governs  a  ship. 

3.  To  manage,  to  direct,  to  regulate. 

"  And  for  His  glory  all  things  made,  all  things 
Orders  and  governs."  Milton:  P.  /,'..  lil  112. 

4.  To  rule  as  a  chief  magistrate ;  to  direct 
and  control,  as  the  actions  and  conduct  of 
men,  by  established  laws  or-arbitrary  will ;  to 
regulate  by  authority. 

"  After  king  [Lud]  ther  was  kyng  ya  brother  Cassibel, 
That  noble  prince  was  y  now  &  that  lond  gouernede 
weL"  Robert  of  Gloucester,  p.  44. 

*  5.  To  regulate ;  to  order. 

"If  ye  governe  yow  by  sapience  put  away  sorwe  out 
ofyoure  hert" — Chaucer:  Tate  of  Melibeus,  p.  ltL 

*  6.  To  control ;  to  restrain. 

"  She's  desperate :  govern  her." — Shakesp. :  Lear,  v.  3. 

IL  Gram. :  To  cause  to  be  in  a  particular 
case  :  as,  A  verb  transitive  governs  the  noun 
in  the  accusative  case ;  to  require  a  particular 
case  to  follow :  as,  A  verb  governs  the  accusa- 
tive case. 

B.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  exercise  authority,  to  administer  the 
law  ;  to  be  or  act  as  governor  or  ruler. 

"While  the  chief  magistrate  governs  according  to 
the  law  he  ought  to  be  obeyed." — Macaulay :  Hist. 
Eng.,  ch.  xi. 

2.  To  maintain  the  superiority  ;  to  have  the 
control,  to  prevail. 

"  The  heart  of  brothers  governs  in  our  loves." 

Shakesp.  :  Antony  A  Cleopatra,  ii.  2. 
1"  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  to 
govern,  to  rule,  and  to  regulate :  "The  exercise 
of  authority  enters  more  or  less  into  the  signi- 
fication of  these  terms ;  but  to  govern  implies 
the  exercise  likewise  of  judgment  and  know- 
ledge. To  rule  implies  rather  the  unqualified 
exercise  of  power,  the  making  the  will  the 
ride;  a  king  governs  his  people  by  means  of 
wise  laws  and  an  upright  administration  :  a 
despot  rules  over  a  nation  according  to  his 
arbitrary  decision.  These  terms  are  applied 
either  to  persons  or  things  :  persons  govern  or 
rule  others  ;  or  they  govern,  rule,  or  regulate 
things.  In  regard  to  persons,  govern  is  always 
in  a  good  sense,  but  rule  is  sometimes  taken 
in  a  bad  sense  ;  it  is  naturally  associated  with 
an  abuse  of  power :  to  govern  is  so  perfectly 
discretionary,  that  we  speak  of  governing  our- 
selves ;  but  we  speak  only  of  ruling  others. 
To  govern  necessarily  supposes  the  adoption 
of  judicious  means  ;  but  riding  is  confined  to 
no  means  but  such  as  will  obtain  the  end  of 
subjecting  the  will  of  one  to  that  of  another. 
Regulate  is  a  species  of  governing  simply  by 
judgment ;  the  word  is  applicable  to  things  of 
minor  moment,  where  the  force  of  authority 
is  not  so  requisite  :  one  governs  the  affairs  of  a 
nation,  or  a  large  body  where  great  interests 
are  involved ;  we  regulate  the  concerns  of  an 
individual,  or  we  regulate  in  cases  where  good 
order  or  convenience  only  is  consulted :  so 
likewise  in  regard  to  ourselves,  we  govern  our 
passions,  but  we  regulate  our  affections." 
{Crabb :  Eng.  Synon.) 

*gOV'-ern,  s.  [O.  Fr.  governe;  Fr.  gouverne; 
Port.  &  Ital.  govemo;  Sp.  gobierno.]  Govern- 

"Hia  bischopricke  hadde  ibeo  withoute  govern  and 
rede."— life  of  Beket  (1789), 

*  gov'-ern-a-Dle,  u.    [Eng.  govern ;  -able.] 

1.  That  may  or  can  be  governed,  ruled,  or 
managed  ;  manageable,  tractable,  obedient. 

"  '  Only  this  I  must  acknowledge,'  he  mildly  added ; 
'  they  were  not  governable.'  "—Macaulay  :  Eitt.  Eng., 
ch.  v. 

2.  Pliable,  manageable. 

"There  is  not  a  more  tonsile  and  governable  plant 
in  nature." — Evelyn  :  On  Forest  Trees,  ch.  mciji, 

*  gov   ern-a-ble-ness,  s.    [Eng.  governable  ; 

-ness.]    The"  quality  or  state  of  being  govern- 
able ;  tractability. 

"  It  is  likely  that  governableness  was  not  his  strong 
point.  "—Saturday  Review,  Jan.  26, 1833,  p.  120. 

*  gov-ern-aille,    *  gov-ern-all,   *  gov- 

ern-ayl,  *  gov-ern-ayle,  s.     [0.  Fr.  go- 
vernail;  Fr.  gouvernail,  from  Lat.  gubernacu- 
lum  =  a  rudder,  from  guberno  =  to  steer.] 
1.  A  helm,  a  rudder. 

"  And  lo  schippU  whaune  thei  ben  greete,  and  ben 
dryuun  of  stronge  windis,  yet  thei  ben  borun  aboute 
of  a  Util  gouernaU."—  Wycliffe  :  James  iii. 

2.  Government,  ride,  authority,   direction, 

"  He  of  bis  gardin  had  the  gouernale." 

Spenser :  F.  Q.,  II.  xiL  43. 

*  goV-ern-ance,  *  gov-ern-aunce,  s. 

[Fr.  gouvernance.] 

1.  Government,    rule,   management,   direc- 
tion, regulation. 

2.  Control,  management,  restraint. 

"  What ;  shall  king  Henry  be  a  pupil  still,' 
Under  the  surly  Gloster's  governance  I " 

Shakesp.  :  2  Henry  VI.,  i.  3. 

3.  Behaviour,  manners. 

"  Now  schalle  I  telle  you  the  governance  of  the  court 
of  the  grete  Cham."— Maundeville,  p.  232. 

*  gov'-ern-ante,  s.    [Fr.  gouvernante,  fern.  pr. 

par.  of  gouvemer  =  to  govern.]    A  lady  who 
has  the  charge  of  children  ;  a  governess. 

"  The  very  picture  of  the  governante  of  oue  of  your 
noblemen's  houses." — L' Estrange:  Quevedo's  Visions, 
p.  33. 

gov-ern-a'-tion,    *  gov-er-na-ci-on,  s. 

[Lat.  gubernatio.]    Government,  regulation, 

"And  tables  as  wel  for  the  gouernacion  of  the  clock, 
as  to  find  the  altitude,  meridian,  and  many  another 
note  conclusion." — Chaucer  :  Of  the  Astrolabie. 

goV-ern-ess,  *gou-vern-esse,  *gov- 

ern  esse,  s.    [O.  Fr.  gouverncs$c,  from  Lat. 
guber)iatrix ;  Ital.  governatrice.] 

*  1.  A  woman  invested  with  authority  to 
regulate,  control,  or  direct. 

"The  Lady  Mgargaret,  gouemesse  of  Flaunders."— 
Ball :  Henry  VIII.  (an.  17). 

2.  A  lady  who  has  the  care  and  instruction 
of  young  children  ;  a  tutoress. 

"  Frances  de  Maintenon,  the  governess  of  his  natural 
children."— Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xL 

*  3.  Anything  which  directs,  controls,  or 
instructs  ;  an  instructress. 

"  Shall  crueltie  be  your  gouemesse 
Alas,  what  hart  may  it  long  endure." 

Chaucer:  La  Belle  Dame  sans  Merci. 

*  4.  The  wife  of  the  governor  of  a  prison. 

"The  governess  of  the  mansion  had,  out  of  curiosity, 
followed  her  into  the  room." — Fielding:  Amelia,  bk. 
iv.,  ch.  ii. 

gov-ern-ess-ing,  s.  [Eng.  governess;  -ing.\ 
The  profession  or  occupation  of  a  governess. 

"Those  who  take  up  '  governessing'  because  it  is 
genteeL" — E.  J.  WorboUe:  Sissie,  ch.  xxi. 

*  gov'-ern-ess-ship,  s.  [Eng.  governess; 
-ship.]  The  office,  post,  or  duties  of  a  gover- 

gov'-ern-ing,  *  gov-ern-ynge,  pr.  par. ,  a., 
&  s.    [Govern,  v.] 

A.  Aspr.  par. :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adj. :  Holding  the  superiority  ;  having 
the  control ;  controlling, prevalent,  directing: 
as,  a  governing  party,  a  governing  wind. 

C.  As  subst. :  Government,  rule,  authority, 

"  The  Frenche  kynge  had  ben  vnder  the  gouernynge 
of  his  vncles  euer  sytn  the  dethe  of  the  laste  kynge  his 
father." — Berners  :  Froissart's  Cronycle,  vol.  IL,  ch.  cL 

*  gov'- em- less,  a.  [Eng.  govern;  -less.] 
Without  a  governor  or  government. 

gov'-ern-ment,  s.  &  a.      [Fr.  gouvernement, 
from  gouverner  —  to  govern  ;    Ital.  governa- 
A.  As  substantive : 
I.  Ordinary  Language  : 

1.  The  act  of  governing ;  control,  direction, 
regulation,  or  administration  of  public  or 
private  affairs. 

"  The  kingly  government  of  this  your  land." 

Shakesp.  :  Richard  III.,  iii.  7. 

2.  Guidance,  regulation,  direction  :  as,  Pre- 
cepts serve  for  the  government  of  the  conduct 

3.  Self-control,  evenness  of  temper. 

"  Defect  of  manners,  want  of  government." 

Shakesp. :  1  Henry  IV.,  iiL  L 

4.  Control ;  restraint ;  regulation  ;  modera- 

*  5.  Manageableness  ;  docility  ;  obedience. 

"  Each  part  deprived  of  supple  government. 
Shall  stiff  and  stark  and  cold  appear,  like  death." 
Shakesp. :  Romeo  £  Juliet,  iv.  1. 

*  6.  The  power  of  controlling  or  regulating. 

"  Quite  beyond  the  government  of  patience." 

Sluikesp. :  Cymbeline,  if.  4. 

7.  The  form  of  policy  in  a  state  ;  the  mode 
or  system  according  to  which  the  legislative, 
executive,  and  judicial  powers  are  vested  and 
exercised ;  a  system  of  laws  and  customs  ;  a 

constitution   (q.v.).       There    are    numerous 

boil,  boy;  pout,  jo%l;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  a$;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    ph  =  1. 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun;  -tion,  -ston  =  zhiln.   -clous,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble.  -die,  &c.  =  beL,  del. 



governmental— gown 

forms  of  government,  as  aristocracy,  demo- 
cracy, despotism,  monarchy,  oligarchy,  re- 
publicanism, &c.    (See  these  words.) 

"  That  ancient  constitution  and  government  which 
is  our  only  security  for  law  and  liberty."—  Burke :  On 
the  French  Revolution. 

8.  The  right  or  power  of  governing,  or  of 
exerting  supreme  power. 

government  to  thee." 
Shakesp. :  3  Henry  VI.,  iv.  6. 

9.  An  empire,  kingdom,  or  other  state ;  a 
body  politic  under  one  authority  ;  a  territory, 
province,  or  district  under  a  governor. 

10.  The  council  or  body  of  persons  entrusted 
with  the  administration  of  the  laws ;  the 
management  of  home  and  foreign  affairs,  and 
generally  the  public  business  of  a  state ;  the 
administration ;  the  ministry ;  the  executive 

*  11.  Management  of  the  limbs  or  body. 

11.  Gram.  :  The  influence  of  one  word  in 
determining  the  case  of  a  second  :  especially 
of  nouns,  verbs,  and  prepositions ;  the  influ- 
ence of  a  word  in  regard  to  construction. 

B.  As  adj.  ;  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  govern- 
ment ;  employed  in,  by,  or  for  a  government : 
as,  a  government  office,  a  government  official. 

I  (1)  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between 
government  and  administration:  "Both  these 
terms  may  be  employed  either  to  designate 
the  act  of  governing  and  administering,  or  the 
persons  governing  and  administering.  In  both 
cases  government  has  a  more  extensive  mean- 
ing than  administration :  the  government  in- 
cludes every  exercise  of  authority ;  the  ad- 
ministration implies  only  that  exercise  of 
authority  which  consists  in  putting  the  laws 
or  will  of  another  in  force :  hence,  when  we 
speak  of  the  government,  as  it  respects  the 
persons,  it  implies  the  whole  body  of  consti- 
tuted authorities  ;  and  the  administration,  only 
that  part  which  puts  in  execution  the  inten- 
tions of  the  whole." 

(2)  He  thus  discriminates  between  govern- 
ment and  constitution:  "Government  implies 
generally  the  act  of  governing  or  exercising 
authority  under  any  form  whatever  ;  constitu- 
tion implies  any  constituted  or  fixed  form  of 
government :  we  may  have  a  government  with- 
out a  constitution ;  we  cannot  have  a  constitu- 
tion without  a  government."  (Crabb:  Eng. 

gov-ern-ment'-al,a.  [Eng.  government;  -at] 
Of  or  pertaining  to  a  government. 

■'  Members  .  .  .  favourable  to  the  governmental 
policy."— Times,  Jan.  22.  1856. 

gov'-ern-or,  *  gov-ern-our,  s.  [Fr.  gouv- 
erneur ;  Sp.  gobernador  ;  Port,  governador ; 
Ital.  governatore,  from  Lat.  gubernator,  from 
gnberno  =  to  steer.] 

1.  Ordinary  Language : 

*  1.  A  steersman ;  a  pilot. 

"Neuerthelater  the  vnder  captayne  beleued  the 
ffouernoitr  and  the  master,  better  than  the  thynges 
which  were  spoken  of  Paule.  —  Bible,  1551.  Acts  ch.  xxvii, 

2.  One  who  is  invested  with  supreme  power 
or  authority  to  administer  or  enforce  the  laws 
in  a  state ;  a  chief  ruler ;  a  chief  magistrate  ; 
the  chief  ruler  in  a  colony  sent  out  as  repre- 
sentative of  the  mother  country.  ' 

3.  One  who  rules  with  delegated  power. 

4.  One  who  has  the  supreme  direction  or 

"  They  beget  in  us  a  great  idea  and  veneration  of  the 
mighty  author  and  govemour  of  such  stupendous 
bodies."— fientley. 

5.  Anything  which  has  the  power  or  quality 
of  ruling, 'directing,  or  regulating. 

"The  Deity,  or  that  perfect  mind  which  is  the  su- 
preme governor  of  all  things."— Cud/worth :  Intellectual 
System,  p.  110. 

6.  A  tutor  ;  a  guardian  ;  one  who  has  charge 
of  the  education  of  a  young  man. 

"T'leheir  .  .  .  under  tutors  and  governors  until  the 
time  appointed  of  the  father."— Galatians  iv.  1,  2. 

7.  A  person,  or  one  of  a  number  of  persons, 
to  whom  are  intrusted  the  direction  and 
management  of  a  business,  an  institution,  &c, 
as,  the  Governor  of  the  Bank  of  England,  the 
Governor  of  Pentonville  Convict  Prison. 

8.  A  master  or  superior ;  an  employer. 

9.  An  elderly  person  ;  a  father.    (Slang.) 

^  At  first  even  "fast"  young  men  called 
one  of  their  parents  father,  then  "  governor  " 
was  the  term  employed,  now  in  certain  ex- 
treme cases  it  is  "  relieving  officer." 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Gas :  A  device  which  regulates  the  pas- 
sage of  gas  from  the  holder  to  the  mains,  ad- 
mitting it  thereto  in  quantities  determined  by 
the  rate  at  which  it  is  used.  The  pressure  in 
the  mains  determines  the  area  of  the  opening 
through  which  thegasenters.  [Gas-govjsrnor,  ] 

2.  Steam-eng. :  A  device  which  regulates  the 
admission  of  steam  to  the  engine  according  to 
the  rate  of  motion.  The  intention  is  to  maintain 
uniform  velocity,  and  any  acceleration  of  speed 
above  a  given  rate  causes  a  valve  to  be  partially 
closed,  diminishing  the  area  of  steam  passage  ; 
contrariwise  in  case  of  flagging  in  the  speed 
of  motion  of  the  engine.  The  favourite  form 
of  governor  has  a  pair  of  balls  suspended  from 
a  vertical  shaft,  so  as  to  swing  outward  when 
the  shaft  is  rotated.  The  greater  the  speed 
the  greater  the  centrifugal  force,  and  conse- 
quently the  farther  the  balls  depart  from  the 
axis  of  rotation ;  the  inclination  of  the  ball 
arms  is  made  effective  in  working  the  valve. 

governor  cut-off,  s. 

Steam-eng. :  An  automatic  arrangement  in 
which  the  acceleration  or  retardation  of  the 
motion  of  the  governor,  due  to  changes  of  speed 
of  the  engine,  is  made  to  cut  off  the  steam  at 
an  earlier  or  later  period  of  the  stroke  of  the 
piston,  so  that  with  the  increased  boiler-pres- 
sure or  lighter  work  the  steam  shall  be  cut  off 
earlier  in  the  stroke,  and  when  greater  work  is 
imposed  on  the  engine,  or  the  steam-pressure 
flags,  the  steam-cylinder  shall  receive  steam 
from  the  boiler  during  a  larger  proportion  of 
the  stroke  of  the  piston. 

governor-general,  s.  A  governor  who 
has  under  him  subordinate  or  deputy  gover- 
nors ;  a  viceroy :  as,  the  governor-general  of 

governor-valve,  s. 

Steam-eng. :  A  valve  in  a  steam-pipe  operated 
by  the  governor  to  vary  the  area  of  steam,  open- 
ing according  to  the  rate  of  moving,  and  conse- 
quently the  requirement  of  the  engine  ;  the 
object  being  to  maintain  a  uniform  rate. 

Governor-valve  gear : 

Steam-eng. :  An  arrangement  of  parts  where- 
by the  position  of  the  governor  balls,  resulting 
from  their  rate  of  motion,  is  made  to  act  upon 
the  induction  valve  of  an  engine. 

gov'-ern-or-shlp,  s.     [Eng.  governor;  •ship.] 
The  position  or  office  of  a  governor. 

g<Sw,  s.    [Gull.] 

1.  A  gull. 

2.  A  fool ;  a  stupid  fellow. 

"  flow,  a  name  for  a  fool.  What  a  difference  there  is 
between  John  Gerrond  the  gow,  and  George  Wishart 
the  sage."— Gall :  Encycl.,  p.  224. 

go'w'-an,  s.       [Gael  &  Ir.  gugan  =  a  bud,  a 

flowef.]   A  daisy  ;  a  perennial  plant  or  flower. 

"  And  now  he's  had  his  bit  sleep  out,  and  ia  as  fresh 

as  a  5Aa,y  gowan,  to  answer  what  your  honour  likes  to 

Bpetr." — Scott :  Guy  Mannering,  ch.  xxxiii. 

%  (1)  Ewe-gowan : 

Bot. :  The  common  daisy ;  apparently  de- 
nominated from  the  ewe,  as  being  frequently 
in  pastures,  and  fed  on  by  sheep. 

"Some  bit  waefu*  love  story  enough  to  mak  the 
pinks  an'  the  ewe-gowans  blush  to  the  very  lip." — 
Brownie  of  Bodsbeck,  i.  215. 

(2)  Horse-gowan : 

Bot.  :  This  name  includes  the  Leontodon, 
the  Hypochaeris,  and  the  Crepis. 

(3)  Large  wMte-gowan : 
Bot. ;  The  ox-eye. 

"  Some  of  the  prevailing  weeds  in  meadows  and  grass 
lands  are,  ox-eye,  orlarge  white  gowan,  chrysanthemum 
leucanthemuin,  &c."  —  Wilson :  Renfrewshire,  p.  136. 

(4)  Luclcen-gowan : 
Bot. :  The  Globe-flower. 

(5)  Witch-gowan :  (See  extract). 

"  Witch-gowan  flowers  are  large  yellow  gowanB,  with 

a  stalk  filled  with  pernicious  sap,  resembling  milk, 
which  when  anointed  on  the  eyes  is  believed  to  cause 
instant  blindness.  This  pernicious  juice  is  called 
by  the  peasantry  witches'  milk." — Remains  Nithsdale 
Song,  p.  110. 

gd'w'-aned,  a.    [Eng.  gowan;  -ed.]    Covered 
with  the  mountain  daisy. 

"  On  yon  gowaned  lawn  she  was  seen." 

Tarras:  Poems,  p.  80. 

gd'w'-an-y,  go'w'-an-ie,  a.  [Eng.  gowan ;  -y.  ] 

1.  Abounding  with  mountain  daisies. 

2.  Having  a  fair  and  promising  appearance  ■ 
as,  a  gowanie  day,  a  day  which  has  a  flattering 
appearance,  but  attended  with  such  circum- 

stances as  are  commonly  understood  to  indi 
cate  an  approaching  storm. 

gowd,  s.    [Gold.] 

eowd  -an-ook,  g<Swd'-nook,  gaup- 
nook  s  [Etym.  doubtful.]  A  name  given 
by  the  fishermen  on  the  shores  of  the  Frith  of 
Forth,  to  the  Saury  Pike  of  Pennan.,  Esoat 
saurus,  Linn,  occasionally  called  the  Snipe 
fish.  It  arrives  in  the  Forth  in  shoals,  generally 
about  the  month  of  September. 

"  Sometimes  about  the  end  of  September,  there 
comes  a  vast  ehoal  of  fish,  called  gowdanooks.  or  Egyp- 
tian herrings.*'— P.  Alloa,  Statist.  Ace,  viii.  598, 

g6wd'-en,  g6wd'-an, «.    [Golden.] 
gowden  knap,  s.    A  species  of  pear. 

"  The  golden-knap  or  gouden-knap,  as  it  is  here 
called,  seema  peculiar  to  this  part  of  Scotland,"— Agric. 
Survey  of  Stirlingshire,  p.  202. 

gdw'-die,  s.    [Scotch  gowd  =  gold  ;  suff.  -ie.] 
Ichthy. :  The  Sword  Dragonet,  Callionymus 


go'rv'-lSh,  a.  [Eng.  gow;  -ish.]  Foolish; 
silly ;  stupid. 

g<Sw'  ish-ness,$.  [Eng.gowish;  -ness.}  Folly  ; 

"As  fine  a  specimen  of  gowishnes*  as] I  have  ever 
seen."— Gall :  Encycl.,  p.  224. 

g<5wk,  gouk,  a.     [Gawk.] 

1.  A  cuckoo. 

"The  cuckoo  (Cuculus  canorus),  at  gouk.  of  this 
place." — Barry  :  Orkney,  p.  811. 

2.  A  fool ;  a  simpleton. 

"  '  Hout  awa,  ye  auld  gowk,'  said  Jenny  Eintherout. " 
—Scott:  Antiquary,  ch.  x. 

%  To  hunt  the  { 

'c :  To  go  on  a  fool's  errand. 

gowk's  errand,  s.  A  fool's  errand;  an 
April  errand. 

gowk-storm,  gowk's-storm,  s. 

1.  Lit. :  A  storm  consisting  of  several  days 
of  tempestuous  weather,  believed  by  the 
peasantry  to  take  place  periodically  about  the 
beginning  of  April,  at  the  time  that  the  gowk, 
or  cuckoo,  visits  this  country. 

2,  Fig. :  To  denote  an  evil,  or  obstruction, 
which  is  only  of  short  duration. 

"That  being  done,  he  hoped  that  this  was  but  a 
gowk-storm." — Sir  G.  Mackenzie  :  Memoirs,  p.  70. 

g6"wk'-lt,  gauk-it,  gokt,  a.  [Eng.  gowk; 
-it;  -ed.]    Foolish,  stupid,  silly, 

"  Ane  hundreth  standis  heiiby 
Feranter  ar  as  gauckit  f  ulis  as  I." 

Lyndsay:  S.  P.  R.,  ii.  98. 

gowl,  v.i.     [Goul.]    To  howl ;  to  yowl. 

"  May  ne'er  misfortune's  gowling  bark, 
Howl  thro'  the  dwelling  of  the  clerk  [" 

Burns  :  To  Gavin  Hamilton,  Esq. 

gd"wle,  s.    [Fr.  gueule  ;  Lat.  gula  —  the  throat.] 
A  hollow  between  hills ;    a   defile    between 
"  From  thence  we,  passing  by  the  windy  gowle, 
Did  make  the  hollow  rocks  with  echoes  yowle." 

H.  Adamson:  Muses  Thrcnodie,  p.  149. 

gow'-lee,  gaw-a-lee,  gaw-a-li,  gaw-a- 
ree,  s.  [Hind,  goala ;  Mahratta  gawaree  =  a 
cowherd.]    A  cowherd.    (Anglo-Indian.) 

gowl'-ing,  s.     [Gouling.]    (Scotch.) 

g<Swn,  *goune,  s.  [Probably  from  Wei.  gwn 
—  a  gown  ;  gunio  =  to  sew  ;  Fr.  gunn  ;  Gael. 
&  Corn,  gun;  Manx,  goon;  cf.  O.  Fr  gone=. 
a  gown.] 

I.  Lit.  :  A  long,  loose  upper  garment : 
specif. — 

(1)  A  woman's  dress  or  outer  garment. 

"  Let's  amongst  ourselves  agree. 
Of  what  her  wedding  gown  shall  be." 

Drayton  ;  Muses'  Elysium,  Nymph,  a 

(2)  A  loose  wrapper  worn  by  gentlemen  in- 
doors ;  a  dressing-gown. 

(3)  The  official  or  distinctive  dress  worn  by 
members  of  certain  professions,  as  divinity, 
medicine,  law,  and  also  by  students  of  uni- 
versities, officials  of  a  court  of  justice,  &c 

*'  He  set  out  for  his  constitutional  in  his  cap  and 
gown.  "—Cuthbert  Bede :   Verdant  Green,  pt.  L,  ch.  8. 

*  4.  An  official  or  state  dress. 

"The  Duke  of  Buckingham  ware  a  gowne  wrought  of 
needle  worke  and  set  vpon  cloth  of  tissue,  furred  with 
sables.  —  Stow:  Henry  VII.  (an.  1507). 

II.  Figuratively : 

1.  The  dress  of  peace  ;  as  in  the  Latin  cedant 
arma  togce. 

"  The  toga,  or  gown,  seems  to  have  been  of  a  semi- 
circular form,  without  sleeves,  different  in  largeness 
according  to  the  wealth  or  poverty  of  the  wearer."— 
Rennet :  Roman  Antiquities,  pt.  ii.,  bk.  v.,  ch.  vii. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,    pot, 
or.  wore.  wolf,  work,  who,  son;  mute.  cub.  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  fall;  try,  Syrian,     je,  co  =  e.     ey  =  a.    qu  ~  kw. 

gown— grace 


2.  One  of  the  learned  professions  of  law  or 

"  Any  other  man  of  the  gown."— Macaulay  :  Bist. 

En-/.,  en.  xiii.  - 

*  3.  Any  dress,  garb,  or  covering. 

"  He  comeB,  and  in  the  gown  of  humility." 

Shakesp. :  Coriolanus,  ii  3. 

4.  The  members  of  the  University  of  Oxford, 
as  opposed  to  town,  the  citizens  or  towns- 

"When  Gown -was  absent  Town  was  miserable. " — 
Cuthbert  Bede  :  Verdant  Green,  pt.  ii.,  eh.  ill. 

gown's-man,  gown-man,  a.  [Gowns- 

gown,  v.t.  &i.    [Gown,  s.] 

A.  Trans. :  To  put  a  gown  on ;  to  dress  in  a 
gown.    (Used  only  in  the  pa.  par.) 

"  Regent  of  the  gowned  race." 

Cowper:  Death  of  Vice-Chancellor. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  put  on  a  gown ;  to  dress 
oneself  in  a  gown. 

gowns-man,  go*wn'-man,  s.    [Eng.  gown, 

and  -man.] ' 

1,  A  member  of  one  of  the  learned  profes- 
sions ;  one  whose  professional  dress  is  a  gown, 
as  a  lawyer,  a  professor  or  student  at  the 
universities,  &c. 

"  A  load  murmur  of  applause  arose  from  the  govms- 
men  who  filled  the  hall,"  —  Macaulay ;  Hist.  Eng., 
ch.  viiL 

2.  One  devoted  to  the  arts  of  peace,  in  con- 
tradistinction to  a  soldier. 

"  Asoldier  who  ran  away  from  abattle,  and  &goums- 
man  who  pushed  himself  into  a  battle  were  the  two 
objects  which  most  strangely  excited  William's  itpleeu." 
—Macaulay  :  Bist,  Eng.  ch.  xvi. 

gow  pen,  go'w'-pin,  gow'-ping,  s.   [Icel. 
gaupn,  gupn  =  the  hollow  of  the  nand ;  Sw. 
I.  Ordinary  Language: 

1.  The  hollow  of  the  hand,  when  contracted 
in  a  semicircular  form  to  receive  anything. 
Goupins,  both  hands  held  together  in  the  form 
of  a  round  vessel. 

2.  A  handful. 

"And  nocht  allanerly  kepis  thair  faith  efter  the 
reason  of  thair  contract,  bot  geuys  aaegowpin,  or  ellis 
sum  thingis  mair  abone  the  just  meaure  that  tbay 
pell." — Bellendene  :  Descr.  Alb.,  ch.  16. 

II.  Scot's  Law :  One  of  the  perquisites  al- 
lowed to  a  miller's  servant. 

gow'-pen,  g<Jw'-pm,  v.t.  [Gowpen,  s.]  To 
lift,  or  lade  out,  with  the  hands  spread  out 
and  placed  together. 

gd'w'-pen-ful,  gow'-pin  -  ful,  s.  [Eng. 
gowpen ;  -full.]    A  handful. 

gowt,  s.  [Gote  (1),  s.]  A  sluice  in  'a  sea-em- 
bankment for  letting  out  the  land-water  when 
the  tide  is  out,  and  preventing  the  ingress  of 

*gd'-zellt  3.  [Fr.  groseille;  Sp.  grosella.']  A 

*  goz  zard,  s.    [A  corrupt,  of  gooseherd.] 

1.  One  who  tends  geese ;  a  gooseherd. 

"  A  person  called  a gozzard— i.e..  a  gooBeherd,  attends 
the  flock." — Pennant:  Brit.  Zoology;  The  Graylag 

2.  A  fool,  a  simpleton,  a  goose. 

graaf'-i-an,  a.    [See  def.] 

Anat. :  Pertaining  to  Herr  de  Graaf,  dis- 
coverer of  the  follicles  described  in  the  com- 

graafian-follicles,  s.  pi. 

Anat  :  Small  follicles  in  the  human  ovary 
containing  ova. 

grab,  v.t.  &  i.  [Sw.  grabba  -  to  grasp.] 
[Grapple,  Grip,  Gripe.] 

A.  Trans. :  To  seize,  clutch,  or  grasp  sud- 
denly or  eagerly. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  make  a  clutch  or  grab  at. 

grab-gains,  s.  The  act  of  thieving. by 
snatching  a  purse,  &c,  suddenly  and  running 
away  with  it. 

grab(l),  s.    [Grab,  v.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  A  sudden  grasp,  clutch,  or 
seizing  of  anything. 

2.  Moxh. :  An  instrument  for  clutching  ob- 
jects for  the  purpose  of  raising  them.  The 
term  is  specially  applied  to  devices  for  with- 
drawing pipes,  drills,  reamers,  &c,  from  arte- 
sian, oil,  and  other  wells  which  are  drilled, 
bored,  or  driven.- 

grab  (2),  &'.    [Native  name.] 

Naut. :  A  large  East  Indian  coaster,  two- 
masted,  with  a  prow-stern,  and  from  150  to 
300  tons'  burden. 

grab'-ber,  s.  [Eng.  grab;  -er.]  One  who 
grabs  or  seizes  suddenly  or  eagerly.  [Land- 

"A  tenant  farmer,  whom  Mr. denounced  as  a 

lajid  grabber."— Daily  Telegraph,  Oct.  27, 1880. 

*grab'-ble(l),  *gra-ble,  v.i.  [A  frequent, 
of  grab  (q.v.)  ;  cf.  Dut.  grabbden  =  to  snatch  ; 
Ger.  griibeln  =  to  grab.]  [Grapple,  Grope.] 
To  grope,  to  feel  about. 

"And  so  [Cato]  went  forward  at  adventure,  taking 
extream  and  incredible  pains,  and  in  much  danger  of 
his  life,  grabling  all  night  in  the  dark  without  moon- 
light."—North :  Plutarch,  p.  291. 

*  grab'-ble  (2),  v.i.  [Grovel.]  To  grovel ; 
to  lie  on  the  ground  prostrate  ;  to  Bprawl. 

grace,  *gras,  s.  [Fr.,  from  Lat.  gratia  = 
favour,  from  grains  —  dear,  pleasing,  from  the 
same  root  as  Gr.  ^aipw  (chairo)  =  to  rejoice ; 
Xapa  (chara)  =  joy ;  x<*P«  (c?uzris)  =  grace, 
favour ;  Eng.  yearn.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Favour,  kindness,  good-will ;  disposition 
to  oblige. 

"  Or  each,  or  all,  may  win  a  lady's  grace." 

Dryden :  Palamon  &  Arcite,  it  894. 

2.  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  5. 

"  Judgment,  umpire  in  the  strife, 
That  Grace  and  Nature  have  to  wage  through  life." 
Cowper  :  Tirocinium,  80. 

*  3.  Pardon,  mercy. 

"  Wilt  thou  kneel  for  grace  ?  ■ 

Shakesp.  ;  3  Henry  VI.,  ii.  2. 

i.  A  favour  conferred ;  a  kindness. 
"  Certis  aaid  he,  I  n'ill  thine  offred  grace 
Ne  to  be  made  so  happy  doe  intend." 

Spenser:  P.  Q.,  II.  vii.  33. 

5.  An  allowance  granted  as  a  favour,  not  as 
of  right :  as,  To  give  a  person  ten  minutes' 
grace  to  keep  an  appointment. 

*  6.  Honourable  distinction ;  honour. 

"  Do  grace  to  them  and  bring  tuem  in." 

Shakesp. :  Hamlet,  ii,  2. 

*  7.  A  privilege. 

*'  But  to  return  and  view  the  cheerful  skies, 
To  few  great  Jupiter  imparts  this  grace  ." 

Dryden  :  Virgil ;  JZneid  vt  198. 

8.  That  element  or  characteristic  in  beha- 
viour, deportment,  or  language  which  renders 
it  elegant,  graceful,  or  pleasing ;  elegance  in 
action  or  language. 

"  In  this  case,  the  roundness,  this  delicacy  of  atti- 
tude and  motion,  it  is  that  all  the  magick  of  grace 
consists." — Burke  :  On  the  Sublime  &  Beautiful,  §  22. 

9.  Any  excellence  which  conciliates  love  or 
makes  pleasing  to  others  ;  any  endowment  or 
quality  which  recommends  the  possessor  to 
the  favour,  liking,  respect,  or  esteem  of  other 

"Nothing  could  be  more  natural  than  that  graces 
and  accomplishments  like  his  should  win  a  female 
heart," — Macaulay ;  Bist.  England,  ch.  xv, 

10.  An  embellishment,  an  ornament,  a 

11.  (PI-)  A  game  designed  to  promote  or 
display  grace  of  motion.  It  consists  in  pass- 
ing a  small  hoop  from  one  to  another  by 
means  of  two  short  sticks. 

12.  An  affectation  of  refinement,  dignity,  or 

*  13.  Virtue,  power,  quality. 

"  0,  mickle  is  the  powerful  grace  that  lies 
In  plants,  herbs,  stones,  and  their  true  qualities." 
Shakesp. :  Romeo  &  Juliet,  ii  3. 

14.  A  form  of  respect  used  in  addressing  or 
speaking  of  an  archbishop  or  a  duke  ;  formerly 
used  also  of  a  sovereign. 

"High  and  mighty  king,  your  grace,  and  those  your 
nobles  here  present,  may  oe  pleased  to  bow  your  ears." 
— Bacon :  Henry  VII. 

*  15.  A  blessed  disposition  of  mind  ;  virtue. 
"If  you  have  any  pity,  grace,  or  manners." 

Shakesp. :  Midsummer  Night's  Dream,  ii.  2. 

*  16.  Thanks. 

"  Yeldinge graces  and  thankinges  to  here  lord  Melibe.** 
—Chaucer  :  Tale  of  Melibeus,  [>.  193. 

17.  A  short  prayer  before  or  after  meat ;  a 
blessing  asked  or  thanks  returned. 

"  Your  soldiers  use  him  as  the  grace  'fore  meat." 

Shakesp. :  Coriolanus,  iv.  7. 
II.  Technically: 

1.  Greek  Myth. :  One  of  three  sister  god- 
desses, called  Aglai'a,  Thalia,  and  Euphrosyne, 
daughters  of  Jupiter  and  the  ocean  nymph 
Eurynome.  In  their  gift  were  grace,  loveli- 
ness, and  favour.  By  the  Greeks  they  were 
known  as  Charitgs,  and  by  the  Romans  as 

2.  Law :  A  facultyj  licence,  or  dispensation  ; 
a  general  or  free  pardon  by  Act  of  Parlia- 
ment; called  also  an  Act  of  Grace. 

"Between  an  Act  of  &race  originating  with  thv 
sovereign  and  an  Act  of  Indemnity  originating  with 
the  EstateB  of  the  Realm  there  are  some  remarkable 
distinctions  An  Act  of  Indemnity  passes  through  all 
the  stages  through  which  other  laws  pass,  and  may 
during  its  progress,  be  amended  by  either  House.  ;Au' 
Act  of  Graa  is  received  with  peculiar  marks  of  re- 
spect, is  react  only  onoe  by  the  Lords  and  ouce  by  the 
Commons,  aud  must  be  either  rejected  altogether  or 
accepted  as  it  stands."— Macaulay;  Hist.  £ng„  ch.  xv. 

3.  Music:  A  general  term  for  ornamental 
notes  or  short  passages,  introduced  as  embel- 
lishirients  into  vocal  or  instrumental  music, 
not  actually  essential  to  its  harmony  or 
melody.  In  former  times,  in  vocal  music, 
the  selection  of  graces  was  left  to  the  judg- 
ment of  the  performer  to  a  great  extent,  but 
in  instrumental  music  numerous  signs  have, 
from  time  to  time,  been  used,  explanations  of 
which  will  be  found  under  their  distinctive 
names.  In  our  own  time  a  reaction  has  taken 
place  against  the  absurd  embellishments  in- 
dulged in  by  our  forefathers,  and  it  has  be- 
come fashionable  to  sing  and  play  music  just 
as  it  is  written.  This  is  perhaps  to  be  re- 
gretted, as  those  who  are  rendering  music 
should  carefully  consider  whether  the  writer 
wished  ornaments  to  be  excluded  or  omitted 
to  write  them  under  a  belief  that  they  would 
certainly  be  introduced  in  performance. 
(Skiiner  o&  Barrett.)    [Cadenza.] 

4.  Univ. :  An  act,  vote,  or  decree  of  ■  the 
senate  or  governing  body. 

"  What  I  mean  is  in  relation  to  the  grace,  which  Ahe 
assertors  of  the  right  of  appeal  thought  fit  to  propose, 
in  order  to  refer  the  decision  of  this  point  to  the  arbi- 
tration of  the  senate."—  Nurd:  Opinion  of  an  Eminent 

5.  Scrip. :  The  word  grace  with  a  religious 
meaning  is  used  in  many  senses  in  Scripture. 
The  most  distinctive  are — 

(1)  Unmerited  favour  (Rom.  iii.  24,  iv.  4). 
It  is  opposed  to  debt — i.e.,  is  not  a  payment 
of  debt  (Rom.  iv.  4) — and  to  works— i. e.,  it  is 
not  merited  by  good  works  (ibid.).  It  is  called 
the  grace  of  God  (Titus  ii.  11),  and  the  grace 
of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  (Acts  xv.  11 ;  2  Cor. 
xiii.  14).  By  the  "grace  of  God"  is  meant 
his  love  for  mankind,  as  evinced  by  sending 
his  Son  into  the  world  to  make  atonement  for 
sin  and  offer  salvation  through  faith  in  his 
blood  (Eph.  xi.  7,  8  ;  Acts  xx.).  "The  grace 
of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ"  signifies  his  loving 
favour  as  evinced  by  his  undertaking  ami 
carrying  out  this  mission  of  mercy  (2  Co) . 
viii.  9). 

(2)  The  resultB  of  such  favour ;  privilege, 
as  of  apostleBhip,  &c.  (Ephes.  iii.  8 ;  1  Petei 
i.  10). 

(3)  The  transforming  influence  of  the  Spirit 
of  God.    (Acts  xviii.  21.) 

(4)  The  results  of  such  influence,  spiritual 
and  moral  character,  conduct,  and  conversa- 
tion and  attainments,  &c.  (2  Cor.  viii.  6; 
Col.  iv.  6).  In  this  sense  the  Christian  is 
supposed  to  have  many  graces  ;  as,  for  in- 
stance, the  grace  of  liberality  (2  Cor.  viii.  7). 

(5)  Loving  character,  benevolence,  suavity, 
sympathy.  Used  pre-eminently  of  Jesus.  In 
this  sense  it  is  sometimes  coupled  with  truth 
(John  i.  14,  17). 

6.  Ch.  Hist. :  Such  doctrines  as  those  relat- 
ing to  the  decrees  of  God,  predestination, 
freewill,  and  the  operations  of  the  Holy  Spirit 
on  the  human  conscience,  are  often  called 
the  Doctrines  of  Grace.  A  great  contest 
arose  on  the  subject  in  the  fifth  century, 
the  antagonistic  views  being  those  of  Pelagius 
and  Celestius,  who  gave  much  prominence  to 
the  tenet  of  man's  natural  ability  to  do 
what  is  right  [Pelagianism,  Semipblaginism], 
and  of  Augustine,  who,  strongly  holding  the 
sovereignty  of  God,  the  natural  depravity  of 
man,  and  the  spiritual  inability  thus  resulting, 
attributed  the  salvation  of  the  latter  solely  to 
Divine  grace,  with  little  of  human  co-opera- 
tion. The  controversy  thus  commenced  went 
on  with  intermissions  for  some  centuries.  At 
the  Reformation  Luther  held  views  essentially 
Augustinian,  as  did  most  of  the  other  re- 
formers. Calvin  formulated  them  as  one  of 
his  five  points.  [Calvinism.]  In  the  next  cen- 
tury the  antagonistic  system  of  Arminianism 
was  also  formulated  and  urged  upon  the 
church.  [Arminians,]  It  leans  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Pelagianism,  but  stops  considerably 
short  of  that  system  in  its  extreme  form. 

1[  (1)  *  To  do  grace : 

(a)  To  embellish,  to  become  well,  to  set  oil" 
"Mourning  doth  thee  grace.'       Shakesp.  :  Sonnet  133. 

boil,  b63^;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  chin,  bench;   go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    -ing. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,    sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.     -clous,  -tious,    sious  —  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  —  bel.  del. 


grace— graciousness 

(b)  To  reflect  credit  upon. 

"  To  do  the  profession  some  {trace." 

Sliakedp. ;  1  Henry  IV.,  ii.  i. 

(2)  Day  of  grace  ; 

(a)  Law:  [Day,  C.  4(1)1. 

(6)  Tlieol. :  The  time  during  which  divine 
grace  is  obtainable  by  one  who  seeks  it  in 
prayer ;  the  period  during  which  probation 
extends — i.e.,  during  which  one  is  in  this 
world.  The  expression  "day  of  grace"  does 
not  occur  in  Scripture  ;  it  is  regarded  as  the 
same  in  meaning  with  day  of  salvation  in  'A 
Cor.  vi.  2.  iThis  again  is  a  quotation  from 
Isa.  xlix.  8.  Cf.  also  Heb.  iv,  7,  which  is  u 
quotation  from  Psalm  xcv.  7,  8.  I)ay  of  grace 
is  the  opposite  of  the  day  of  wrath,  Rom. 
ii.  5. 

"  That  day  of  grace  fleets  fast  away."        Watts. 

(3)  Days  of  grace  : 
Comm.:  [Day,  C.  4(2)]. 

(4)  Means  of  grace : 

Theol. :  Means  through  which  Divine  grace 
may  be  expected  to  operate.  (Often  used  of 
attendance  on  Christian  worship.) 

(5)  Throne  of  grace : 

Scrip. :  A  figurative  expression,  the  literal 
meaning  of  which  would  be  a  throne  from 
which  God  dispenses  his  loving  favour. 

(6)  To  come  to  tlie  throne  of  grace :  To  ap- 
proach God  in  prayer  (Heb.  iv.  16). 

(7)  To  get  into  (or  to  be  in)  one's  good  graces  : 
To  become  (or  be)  in  favour  or  friendship  with 

(8)  With  a  good  grace :  Gracefully,  graciously; 
with  a  show  of  willingness  and  pleasure. 

"What  might  have  been  done  with  a  good  grace 
would  at  last  be  done  with  a  bad  grace." — Macaulay  : 
Hist,  ling.,  ch.  iv. 

(9)  With  a  had  grace ;  Ungraciously,  un- 

%  (1)  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between 
grace  and  favour :  "  Grace  is  never  used  but  in 
regard  to  those  who  have  offended  and  made 
themselves  liable  to  punishment ;  favour  is 
employed  for  actual  good.  .  .  .  The  term 
favour  is  employed  indiscriminately  with  re- 
gard to  man  or  his  Maker  ;  those  who  are  in 
power  have  the  greatest  opportunity  of  con- 
ferring favours ;  but  all  we  receive  at  the 
hands  of  our  Maker  must  be  acknowledged  as 
a.  favour," 

(2)  He  thus  discriminates  between  grace  and 
cluxrm:  "Grace  is  altogether  corporeal;  clw,rm 
is  either  corporeal  or  mental :  the  grace  quali- 
fies the  action  of  the  body,  the  charm  is  an 
inherent  quality  in  the  body  itself.  A  lady 
moves,  dances,  and  walks  with  grace;  the 
cltarms  of  her  person  are  equal  to  those  of  her 
mind."    (Crabb:  Eng.  Synon.) 

*  grace  drink,  s.  The  designation  com- 
monly given  to  the  drink  taken  by  a  com- 
pany, after  the  giving  of  thanks  at  the  end  of 
a  meal ;  a  grace-cup. 

"To    this    queen    [Margaret,    Malcolm    Caninoie's 

Sueen]  tradition  says  we  owe  the  custom  of  the  grace- 
rink  ;  she  having  established  it  as  a  rule  at  her  table, 
that  whoever  staid  till  grace  was  said,  was  rewarded 
with  a  bumper." — Encycl.  Britann.,  s.  v.  Forfar. 

grace-notes,  s.  pi. 

Music:  [Grace,  s.,  II.  3]. 

grace-stroke,  s.    A  finishing  touch  or 
stroke  ;  a  coup-de-grace. 
•        "To  perfect  and  give  the  grace-strolce  to  that  very 
liberal  education."— Scotland  Characterized  (1701)  in 
Earl.  MisceU.,  vii.  377. 

grace,  v.t.    [Grace,  s.] 

1.  Ordinary  Language : 

*  1.  To  adorn,  to  decorate,  to  set  off. 

"  Ten  hardy  striplings,  all  in  bright  attire. 
And  graced  with  shining  weapons." 

Wordsworth :  Excursion,  bk.  vii. 

2.  To  add  grace  or  dignity  to ;  to  endow. 

"  With  many  a  social  vittue  graced." 
Longfellow:  Tales  of  a  Wayside  Inn.     (Prel.| 

*  3.  To  celebrate. 

"  And  indeed  great  reason  it  was,  that  he  that  was 
Lord  of  Heaven  should  have  his  descending  into  the 
fleah  graced  and  owned  with  the  testimonies  of  stars 
and  augels." — South :  Sermons,  vol.  xi.,  scr.  4. 

*  4.  To  dignify  or  raise  by  an  act  of  favour ; 
to  honour. 

"He  might  at  his  pleasure  graceor  disgrace  whom 
he  would  in  court."— Knolles  :  Historic  oftlie 

*  5.  To  exalt ;  to  praise. 

"  I  will  grace  the  attempt  for  a  worthy  exploit." 
Shakesp.  :  All's  Well  That  Ends  Welt,  iii.^6. 

*  6.  To  favour ;  to  oblige. 

"  8o  you  will  grace  me  .  .  .  with  your  fellowship 
O'er  these  waste  downs  whereon  I  lost  myself." 

Tennyson ;  Elaine,  224 

*  7.  To  supply  with  heavenly  grace. 

"  Grace  the  disobedient." — Bp.  Hall. 

II.  Music :  To  add  grace-notes,  cadenzas, 

&c.  to. 

v  gra'ce-ciip,  s.     [Eng.  grace,  and  cup.] 

1.  A  cup  or  vessel  in  which  a  health  is 
drunk  after  grace. 

2.  A  health  drank  after  grace. 

"  The  gracecup  follows  to  his  Sovereign's  health." 
King :  Art  of  Cookery,  275. 

graced,  pa.  par.,  &  a.    [Grace,  v.] 

A.  As  pa.  par :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective : 

1.  Endowed  with  graces ;  graceful ;  elegant ; 

"He  saw  this  geDtleman,  one  of  the  properest  and 
best  graced  men  that  ever  I  Raw,  being  of  a  middle  age 
and  a  mean  stature."— Sidney:  Arcadia. 

*  2.  Virtuous,  chaste,  honourable. 

"  More  like  a  tavern  or  a  brothel, 
Than  a  graced  palace."  Shakesp. :  Lear,  L  4. 

gra'ce-ful,  a.     [Eng.  grace ;  -ful(l).~] 

1.  Pull  of  or  displaying  grace  or  beauty  in 
form  or  action  ;  elegant ;  neat ;  handsome. 

"  My  boy  was  by  my  side,  so  slim 
And  grace/id  in  his  rustic  dress," 

Wordsworth  ;  Anecdote  for  Fatliers. 

2.  Elegant,  well-chosen,  becoming. 

"  He  took  his  seat  there  with  the  mace  at  his  right 
hand,  rose,  and  in  a  few  graceful  words  returned  his 
thanks." — Macaulay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xiv. 

^[  1.  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  grace- 
fid,  comely,  and  elegant:  "A  graceful  figure  is 
rendered  so  by  the  deportment  of  the  body. 
A  comely  figure  has  that  in  itself  which  pleases 
the  eye.  Elegant  is  applicable,  like  graceful, 
to  the  motion  of  the  body,  or  like  comely,  to 
the  person,  and  is  extended  in  its  meaning 
also  to  the  words  and  even  to  the  dress.  A 
person's  step  is  graceful;  his  air  or  his  move- 
ments are  elegant;  the  grace  of  an  action  lies 
chiefly  in  its  adaptation  to  the  occasion." 
(Crabb :  Eng.  Synon.) 

2.  For  the  difference  between  graceful  and 
becoming,  see  Becoming. 

gra'ce-ful-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  graceful;  -ly.]  In 
a  graceful  or  elegant  manner ;  elegantly ;  with 
gracefulness  or  elegance  of  manner  or  deport- 

"  Lamps  gracefully  disposed,  and  of  all  hues, 
Illumined  every  side. '       Cowper :  Task,  v.  149. 

grace  fulness,  s.  [Eng.  graceful;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  graceful ;  grace  ; 
elegance  of  manner  or  deportment ;  dignity 
with  beauty. 

"In  like  manner  the  flowers  and  adornments  of 
Moral  Philosophy,  are  apt  and  serviceable  for  the 
affecting  and  entertaining  our  Imagination  by  the 
gracefulness  and   elegancy   of   their   perswasions." — 

Mountague:  Devoute  Essayes,  pt.  i.,  tr.  19,  §  3. 

gra  ce-less,  *  grace-lesse,  a.  [Eng.  grace ; 
-less.]  Void  of  grace  or  dignity  ;  corrupt ;  de- 
praved ;  abandoned. 

"  A  graceless  heart."       Cowper;  Olney  Hymns,  lviii. 

t  gra'ce-less-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  graceless ;  -ly.] 
In  a  graceless  manner ;  without  grace  or 

"The  French,  in  his  whole  language,  hath  not  one 
word  that  hath  his  accent  in  the  last  syllable,  saving 
two,  called  antepenultima ;  and  little  more  hath  the 
Spanish  ;  and  therefore  very  gracelessly  may  they  use 
dactyls." — Sidney:  Defence  of  Poesy. 

t gra'ge-less-ness,  s.  s.  [Eng.  graceless; 
-ness.]    The  quality  or  state  of  being  graceless. 

*  grac'-er,  s.  [Eng.  grac(e);  -er.]  One  who 
graces  or  gives  grace. 

gr&c-i-lar'-i-a,  s.  [Lat.  gracilis)  =  thin, 
slender,  and  suff.  -aria.] 

1.  Bot. :  A  genus  of  rose-spored  Algse.  It 
contains  the  Corsican  and  Ceylon  "mosses." 
Called  also  Plocaria  (q.v.). 

2.  Entom.  :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family 
Gracilariidse  (q.v.).  Gracilaria  syringclla  dis- 
colours the  leaves  of  the  lilac  in  the  middle  of 
the  summer,  and  the  larva  of  G.  stigmatella  in 
August  and  September  rolls  the  leaves  of 
willow,  sallow,  and  poplar,  on  which  it  feeds, 
into  the  form  of  a  sugar-loaf.    (Stainton.) 

grac  i-la-ri'  l-dae,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  graci- 
laria), and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idas.  Named 
from  the  graceful  appearance  of  these  insects.) 
Entom. :  A  family  of  Moths,  group  Tineina. 
The  antenna?,  are  as  long  as  the  anterior  wings, 
which  are  elongate,  the  posterior  ones  lanceo- 

late. The  insect  reposes  with  its  head  much 
raised.  Larva?,  with  fourteen  legs,  lllll"n.f.m 
leaves  or  rolling  themselves  up.  .Brnasii 
species  known,  twenty-eight.     (Stainton.) 

*  grac'-ile,  *  grac'-i-lent,  a.  [Lat.  graci- 
lis, gracilentus.]    Slender,  small. 

grac'-i-lis,  s.     [Lat.  =  thin,  slender.] 

Anat. :  A  slender  muscle  of  the  thigh,  con- 
necting it  with  the  trunk.  Called  also  the 
Abductor  gracilis. 

*  gra-ciT-i-ty,  s.    [Lat.  gracilitas,  from  gra- 

cilis =  slender.]    Slenderness,  smallness. 

"  Reduced  to  little  more  than  a  third  of  its  original 
gracility,"—Sir  W.  Hamilton. 

gra'-cious,  *  gra-cios,  *  gra  ciouce, 
'  gra-ciouse,  a.  [Fr.  gracieux,  from  Lat. 
gratiosus,  from  gratia  —  favour,  grace  ;  Ital. 
grazioso ;  Sp.  &  Port,  gracioso.] 

1.  Endowed  with  grace  ;  well  -  disposed, 
kind,  affable. 

"He  was  a  gracious  master,  a  trusty  ally,  a  terrible 
enemy." — Macaulay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xiii. 

2.  Exhibiting  or  characterized  by  grace, 
kindness,  favour,  or  friendliness  ;  kind, 

"  The  stalks  he  gave  her 
With  a  gracious  gesture." 

Longfellow:  Musician's  Tale,  xvL 

3.  Full  of  grace,  mercy,  or  benevolence ; 
merciful,  benevolent,  beneficent,  benignant. 

"And the  Lord  was  gracious  unto  them,  and  had 
compassion  on  them," — 2  Kings  xiii  23. 

i.  Exhibiting  or  characterized  by  grace, 
mercy,  or  benevolence ;  merciful. 

"  The  call  of  Abraham  from  a  heathen  state,  repre- 
sents the  gracious  call  of  Christians  to  forsake  the 
wickedness  of  the  we-rld." — Gilpin:  Sermons,  vol.  ii, 
ser.  16. 

*  5.  In  a  state  of  heavenly  grace  ;  virtuous. 
"  Kings  are  no  less  unhappy,  their  issue  not  being 

gracious,  thau  they  are  in  losing  them  when  they  have 
approved  their  virtues."—  Shakesp.  :  Winter's  Tale, 
iv.  2. 

*  6.  Acceptable ;  finding  favour  or  grace  ; 

"  Is  he  gracious  in  the  people's  eyes  r" 

Shakesp.  :  3  Henry  VI.,  iii.  3. 

*  7.  Proceeding  from,  or  produced  by  divine 

*  8.  Tending  to  bring  into  a  state  of  grace  ; 
as,  a  gracious  sermon. 

*9.  Happy,  fortunate,  prosperous,  favour- 

"  Gracious  be  the  issue." 

Shakesp.  :  Winter's  Tale,  iii.  1. 

10.  Graceful,  attractive,  elegant,  comely, 

"  No  face  so  gracious  is  as  mine." 

Shakesp. :  Sonnet  62. 

TT  (1)  Gracious  is  used  as  a  mild  oath  or  in- 

"Married!  0,  my  gracious  I  Just  think  of  the 
creature's  talking  about  it !  "—Mrs.  H.  B.  Stowe  :  Bred, 
ch.  xi. 

(2)  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  gra- 
cious, merciful,  and  kind:  "Grace  is  exerted 
in  doing  good  to  an  object  that  has  merited 
the  contrary  ;  mercy  is  exerted  in  withholding 
the  evil  which  has  been  merited.  God  is  gra- 
cious to  his  creatures  in  affording  them  not 
only  an  opportunity  to  address  him,  but  every 
encouragement  to  lay  open  their  wants  to 
him ;  their  unworthiness  and  sinfulness  are 
not  made  impediments  of  access  to  him.  God 
is  merciful  to  the  vilest  of  sinners,  and  lends 
an  ear  to  the  smallest  breath  of  repentance ; 
in  the  moment  of  executing  vengeance  he  stops 
his  arm  at  the  voice  of  supplication ;  he  ex- 
pects the  same  mercy  to  be  extended  by  man 
towards  his  offending  brother.  Gracious,  when 
compared  with  kind,  differs  principallyfias 
to  the  station  of  the  persons  to  whom  it  is 
applied.  Gracious  is  altogether  confined  to 
superiors  ;  kind  is  indiscriminately  employed 
for  superiors  and  equals."  (Crabb:  Eng. 

gra'-cious-ly,  *gra-cious-liche,  *gra- 
cyous-ly,  *  gra-cyous-lye,  adv.  [Eng. 
gracious;  -ly.] 

2;  ?.n,  a  Sraciou3  manner;  with  kindness, 
affability,  or  friendliness. 

"  Kje  brave  aduentures  of  this  faery  knight, 
The  good  Sir  Guyon,  graciously  to  heare." 

Spenser. ■  F.  Q.  II.   (Introd.) 

*  2.  Virtuously,  holily. 

"  Graciously  to  know  I  am  no  better." 

Shakesp.  :  Measure  for  Measure,  ii.  4. 

gra'-oious-ness,  s.    [Eug.  gracious;  -ness.] 
1.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  gracious, 

iate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pot 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian.    »,  03  =  e ;    ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

grackle— graduate 


favourable,    merciful,    kind,    or  benignant ; 

kind  condescension. 

"  The  graciougness  and  temper  of  this  answer  made 
no  impression  on  them ;  hut  they  proceeded  in  their 
usual  manner.' — Clarendon:  Civil  War,  i.  326. 

*  2.  The  quality  orstate  of  being  acceptable ; 

"Then  it  is  [when  a  sinner  repents]  that  our  blessed 
Lord  feels  the  fruits  of  his  holy  death,  the  acceptation 
of  his  holy  sacrifice,  the  graciousness  of  his  person,  the 
return  of  his  prayers." — Bp.  Taylor:  Sermons,  vol.  i., 
ser.  1. 

*  grac'-kle,  s.  [Lat.  gracuhis  —  a  jackdaw  ; 
from  the  sound  made  by  the  bird.]  A  bird  of 
the  genus  Gracula  (q.v.). 

grac'-U-la,  s.  [Lat.  gracuhis  =  a  jackdaw, 
according  to  Quinctilian,  from  its  note  gra, 

Ornith. ;  The  typical  genus  of  the  sub-family 
Graeulinse.  Gracula  reiigiosa,  the  Grackle  or 
Mina-bird,  is  found  in  Sumatra,  Java,  and  the 
adjacent  islands.  It  is  black,  variegated  with 
white,  the  legs,  bill,  and  some  caruncles  be- 
hind the  eye  yellow.  It  can  be  domesticated, 
and  can  be  taught  to  pick  up  some  words  in 
parrot  fashion.  Vieillot  called  it  Eulabes  ja- 

grac'-U-U'-nse,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  gracula,  and 
Lat.  fem.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ince.] 

Ornith.  :  A  family  of  Corvidse,  having  broad, 
slightly  curved  bills,  rounded  nostrils,  long 
•wings,  a  short  tail,  and  elongated  toes.  Found 
in  India  and  the  Eastern  Islands.    [Gracula.] 

gra'-C&  gra  -cie,  a.    [Eng.  grace ;  -y.] 

1.  Endowed  with  spiritual  grace  ;  religious. 

2.  Full  of  teaching  about  grace. 

"Made  a  gracy  sermon  like  a  PreBbyterian." — 
Pepys  :  Diary,  April  14, 1661. 

*  grad  -al,  s,    [Low  Lat.  gradale,  from  gracilis 

=  a  step.] 
Ecchs. :  A  gradual  (q.v.). 

gra-da'-tion,  s.    [Fr.,  from  Lat.  gradationem, 
ace.  of  gradatio  =  an  ascent  by  steps  ;  gracilis 
=  a  step  ;  Sp.  graduacion;  Ital.  gradazicme.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language ; 

1.  A  moving  or  progressing  by  degrees  ;  a 
regular  advance  or  progression  from  step  to 

"The  Chinlans  therefore  do  vse  a  kinde  of  grada- 
tion in  aduancing  men  vnto  Bundry  places  of  autho- 
rity."— Hackluyt:  Voyages,  vol.  ii.,  pt.  ii.,  p.  94. 

2.  A  step  or  degree  in  any  order,  series,  or 

"It  preserves  the  same  superiority  through  all  the 
subordinate  gradations." — Burke;  On  the  Sublime  A 
Beautiful,  pt,  ii.,  §  5. 

3.  Arrangement  in  order  according  to  size, 
quality,  rank,  degree  of  advancement,  &c. ; 

"  If  each  system  in  gradation  roll 
Alike  essential  to  th'  amazing  whole." 

Pope:  Essay  on  Man,  i.  247. 

II.  Technically: 

1.  Art:  The  just  arrangement  or  subordina- 
tion of  the  parts  of  any  woik,  so  as  to  produce 
the  best  effect ;  as  the  gradation  of  colour  and 
light  in  painting,  to  express  depth  and  relief, 
to  define  distances,  and  to  show  the  state  of 
the  atmosphere. 

2.  Logic :  A  regular  advance  from  step  to 
.    step,  as  in  an  argument. 

3.  Music ;  An  ascending  or  descending  by 
a  regular  succession  of  chords. 

i.  Rhet. :  An  ascending  or  descending  in 
terms,  as  towards  a  climax.  (Wilson :  Art  of 
Rhetorique,  p.  207.) 

*  gra-da'-tion,  v.t.  [Gradation,  s.]  To  form 
by  gradation  or  with  gradations. 

*  gra-da -tion-al,  a.  [Eng.  gradation;  -aZ.] 
Of  or  pertaining*  to  gradation ;  with  grada- 
tions ;  by  regular  steps. 

*  grad'-a-tdr-&  a.  &  s.  [Lat.  gradatus  = 
formed  with  steps  ;  gradus  =  a  step.] 

A*  As  adjective: 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  Proceeding  by  gradations  or 
steps  ;  gradational. 

"Could  this  gradatory  apoBtacy  [of  Macbeth]  have 
been  shown  ub  ;  could  the  noble  and  useful  moral 
which  results,  have  been  thus  forcibly  impressed  upon 
our  minds,  without  a  violation  of  those  senseless  uni- 
ties."—Seward,  let  iii.,  p.  343. 

2.  Zool,  :  Adaptable  for  progressive  or  for- 
ward motion. 

B.  As  substantive : 

Arch. ;  Steps  from  a  cloister  into  a  church. 

grad  -dan,  v.t,    [Graddan,  s.]    To  parch  or 

"At  breakfast  this  morning,  among  a  profusion  of 
other  things,  there  were  oat-cakes,  made  of  what  is 
called  graadaned  meal,  that  is,  meal  made  of  grain 
separated  from  the  husks,  and  toasted  by  fire,  instead 
of  being  threshed  and  kiln-dried. "  —  Boswell  :  Tour, 
p.  190. 

grad'  dan,  s.    [Gael.  &  Ir.  gradan  =  parched 

1.  Parched  corn. 

2.  Finely  ground  snuff,  made  of  leaf-tobacco, 
high-dried,  but  without  fermentation. 

grade,  s.     [Fr.,  from  Lat.  gradus  =  a  step; 
Sp.  &  Ital.  grado  ;  Port,  grao.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  A  degree,  step,  or  rank  in  order  of  dignity, 
civil,  ecclesiastical,  military,  or  otherwise. 

2.  A  step  or  degree  in  any  series,  quality, 
rank,  or  order. 

3.  The  inclination  from  the  horizontal  of  a 
portion  of  a  road  or  railroad.  It  is  expressed 
in  degrees,  in  feet  per  mile,  or  as  a  foot  in 
such  a  distance :  as,  a  grade  of  3°;  or,  a  grade 
of  35  feet  per  mile. 

IL  Philol. :  The  two  classes  of  consonants 
called  tenues  and  media. 

"Initial  consonants  retain  the  grade  of  each  organ 
in  the  purest  and  truest  way,  medial  consonants  have 
a  tendency  to  soften,  finals  to  harden.  By  the  ex- 
pression grade  must  be  understood  the  two  classes 
of  tenues  and  mediae." — Beames :  Comp.  Gram,  of  the 
Aryan  Lang,  of  India,  vol.  i.  (1872f,  chap,  iii.,  p.  190. 

grade,  v.t.    [Grade,  s.] 

1.  To  arrange  in  order,  steps,  or  degrees, 
according  to  size,  quality,  rank,  advancement, 

"  Nothing  is  more  characteristic  of  the  Blue-coa 
School  than  the  careful  way  in  which  it  is  graded."— 
Sir  A.  Grant :  Recess  Studies  (1870),  iii.  136. 

2.  To  mark  the  grades,  or  ascents  and 
descents  of. 

3.  To  reduce  to  or  construct  with  a  certain 
grade  or  inclination  :  as,  To  grade  a  road. 

grad  -ed,  pa.  par.  or  a.    [Grade,  v.] 

graded-school,  s.     A  school  taught  in 
departments  by  different  masters,  in  which 
the  pupils  pass  from  the  lower  to  the  higher 
classes  as  they  advance  in  education. 
gra'de-ly,  a.  &  adv.     [Graithlt.]  (Prov.) 

A.  As  adj. :  Decent,  proper ;  becoming. 

B.  As  adv. :  Decently,  properly,  becomingly. 

gra'-dl  -ent,  a.  &  s.     [Lat.  gradiens,  pr.  par. 
of  gradior  =  to  walk  ;  gradus  —  a  step.] 

A.  As  adjective: 

I.  Ordinary  Language  : 

I.  Walking,  moving,  or  advancing  by  steps. 

"  Amongst  those  gradient  automata,  that  iron 
spider  is  especiaUy  remarkable,  which,  being  but  of 
an  ordinary  bigness,  did  creep  up  and  down  as  if  it 
had  been  alive,  —  Wilkins  :  Dwdalus,  bk.  ii.,  oh.  iv. 
*2.  Rising  or  falling  by  regular  degrees  of 
inclination  :  as,  the  gradient  line  of  a  road. 

II.  Her.  :  A  term  applied  to  the  tortoise, 
as  supposed  to  be  walking. 

B.  As  substantive : 

1.  The  rate  of  ascent  or  descent  in  a  rail- 
way or  road ;  a  grade ;  the  degree  of  slope  or 
inclination  of  the  ground  over  which  a  railway, 
road,  &c,  passes  :  as,  The  gradient  is  1  in  100; 
that  is,  the  ground  rises  one  foot  in  every 
hundred  feet. 

2.  A  part  of  a  road,  &c,  which  slopes 
upward  or  downward ;  a  slope. 

gradient-post,  s. 

Railroad  Engineering : 

1.  A  post  placed  by  the  side  of  the  track,  at  a 
change  of  grade,  carrying  a  board  slanted  to 
the  slope,  and  indicating  in  figures  the  grade 
in  feet  per  100,  or  otherwise. 

2.  A  stake  set  in  the  ground,  and  marked 
to  indicate  the  proper  height  of  an  embank- 
ment or  of  road  metal  at  that  point. 

gra'-din,  gra-di'ne,  s.    [Fr.  gradin—a.  step, 
from  Lat.  gradus.] 

1.  One  of  a  series  of  seats  rising  one  above 

2.  A  toothed  chisel  used  by  sculptors. 
grading,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  $.    [Grade,  v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst. :  The  act  or  process  of  reducing 
to  a  certain  grade  or  level. 

grading- instrument,  s.  A  level  with 
an  alidade,  a  transit,  or  other  sighting  instru- 
ment, by  which  the  angle  of  inclination  of  a 
slope  may  be  measured,  or  a  row  of  stakes 
driven  to  mark  a  given  gradient. 

grading-plough,  s.  A  kind  of  plough 
used  for  breaking  up  soil  or  ploughing  down 
banks,  in  order  to  fit  the  earth  for  being 
scooped  up  by  the  earth-scraper,  and  thereby 

grading  -  scraper,  s.  A  large  two- 
handled  shovel,  drawn  by  horses,  and  used 
as  an  earth-scoop  for  raising  and  removing 
loosened  earth.  It  is  used  in  road-making, 
scooping  out  beds  of  canals  in  certain  situa- 
tions, &c,  when  the  soil  is  suitable,  and  the 
distance  where  it  is  to  be  deposited  is  not  too 
great.    [Horse-shovel.] 

grad'-U-al,  a.  &  s.  [Low  Lat.  gradually,  from 
gradus  ='a.  Btep  ;  Fr.  gradual;  Ital.  graduale; 
Sp.  gradual.] 

A.  As  adj. :  Progressing  or  advancing  by 
steps  or  degrees  ;  passing  from  one  step  or 
stage  to  another  by  regular  gradations  with- 
out breaks  or  starts  ;  slow. 

"  Flowers  and  their  fruit 
Man's  nourishment,  by  gradual  scale  sublimed. 
To  vital  spirits  aspire."  Milton .-  P.  L.,  v.  483. 

B.  As  substantive : 

*  1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  A  series  or  order  of  steps. 

"  Before  the  gradual  prostrate  they  adored, 
The  pavement  kissed,  and  thus  the  saint  implored." 

2.  Ecclesiastical : 

(1)  A  service-book,  containing  the  hymns  or 
prayers  to  be  sung  by  the  choir,  so  called 
from  certain  short  phrases  after  the  Epistle 
sung  in  gradibus  (upon  the  steps  of  the  altar), 

(2)  That  part  of  the  service  of  the  mass  in 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church  which  imme- 
diately follows  the  Epistle,  and  is  sung  as  the 
deacon  returns  to  the  steps  of  the  altar. 

Eccles.  &  Ch.  Hist. :  Fifteen  psalms,  from 
Ps.  cxx.  to  Ps.  exxxiv.  inclusive;  so  called 
because  they  were  formerly  chanted  from  the 
steps  of  the  choir,  more  especially  during 
Advent.     [Songs  of  Degrees.] 

*  grad-u-a'-le,  a.  [Low  Lat.]  The  same  as 
Gradual,  B.  2. 

*  grad-u-al'-l-t^,  s.  [Eng.  gradual;  -ity.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  gradual ;  regular 
progression  or  gradation. 

"  Which  while  some  ascribe  unto  the  mixture  of  the 
elements,  others  to  the  graduality  of  opacity  and 
light,  they  have  left  our  endeavours  to  grope  them  out 
by  twilight." — Browne  :  Vulgar  Errours,  bk.  vl.,  ch.  x. 

grad'-U-al-ly,  adv.     [Eng.  gradual;  -ly.] 
1.  In  a  gradual  manner,  by  degrees  ;  step  by 
step,  slowly ;  in  regular  gradations. 

"  Already  the  designs  of  the  court  began  gradually 
to  unfold  themselves." — Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng., 

*  2.  In  degree. 

"  Human  reason  doth  not  only  gradually,  but  speci- 
fically, differ  from  the  fantastic  reason  of  brutes."— 

*  grad  -u-al-ness,  s.    [Eng.  gradual ;  -ness.] 

The  quality  or  state  of  being  gradual ;  gradu- 

".The  gradualness  of  this  movement  and  the  ob- 
scurity which  enwrapped  its  beginnings."— M.  Arnold : 
Study  of  Celtic  Literature,  p.  94. 

*  grad'-u-and,  s.  [As  if  from  the  gerundive 
participle  "of  an  imaginary  Low  Lat.  word 
graduor.  So  in  the  Scottish  universities  there 
is  a  word  magistrand,  from  a  Low  Lat.  verb 
magistror.]  One  who  has  passed  all  the  ex- 
aminations for  a  degree,  but  has  not  yet  been 

grad'-u-ate,  v.t.  &  i.  [Low  Lat.  graduatus 
=  one'who  has  taken  a  degree  ;  Lat.  gradus  = 
a  step,  a  degree  ;  Ital,  graduare ;  Sp.  &  Port. 
graduar  ;  Fr.  graduer.] 

A.  Transitive : 

L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  To  mark  with  degrees  or  a  scale. 

"  The  places  were  marked  where  the  spirit  Btood  at 
the  severest  cold  and  greatest  heat,  and  according  to 
these  observations  he  graduates  hia  thermometers," — 
Derham:  Physico-T/ieology,  bk.  i,  ch.  ii.  (note  8). 

2.  To  mark  or  arrange  with  degrees  or  dif- 
ferences :  as,  To  graduate  punishment  accord- 
ing to  the  nature  of  the  offence. 

"  Then  it  evidently  follows  that,  if  there  were  any 
such  action  in  the  next  life,  the  pure  soul  would  apply 
itself  thereunto  according  to  the  proportion  of  bt-i 
judgments,  and  as  they  are  graduated  and  qualified." 
—Digby :  Of  Man's  Soul,  ch.  ii. 

boiL,  bo^;  pout,  $6§rl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem; thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     pb  =  t 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.   -tion,  -sion  =  shun;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  deL 


graduate— grafting 

. '  3.  To  conifer  a  degree  upon  in  a  university  ; 
to  dignify  with  a  degree  or  diploma. 

"  John  Tregonwel,  graduated  a  doctor  and  dubbed  a 
kuight,  did  good  service."— Co-row:  Survey  of  Cornwall. 
*4.  To  prepare  gradually. 
*  5.  To  heighten  in  effect. 

"That  the  Baits  of  natural  bodies  dt>  wary  a  powerful 
stroke  in  the  tincture  and  verniah  of  all  thtngs,  we 
shall  not  deny,  if  we  contradict  not  experience,  and 
the  visible  art  of  dyftrs.  who  advance  and  graduate 
their  colours  with  salts.  —Browne :  Vulgar  Errours, 
bit.  vi.,  eh.  xii. 
■  -  IL  Chemistry; 
"  *1.  To  raise  to  a  higher  place  in  the  scale 
of  metals. 

"  The  tincture  was  capable  to  transmute  or  graduate 
as  much  silver  as  equalled  In  weight  that  gold.'  — 

2.  To  bring  a  fluid  to  a  certain  degree  of 
consistency,  as  by  evaporation. 
.    B.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  pass  gradually  or  by  degrees  ;  to 
change  gradually. 

2.  To  become  gradually  modified ;  to  shade  off. 

3.  To  .proceed  to  a  degree  in  a  university; 
to  take  a  degree. 

"  He  was  brought  to  their  bar,  and  asked  where  he 
had  graduated."— Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng  ,  ch.  xiv. 

grad'-U-ate,  a.  &  s.     [how  Lat.  graduatus.] 
[Graduate,  v.] 

A.  As  adj. :  Arranged  in  or  proceeding  by 
steps  or  degrees. 

B.  As  subst. :  One  who  has  proceeded  to  a 
degree  in  a  university  ;  one  who  has  been  ad- 
mitted to  a  degree. 

"  Invest  me  with  a  graduates  gown, 
Midst  shouts  of  all  beholders. ' 

Smart ;  On  taking  a  Bachelor's  Degree. 

grad'-u-a-ted,  pa.  par.  or  a.    [Graduate,  v.] 

,  graduate d-bottle,  s.  A  bottle  having 
.  horizontal  marks  blown,  pressed,  or  cut  on  its 
side  to  indicate  quantity  of  contents  at  given 
levels.  Sometimes  the  stopper  is  hollow,  and 
has  graduations  for  doses  of  certain  amounts. 

graduated-cup,  s.  A  medicine-cup,  on 
whose  sides  are  marks  to  indicate  quantities 
at  given  levels.  If  of  glass,  they  are  usually 
impressed  in  the  mould;  if  of  porcelain,  they 
are  painted  on  the  ware  before  burning. 

graduated-glass,  s.  A  tube  with  a 
foot,  and  with  horizontal  marks  at  varying 
heights  to  indicate  quantity  of  contents.  A 

grad'-u-ate-ship,  s.   [Eng.  graduate ;  -ship.] 
The  state"  or  position  of  a  graduate.] 

"[He  may]  finish  his  circuit  in  an  English  concord- 
ance and  a  topic  folio,  the  gatherings  and  savings  of  a 
1  sober  graduates/tip."— Milton :  Liberty  of  Unlicensed 

grad'-u-a-ting,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Grad- 
uate, v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj  :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst. :  The  act  of  dividing  into  de- 
grees or  parts  ;  graduation. 

graduating-englne,  s.    An  engine  or 

,,  machine  for  dividing  lines,  &c,  into  minute 

regular  intervals  or  degrees  ;  a  dividing-engine. 

grad-u-a'-tlon,  s.   [Low  Lat.  graduatio,  from 

?raduatus ;  Fr.  graduation ;  Sp.  graduation ; 
tal.  graduazione.] 

1.  Regular  progression  by  succession  of 

"  The  graduation  of  the  parts  of  the  universe  is  like- 
wise necessary  to  the  perfection  of  the  whole."— Grew. 

2.  The  act  of  dividing  into  degrees  or  parts, 
as  a  scale,  scientific  instruments,  &c. 

3.  A  scale  or  series  of  marks  or  lines  on  an 
instrument  to  indicate  degrees  or  parts. 

"Even  though  it  is  not  provided  with  a  graduation 
to  show  the  angle  through  which  it  has  been  turned." 
—Proceedings  of  the  Phys.  Soc.  of  London,  pt.  ii.,  p.  105. 

4.  The  act  or  process  of  improving  or 
heightening  in  effect  or  power. 

"  Of  greater  repugnancy  unto  reason  is  that  which 

he  delivers  concerning  i  ts  graduation,  that  heated  in 

lire,  and  often  extinguished  in  oil  of  mars  or  iron,  the 

loadstone  acquires  an  ability  to  extract  a  uall  fastened 

-   in  a  walL'— Browne  :  Vulgar  Errours. 

5.  The  act  of  proceeding  to  a  degree  in  a 
t  university ;  the  taking  of  a  degree. 

■  "The  laounty  which  that  Philosophical  Emperor, 
fMarcus  Antoniui]  as  wo  learn  from  Lucian,  bestowed 
upon  one  of  the  teachers  of  philoaophy,  probably 
lasted  no  longer  than  his  own  life.  There  was  nothing 
equivalent  to  the  privileges  of  graduation."— Smith: 
Wealth  of  Nations,  ok.  v.,  ch.  i. 

6.  The  exposure  of  a  liquid  in  large  sur- 
faces to  the  air,  so  as  to  accelerate  evaporation. 

grad'-U-a-tdr,  s.  [Eng.  graduat(e) ;  -or.] 
One  who  or  that  which  graduates  ;  specif. — 

(1)  An  instrument  for  dividing  any  line, 
right  or  curved,  into  equal  parts ;  a  gradua- 
ting or  dividing-engine. 

(2)  An  apparatus  for  accelerating  sponta- 
neous evaporation  by  the  exposure  of  surfaces 
of  liquids  to  a  current  of  air.  Used  in  making 

gra-duc'-tion,  s.  [Lat.  gradus  =  a  step,  and 
duco  =  to  lead.] 

A&tron.  :  The  division  of  circular  arcs  into 
degrees,  minutes,  &c. 

gra'-dus,  s,  [Lat.  =  a  step,  from  the  phrase  k 
gradus  ad  Parnassum  =  a  step  to  Parnassus.] 
A  dictionary  of  prosody,  used  as  an  aid  in 
writing  Greek  or  Latin  poetry. 

"  He  set  to  work  as  much  as  possible  without  gradus 
or  other  help."— T.  Buglies:  Tom  Brown's  School-Ouys, 
pt.  ii.,  ch.  iv. 

grad'-y,  s.     [Fr.  grade1.] 

Her. :  A  term  used  to  express  steps  or  de- 
grees, and  one  battlement  upon  another  ;  also 
called  battled  embattled  or  embattled  grady. 

*  graef,  s.    [Grave,  v.]    Carved  work. 

'•  Sculpturia,  grcef."—  Wrights  Vol.  of  Vocab.,  p.  89. 

*graf  (1),  s.    [Grave,  s.] 

*  graf  (2),  a.  [Ger.]  The  German  equivalent 
of  au  earl. 

*  grafe,  s.    [Grave,  s.] 

*  graf-er,  *  graf-ere,  s.    [Graver.] 

*  graft  (1),  s.  [A.S.  gerifa ;  0.  H.  Ger.  grdvo; 
Dan.  greve;  O.  Fris.  greva ;  Icel.  griefi.]  A 
steward,  an  overseer,  a  greave. 

"  For  all  this,  he  [a  prince]  is  nothing  but  a  servant, 
overseer,  or  graff,  and  not  the  head,  which  is  a  title  be- 
longing only  to  Christ."— Knox:  Hist,  of  the  Reforma- 
tion. (Pre! J 

*  graff  (2),  *graffe  (1),  s.  [A.S.  gnvfe;  O. 
H.  Ger.  grabo ;  M.  H.  Ger.  grdbe ;  Goth. 

1.  A  ditch,  trench,  foss,  or  channel. 

"The  enemy  foraaking  our  workes  unconquered,  the 

?raffe  filled  with  their  dead  bodies,  equal  tothe  bitnek, 
he  workes  ruined  in  the  day-time  could  not  be  re- 
.paired."— Monro:  Exped.,  pt.  i.,  p.  69. 

2.  A  grave. 

*  graff  (3),  *  graffe  (2),  s.  [0.  Fr.  grafe, 
greffe ;  O.  Dut.  grafie;  Low  Lat.  graffiolum.] 
[Graft,  s.]    A  graft. 

"To  set  the  graffe  or  sion  betweene  the  barke  and 
the  -wood."— P.  Holland :  Plinie,  bk.  xvii.,  ch.  xiv. 

*  graff,  *  graffe,  *  graff  en,  *  graff-  -yn, 

v.t.   &  i.     [O.  Fr.  greffer;  O.   Dut.  grafien.] 
[Graft,  s.] 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  graft. 

"  They  lemed  to  plant  and  graffe  their  olyues."-* 
Coldyng :  Justine,  fo.  178. 

2.  To  fasten,  to  attach,  to  fix. 

"  So  long  have  1  listened  to  thy  speech. 
That  graffed  to  the  ground  is  my  breach." 

Spenser:  Shepheards  Calender;  Feb. 

3.  To  implant. 

"Nature  is  a  right  that  phantasie  hath  not  framed, 
but  God  hath  graffed&nd  gyuen  man  power  thereunto 
whereof  these  are  deriueu. '—  Wilson  :  Arte  of  Jlheto- 
rique,  p  3'a. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  graft ;  to  insert  grafts. 

graff '-age  (age  as  ig),  s.  [Eng.  'graff  (2); 
-age.]    The  scarp  of  a  ditch  or  moat. 

*  graff-er,  *  graff-are,  s.  [0.  Fr.  greffeur, 
grejfier.]    [Graff,  v.] 

1.  A  notary,  a  scrivener. 

2.  A  grafter. 

"  Gryffare,  or  graffaro,    Insertor."— Prompt,  Parv. 

graf-f£'-ti,  s.  pi.  [Ital.,  pi.  of  graffito  =  a 
scribbling,  from  graffiare  =  to  write  ;  Lat. 
graphium  =  a  style  for  writing  ;  Gr.  ypd<f><>> 
(grapho)  =  to  write.]  Rude  inscriptions  and 
drawings  of  figures,  found  on  the  walls  p( 
Pompeii,  and  among  the  Catacombs  and  other 
Roman  ruins. 

graft,  s.    [Graft,  v.] 

1.  Lit. :  A  small  scion  or  shoot  of  a  tree  in- 
serted or  grafted  in  another  tree,  as  the  stock 
which  is  to  support  and  nourish  it.  The  two 
unite  and  become  one,  but  the  fruit  is  deter- 
mined by  the  graft. 

"  The  slimy  snail,  the  worm,  and  labouring  ant, 
"Which  many  times  annoy  the  graft  and  tender 
plant."  Drayton  :  Poly-Olbion,  s.  18. 

2  Fia  •  Any  thing  inserted  or  incorporated 
in  a  thing  to  which  it  did  not  originally  be- 
lone:  an  addition. 

■■I  is  false  husbandry -to  graft  old  branches  upon 
young  stocks. "-Sawe7ia«(  ;  Qondibert.    (FreM 

OTaft  *ffraff,  v.t.  &  i.  [0.  Fr.  graffe,  grafe  = 
^stv^er^r  writing  with,  a  sort  of  pencil ;  Fr. 
grllTsrlff  or graft ;  from  the  shape  of  the 
St  slip,  which  resembles  a  pointed  pencil; 
Low  Lat.  graphiolum  =  (l)  a  small  style;  (2) 
a  graft,  or  shoot;  Lat.  graphium  =  a  style; 
Gr.  ypadtlov  (graphion),  ypo.$eiov  (grapteum)  = 
a  style  or  pencil  ;  yp<ty«>  (grapho)  =  to  write. 
The  correct  form  of  the  word  is  graff.] 

A.  Transitive : 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Lit. :  In  the  same  sense  as  II. 

2.  Fig. :  To  insert  or  incorporate  in  a  body 
to  which  that  which  is  inserted  or  incorporated 
did  not  originally  belong  ;  to  join  or  attach 
one  thing  on  to  another. 

"  These  are  the  Italian  names,  which  fate  will  Join 
With  ours,  and  graft  upon  the  Trojan  line." 

Dryden:  Virgil ;  j&neid  vi  1,028. 

IX  Technically : 

1.  Carp. :  To  attach  or  join  one  piece  of 
timber  to  another  by  scarfing. 

2.  Husb. :  To  insert  as  a  scion  or  shoot  in 
another  tree  ;  to  fix  a  graft  or  grafts  upon ;  to 
propagate  by  grafting. 

"  Old  crab-trees  here  at  home, that  will  not! 
Be  grafted  to  your  relish." 

Shakesp.  :  Coriolamtt,  ii.  1- 

3.  Naut. :  To  unlay  the  two  ends  of  a  rope, 
placing  the  strands  one  within  the  other  as 
for  splicing  and  stopping  them  at  the  joint. 

i,  Surg.  :  To  transplant  a  portion  of  skin 
to  a  denuded  surface. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  carry  out  the  process  or 
operation  of  grafting. 

whereas  if  you  graft  but  .upon  one  stock,  the  tree  can 
bear  but  few." — Bacon. 

*  graft,  pa.  par.  &  a.      [Graff,  v.]    Grafted  ; 
impregnated  with  a  scion. 

"  Her  face  defaced  with  scars  of  Infamy, 
Her  royal  stock  graft  with  ignoble  plants." 

Shakesp. ;  Jlicltard  III.,  ill.  7. 

graft'-er,  «.     [Eng.  graft ;  -er.] 

1.  One  who  grafts  ;  one  who  propagates 
plants  or  shrubs  by  grafting. 

"  I  am  informed  by  the  trials  of  more  than  one  ol 
the  most  skilful  and  experienced  grafters  of  these 
parts,  that  a  man  shall  seldom  fail  of  having  cherries 
borne  by  his  graft  the  same  year  in  whioh  the  iusition 
is  made."— Boyle :  Works,  i.  341. 

*  2.  A  tree  from  which  a  scion  is  taken  to 
be  inserted  in  another. 

"  Shall  a  few  sprays  of  us 
The  emptying  of  our  father's  luxury. 
Our  scions,  put  in  wild  and  savage  stock. 
Spirt  up  so  suddenly  into  the  clouds, 
And  overlook  their  grafters  t ' 

Shakesp  :  Henry  V.,  ill.  6. 

graft'  ing,  pr.  par.,  u.,  &  s.    [Graft,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 
C.  As  substantive : 

1.  Carp. :  A  scarfing  or  endwise  attachment 
of  one  timber  to  another,  as  in  attaching  an 
extra  length  or  false  pile  to  one  already  driven. 

2.  Husb. :  The  act  or  process  of  inserting  a 
shoot  or  scion  taken  from  one  tree  or  shrub 
in  a  vigorous  stock  of  its  own  or  a  closely 
allied  species,  so  as  to  cause  them  to  unite 
and  enable  the  graft  to  derive  a  larger  supply 
of  nutritive  power  than  it  could  otherwise  ob- 
tain. There  are  numerous  methods  of  grafting. 
One  is  grafting  by  approach,  or  inarching, 
when  two  growing  plants  are  united  together, 
and  after  adhesion  one  is  severed  from  its  own 
stock  and  left  to  grow  on  the  other.  This 
kind  of  adhesion  sometimes  takes  place  natu- 
rally in  trees  growing  close  together.  The 
usual  method  of  grafting  is  by  scions  or  slips, 
which  are  applied  to  the  stock  by  a  sloping 
surface,  or  are  inserted  into  slits  in  it  by 
cleft-grafting,  or  into  perforations  by  wimble 
or  peg-grafting.  Sometimes  several  slips  are 
placed  in  a  circular  mauner  round  the  inside 
of  the  bark;  of  the  stock,  by  crown-grafting; 
or  the  bark  of  a  portion  of  the  stock  is  re- 
moved, and  that  of  the  scion  is  hollowed  out, 
so  as  to  be  applied  over  it  like  the  parts  of  a 
flute,  hence  called  flute-grafting.  Budding  is 
practised  by  the  removal  of  a  bud  from  one 
plant,  along  with  the  portion  of  the  bark  and 
new  wood,  and  applying  it  to  another  plant, 
in  which  a  similar  wound  has  been  made.    In 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here    camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  air,  marine ;  go,  pot. 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,    ae,  ce  -  e ;   oy  -  a.    qu  =-_  few. 

graftling— grain 


whip-grafting,  or  tongue-grafting,  the  stock  is 
eut  obliquely  across,  and  a  slit  or  very  narrow 
angular  incision  is  made  in  its  centre  down- 
wards across  the  cut  surface,  a  similar  deep 
incision  being  made  in  the  scion  upwards  at 
a  corresponding  angle,  and  a  projecting  tongue 
left,  wJaieh,-  being  inserted  in  the  incision  in 
the  stock,  they  are  fastened  closely  together. 
Splice-grafting  is  performed  by  cutting  the 
ends  of  both  the  stock  and  the  scion  across  at 
such  an  angle  that  the  oblique  surfaces  exactly 

I,  2.  Cleft  grafting.  3.  Crown  grafting. 

fit  each  other,  and  are  fastened  together.  In 
saddle-grafting  the  end  of  the  stock  is  cut 
into  the  form  of  a  wedge,  and  the  middle  of 
the  scion  cut  away  so  as  to  rest  exactly  upon 
the  stock.  Grafting  is  usually  performed  be- 
tween the  woody  parts  of  the  plants,  but 
herbaceous  parts  may  also  be  united  in  this 
way.  It  is  requisite  that  the  growing  parts 
be  brought  into  apposition — the  two  albu- 
mens and  the  two  libers.  Union  will  only 
take  place  where  the  active  processes  of  life 
are  freely  exercised.  The  graft  and  stock  are 
secured  together  by  means  of  clay,  or  a  mix- 
ture of  bees'-wax  and  tallow,  or  by  bits  of 

3.  Naut. :  The  tapering  of  the  end  of  a  rope, 
usually  covered  by  weaving  yarns  around  it. 

i.  Surg.  :  The  transplanting  of  a  portion  of 
akin  to  a  denuded  surface. 

grafting-chisel,  s. 

Hush. :  A  kind  of  chisel  for  splitting  a  stock 
for  the  insertion  of  a  scion. 

grafting-knife,  s.  A  knife  having  a 
blade  for  splitting  a  limb  and  a  wedge  for 
opening  the.cleft  forthe  insertion  of  the  scion. 

grafting-saw,  s.  A  tenon-saw  for  cut- 
ting off  stocks  for  grafting  ;  a  pruning-saw. 

grafting-tool,  s.  A  very  strong  spade, 
much  curved  across  the  blade ;  used  in  digging 

graft -ling,  s.     [Eng.  graft ;   dimin.  suff. 
-ling.]    A  little  or  tender  graft  or  scion. 
"  The  gardner's  care  over  some  graftling*  choice. " 
Sylvester  :  St.  Lewis,  88. 

Gra  hamite,  s.    [Named  after  Graham,  a 
friend  of  Wurtz.] 

Mim,. :  A  mineral,  supposed  to  be  inspissated 
and  oxygenated  petroleum ;  hardness,  2  ;  sp. 
gr.,  1-145.  Found  in  West  Virginia,  filling  a 
(issure  in  a  sandstone  of  Carboniferous  age. 

*gralf,  '  grafe,  v.t.    [Ghave,  v.] 

grail  (1),  *graile(l),  *  grayle  (1),  s.  [O.Fr. 

,  greet;  from  Low  Lat.  gradate.]    The  same  as 
Gradual  (B.  2). 

"  The  old  Popish  service-books  were  still  preserved 
and  used  by  curates,  as  they  Btood  affected  :  of  which 
there  were  divers  and  sundry  sorts,  according  to  the 
various  religions  offices,  such  as  antiphonals,  missals, 
frailt,  processionals,  tcc"—Strppe:  Memorial*;  Ed- 
ward  VI.,  an.  1549. 

*grail(2),  *graile(2),  *grayle(2),s.  [O.Fr. 
graile ;  from  Lat.  gracilis  =  slender.] 

1.  Small  particles  of  any  kind ;  sand,  gravel. 

2.  One  of  the  small  feathers  of  a  hawk. 

-  grail  (3),  *  graile,  (3)  *grayle  (3),  s.  [0.  Ft. 
graal,  greed,  grasal  =  a  flat  dish ;  from  Low 
Lat.  gradate,  grasale.]  Properly  applied  to  the 
legendary  dish  used  at  the  Last  Supper,  said 
to  have  been  stolen  by  a  servant  of  Pilate, 
used  by  him  to  wash  his  hands  in  before  the 
1  multitude,  afterwards  given  to  Joseph  of  Ari- 
mathea  as  a  memorial  of  Christ,  and  finally 
used  by  Joseph  to  collect  the  blood  which 
flowed  from  our  Lord  while  hangingon  the  cross. 

"This,"  said,  he  [Christ],  "is  the.  holy  dish 
wherein  sate  the  lamb  on  St.  Kerthin's  day." 
Malory,:  Morte  Arthure,  bk.  xvii.,  ch.  xx.)  The 
word  (wnich  is  commonly  qualified  by  the 
adjective  san,  saint,  sayn,  sant  =  holy)  was 
afterwards  applied  to  the  cup  used  at  the  Last 
Supper.  According  to  one  legend,  the  Holy 
Grail  was  brought  by  Joseph  of  Arimathea  to 
England,  where  he  settled  at  Glastonbury 
about  a.d.  63.  Finally  it  was  transported  to 
India,  where  it  still  remains.  In  a.d.  1101 
the  Crusaders,  at  the  capture  of  Caesarea, 
found  what  they  believed  to  be  the  veritable 
Holy  Grail,  a  dish  made  of  a  single  large 
emerald .  It  is  now  preserved  in  the  Cathedral 
of  San  Lorenzo,  in  Genoa.  Another  legend 
says  that  the  holy  vessel  was  brought  from 
heaven  by  angels,  and  entrusted  to  the  care 
of  a  body  of  knights,  who  guarded  and  watched 
it  on  the  top  of  a  high  mountain.  It  was  in- 
visible to  any  one  not  perfectly  pure.  The 
search,  or  quest,  for  the  Holy  Grail  after  its 
loss  or  disappearance,  formed  the  subject  of 
numerous  romances  or  poems,  such  as  those 
of  Arthur  and  the  Knights  of  the  Round 

"  And  when  King  Arthur  made 
His  table  round,  and  all  men's  hearts  became 
Clean  for  a  seaaon,  surely  he  had  thought 
That  now  the  Holy  QraU  would  come  again." 

Tennyson ;  The  Holy  QraU. 

graille,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful ;  cf.  O.Fr.  graile ; 
Fr.  grite  =  slender.]  A  single-cut  file  or  float, 
having  one  curved  and  one  straight  face.  It  is 
used  by  comb-makers. 

grain,  *grayn,  *grein,  *greyn,s.     [Fr. 

grain;   from  Lat.   granum  =  a  grain,  corn; 
cogn.  with  corn  (q.  v.).] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  A  single  seed  of  a  plant.  (Particularly 
used  of  those  plants  the  seeds  of  which  are 
used  as  food  for  man.) 

"  His  reasons  are  as  two  grains  of  wheat  hid  in  two 
bushels  of  chaff;  you  shall  seek,  all  ere  you  find  them." 
— Sltakesp. ;  Merchant  of  Venice,  i.  L 

2.  Used  collectively,  and  without  a  defini- 
tive, for  corn  in  general,  or  the  fruit  of  cereal 
plants,  as  wheat,  barley,  rye,  &c.  In  America 
restricted  to  the  grain  of  wheat. 

"  For  winter  drought  rewards  the  pheasant's  pain. 
And  broods  indulgent  on  the  buried  grain." 

Dryden  :  Virgil ;  Georgia  1.  148. 

3.  Those  plants  the  seeds  of  which  consti- 
tute the  food  of  man  ;  cereal  plants,  as  wheat, 
barley,  oats,  Arc 

"The  same  Grecianfl  preferred  before  all  other 
graine  those  three  sorts,  to  wit,  Dracontias,  Strangias, 
and  Selinuaium."— P.  Holland :  Plinie,  bk,  xvili., 
ch.  vli. 

4.  (PI):  [Grains]. 

5.  Any  small,  hard  particle,  as  of  sand, 
sugar,  &c. 

"The  people  there  inhabiting  used  to  set  many 
fleeces  of  wool  in  those  descents  of  waters  in  which 
the  grains  of  gold  remain."— Raleigh:  History  of  the 
World,  bk.  II.,  ch.  xiiL,  5  1. 

6.  Hence,  used  for  a  minute  portion  or 
particle,  the  smallest  particle  or  amount. 

"  Do  they  [worldly  goods]  either  recommend  him 
more  to  God  or  wise  men,  or  even  to  himself,  if  he 
have  tt,  grain  of  sense  in  him,  than  if  he  was  without 
them  ?   —Sharp :  Sermons,  vol.  I.,  Bar.  4. 

7.  One  of  the  constituent  particles  of  a 
body,  as  of  a  metal,  a  stone,  &c. 

8.  The  body  or  substance  of  anything  con- 
sidered with  respect  to  the  form  or  direction 
of  the  constituent  particles ;  the  form  or  ap- 
pearance of  the  surface  of  a  body  with  respect 
to  the  quality  or  arrangement  of  the  particles. 

"  When  any  side  of  it  was  cut  smooth  and  polite,  it 
appeared  to  have  a  very  lovely  grain,  like  that  of 
some  curious  close  wood."— Evelyn;  Forest  Trees, 
ch.  xxx.,  §  12. 

9.  The  arrangement  or  direction  of  the 
fibres  of  wood  or  other  fibrous  substance. 

"  The  marks  of  the  grain  of  the  wood  .  .  .  have  been 
found  upon  celts."— Evans:  Ancient  Bronze  Imple- 
ments, en.  vi. 

10.  The  body  or  substance  of  wood  with 
respect  to  the  arrangement,  quality,  or  direc- 
tion of  the  constituent  fibres.  . 

"  Here  are  forests  of  vast  extent,  full  of  the  straitest, 
the  cleanest,  and  the  largest  timber  trees  that  we  had 
ever  seen ;  their  size,  their  grain,  and  apparent  du- 
rability, render  them  fit  for  any  kind  of  building."— 
Cook:  First  Voyage,  bk,  ii.,  ch.  vii. 

*11.  A  kind  of  spice;  cardamum  ;  grains  of 

"  He  cheweth  grcyn  and  lycoris." 
„  „„      ,  Chaucer:  C.  T.,  3,6dO. 

*  12.  A  seed-pearl. 

' '  A  grain  in  golde  that  god!  y  shon. " 

Lyric  Poems,  p.  38. 

*  13.  An  old  name  applied  to  several  insects 
of  the  genus  Coccus,  from  their  round,  seed- 
like form. 

"  *  14.  A  red  or  scarlet  dye,  obtained  from  the 
coccus  insect ;  cochineal ;  a  scarlet  or  purple 

"  All  in  a  robe  of  darkest  grain, 
Flowing  with  majestic  train." 

Milton  :  II  Penseroso,  33. 

*  15.  An  essential  element  in  anything. 
"The  one  being  tractable  and  mild,  the  other  stiff 
and  impatient  of  a  superior,  they  lived  but  in  cunning 
concord,  as  brothers  glued  together,  but  not  united  in 
grain." —  Haytoa  rd. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Dyeing:  A  firm  dye,  or  one  applied 
thoroughly ;  in  the  wool,  not  in  the  web. 

2.  Painting :  A  style  of  painting  in  imita- 
tion of  the  natural  grains  of  wood,  marble,  &c. 

3.  Weights :  The  unit  of  weight  in  the  Eng- 
lish system.  In  a  pound  avoirdupois  are 
7,000  grains,  in  a  pound  troy  5,760  grains.  A 
grain  is  equal  to  '0647990  grammes. 

"  Lay  by  the  arbitrary  names  of  pence  and  shillings, 
and  consider  and  speak  of  it  [moneyl  as  grains  and 
ounces  of  silver,  and  'tis  as  easy  ae1"  ' 
— Locke :  Letter  to  Mr.  Molyneux. 


4.  Skins :  The  hair  side  of  skins,  in  contra- 
distinction to  the  flesh  side. 

%  (1)  Against  the  grain :  Against  the  natural 
bias  or  inclination, 

^       "  Hither,  though  much  against  the  grain, 

_^  The  dean  has  carried  Lady  Jane." 

Swift:  Progress  of  Marriage. 

(2)  In  grain,  *  In  grayne : 

(a)  In  a  permanent  colour.  (Originally 
spoken  only  of  red.) 

"  How  the  red  roses  flush  up  in  her  oheekes, 
And  the  pure  snow,  with  goodly  vermill  atayne. 
Like  crimson  dyde  in  grayne." 

Sponsor:  Epithalamion. 

(b)  Innate,  natural,  real,  not  factitious ; 

(c)  Deeply  seated ;  in  nature. 

(3)  Grains  of  allowance :  Some  little  quantity 
or  part  allowed  or  remitted ;  a  little  allowance 

(4)  Grains  of  Paradise : 

Bot. :  The  seeds  of  Amomum  Grana  Para- 
disi.  They  are  acrid  seeds,  used  to  give  a 
pungent  taste  to  spirituous  liquors.  Called 
also  Guinea -grains. 

grain-bin,  $.  A  box  or  compartment  in 
which  grain  is  stored  in  a  granary  or  elevator. 

,  grain-binder,  s.  An  attachment  to  a 
harvester  for  binding  a  gavel  into  a  sheaf. 

grain-bruiser,  s.  A  machine  for  mash- 
ing grain  for  feed,  to  render  it  more  digestible. 
It  does  not  grind  but  crushes  the  kernel,  corn, 
or  oats.  It  has  two  iron  rollers  of  different 
diameters,  turned  by  connecting  cog-wheels 
of  the  same  size,  so  that  a  rubbing  is  added  to 
the  crushing  action. 

grain-cleaner,  s. 

1.  A  machine  in  which  wheat,  oats,  rye, 
and  barley  are  separated  from  their  chaff, 
dust,  and  pieces  of  straw,  the  result  of  the 
thrashing  operation ;  a  fanning  or  winnowing 

2.  The  shoe  or  cleaning  portion  of  a  thrash- 
ing-machine, which  acts  after  the  thrasher  and 
the  straw-carrier. 

3.  A  machine  in  which  grain  is  rid  of  cockle, 
garlic,  &c,  which  are  so  nearly  the  size  and 
weight  of  the  grain  that  the  size  of  mesh  and 
strength  of  blast  of  the  fanning-mill  are  in- 

4.  A  machine  in  which  grain  is  rubbed, 
brushed,  and  blown  to  remove  smut  and  dust. 

grain-conveyor,  s.    [Elevator,  II.  2, 3.] 

grain-cradle,  s.    [Cbadle,  B.  8  (l).  j 

grain  -damper,  s.  A  device  for  apply- 
ing steam  to  grain  to  scald  the  bran  and  facili- 
tate the  process  of  decortication.  A  jet  of 
steam  entering  a  tube  where  the  grain  descends 
a  series  of  inclines  is  a  usual  method. 

grain-drier,  s.  An  apparatus  or  machine 
in  which  damp  grain  is  dried,  or  grain  in  ordi- 
nary condition  is  kiln-dried  to  fit  it  for  ocean 

grain-drill,  s.  A  machine  for  sowing 
grain  in  drills  or  rows. 

grain-fork,  s.  A  light  fork  with  long, 
curved  tines,  used  for  pitching  gavels  of  cut 
grain  on  to  a  waggon,  when  the  straw  is  too 
short  for  convenient  binding. 

b6it,  b<fr;  pout,  jo%l;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;   expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    -ing. 
-cian.  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun :  -tion,    sion  =  zhun.    -tious,   -cious,  -sious  =  shus.     -ble.  -die.  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


grain— graith 

grain-gauge,  s.    [Grain-tester.] 

grain-huller,  s.  A  machine  for  taking 
the  cortex  or  skin  from  grain,  making  hulled 
wheat,  pearl  barley,  hominy,  &c.  ;  a  decorti- 

grain-leather,  s. 

1.  Dressed  horse-hides. 

2.  Goat,  seal,  and  other  skins  blacked  on 
the  grain  side  for  women's  shoes,  &c. 

grain-meter,  s.  A  machine  for  measur- 
ing grain. 

grain-mill,  &.  A  mill  for  grinding  corn  ; 
a  grist-mill. 

grain-moth,  s. 

Entom. :  Two  moths,  the  larvae  of  which 
feed  on  grain.  They  are  Tinea  granella  and 
Butalis  cerealella.  The  perfect  insects  have 
narrow  wings  of  satiny  lustre,  and  with  mar- 
ginal fringes. 

grain-rake,  s. 

1,  A  rake  used  in  raking  grain  in  the  swath 
into  gavels  for  binding. 

2.  A  rake  used  by  one  who  rides  on  the 
reaper  in  raking  gavels  from  the  platform  of 
the  machine. 

grain  sacker,  &.  A  device  for  loading 
grain  into  sacks. 

grain  scourer,  s.  A  machine  for  clean- 
ing grain ;  a  smut-mill ;  a  machine  in  whicli 
grain  is  rubbed  and  chafed,  and  eventually 
sorted  into  qualities  by  gravity  and  blast. 

grain-screen,  s.  A  shaking  sieve,  or  a 
rotating  cylindrical  reel  of  wire-cloth  in  which 
grain  is  sorted  by  quality,  according  to  its 
ability  to  pass  through  the  meshes  of  the  sieve. 

grain  -  separator,  s.  A  thrashing- 

grain-shovel,  s.  A  shovel  for  handling 
grain  in  sacks  on  the  floor  of  a  kiln,  granary, 
or  warehouse,  or  in  the  hold  of  a  vessel  where 
it  is  in  bulk. 

grain-tester,  s.  A  means  for  weighing 
small  quantities,  as  samples  of  grain.  The 
cup  has  a  known  capacity,  as  a  certain  aliquot 
part  of  a  bushel,  and  the  divisions  on  the 
scale  indicate  the  pounds  which  a  bushel  of 
the  grain  tested  would  weigh. 

grain-tin,  s.  Crystalline  tin  ore.  Metallic 
tin  smelted  with  charcoal.  Tin  reduced  from 
the  loose  grains  of  tin  stone.     [Stream-tin.] 

*  grain  (2),  *  grane.  *grayn,  *greyn,  s. 

[Icel.  gretn  =  a  branch  ;  Sw.  gren ;  Dan.  green.] 

1.  A  branch  of  a  tree. 

"  Apoun  ane  grane  or  branche  of  ane  grene  tre."  T] 
'  Douglas :  Virgil,  350,  12.    ■ 

2.  A  stalk  or  stem  of  a  plant. 
H  The  chesbow  hedes  oft  we  se 

Bow  down  thare  knoppis,  Bowpit  in  tbare  grane." 
Douglas :  Virgil,  292,  8. 

3.  The  branches  of  a  valley  where  it  divides 
into  two  ;  the  point  of  juncture  of  two  rivers  ; 
a  branch  of  a  river. 

"That  branch  of  the  river  which  runs  between  Mr. 
Fran-re  bunk  and  the  AJlocby  Island  is  called  the 
Alloc-by  Grain,  or  North  Branch  of  the  river,  and  the 
other  is  called  the  South  Branch  of  the  river."— State, 
Leslie  of PowU,  Ac.  (1805),  p.  22. 

4.  A  blade,  as  of  a  sword  or  knife. 

"  The  grayn  al  of  grene  stele  and  of  golde  hewen." 
Qawaine,  710. 

5.  A  tine,  prong,  or  fork. 

6.  (PI.) :  An  iron,  instrument  with  four  or 
more  barbed  points,  used  for  striking  and 
catching  dolphins  and  other  fish. 

*  grain  (3),    graine,    grane,  s.    [Groan.] 
grain  (1),  *  greyne,  v.t.  &  i.    [Grain  (1),  s.] 

A.  Transitive : 

L  Ord.  Lang.  :    To   form   into   grains,    as 
sugar,  powder,  &c. 
II.  Technically : 

1.  Paint. :  To  paint  or  colour  so  as  to  give  the 
appearance  of  the  grain  of  wood,  marble,  &c. 

2.  Tan. :  To  take  the  hair  off;  to  soften  and 
raise  the  grain  of :  as,  To  grain  skins  or  leather. 

B.  Intransitive : 

X,  Ordinary  Language : 

*  1.  To  yield  fruits  ;  to  be  fruitful. 

"  The  loud  begun  to  greyne." 

Gower,  in  Halliwell,  p.  417. 

2.  To  form  grains ;  to  assume  a  granular 

II.  Paint. :  To  paint  at  colour  wood,  stone, 
&c,  so  as  to  give  the  appearance  of  the  grain 
of  wood,  marble,  &c. 

*  grain  (2),  ''  grane,  v.i.    [Groan.] 
grain'-age,  s.    [Eng.  grain  ;  -age.] 
*I,  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  A  duty  or  duties  on  corn. 

2.  An  ancient  duty  in  London,  consisting 
of  the  twentieth  part  of  the  salt  imported 
by  aliens. 

II.  Farr.  :  A  term  applied  to  certain  mangy 
tumours  on  the  legs  of  horses. 
graine,  s.    [Ft.]    The  eggs  of  the  silkworm. 

grained,  a.     [Eng.  grain  (1) ;  -ed.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

I.  Formed  or  divided  into  grains  or  small 

*2.  Bough,  made  less  smooth  ;  showing  the 

"  Though  now  this  grained  face  of  mine  be  hid 
In  sap-consuming  winter's  drizzled  snow, 
Yet  hath  my  night  of  life  some  memory." 

Shake&p. ;  Comedy  of  Errors,  v.  1. 

*  3.  Dyed  deep  or  in  grain ;  ingrained. 

"  I  see  auch  black  and  grained  spots. 
As  will  not  leave  their  tinct." 

Shakesp.:  Hamlet,  iii.  4. 

i.  Painted  or  coloured  with  a  grain, 

II.  Bot.  :  Having  minute  granules  or  tu- 
bercles, as  the  petals  of  some  plants. 

grained  leather,  ».  The  same  as  Grain- 
leather  (q.v.). 

grain'-er,  «.     [Eng.  grain;  -er.] 
L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  One  who  grains  or  paints  in  imitation  of 
the  grain  of  wood,  marble,  &c. 

2.  The  brush  used  in  graining  woods,  &c. 
II.  Tanning : 

1.  An  infusion  of  pigeon's  dung  for  giving 
flexibility  to  skins  in  the  process  of  tanning. 
Also  called  bate. 

2.  A  knife  used  by  tanners  for  taking  the 
hair  off  skins. 

*  3,  A  granary. 

grain'-ing,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Grain  (1),  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (8ee 
the  verb). 
C.  As  substantive : 

*  I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  A  crop  of  grain  or  corn. 

"  It  received  moreover  grainings  with  cornefields, 
vineyards,  pastures,  and  woodes," — P.  Holland  :  Sueto- 
nius, p.  183. 

2.  An  indentation  or  milling. 

"  The  engines  which  put  the  letters  upon  the  edges 
of  the  large  Bilver  pieces,  and  mark  the  edges  of  the 
rest  with  a  graining,  are  wrought  secretly. —Locke  : 
Farther  Considerations. 
IL  Technically : 

1.  Leather  manufacture : 

(1)  The  process  of  rubbing  leather  with  a 
board  to  raise  the  grain.  The  leather  having 
been  shaved  to  a  thickness  at  the  beam,  and 
daubed,  is  hung  up  to  dry,  and  is  then  folded, 
grain  side  in,  and  rubbed  on  the  flesh  side 
with  a  pommel  or  crippler  to  give  the  leather 
a  granular  appearance  and  render  it  supple. 
The  hide  is  then  extended  and  rubbed  on  the 
grain  side.    This  is  termed  bruising. 

(2)  A  process  for  giving  markings  to  the 
surface  of  leather  to  imitate  the  wrinkled  ap- 
pearance of  morocco,  hog-skin,  and  some  other 

2.  Paint.  :  The  imitation  of  the  natural 
grain  of  wood  by  means  of  tools.  Combs, 
brushes,  rollers,  and  the  corner  of  a  folded 
rag  are  used  in  making  the  various  patterns. 

3.  Lithog. :  A  mode  of  giving  a  certain  tex- 
ture to  the  face  of  a  Btone.  One  Btone  is  laid 
upon  another  with  a  quantity  of  sifted  sand 
of  a  given  fineness,  and,  by  a  peculiar  oscilla- 
tion and  gradual  progression,  the  surface  is 
cut  into  a  set  of  fine  prominences  more  or  less 
deep  and  distant,  accofding  to  the  character 
of  the  work  to  be  placed  upon  the  stone. 

graining-board,  s. 

Leather  Manufacture : 

(1)  Aboard  on  which  leather  is  spread  while 
being  grained  by  the  crippler. 

(2)  A  board  with  a  surface  impressed  or  en- 

of  tlie 

natural  grain  of  some  kind  of  leather,  and. 
used  to  confer  the  same  appearance  upon  ine 
other  leather  by  pressure. 

graining  machine,  s. 

1  Paint  ;  A  roller  with  a  pattern  surface 
representing  the  grain  of  wood,  and  used  to 
transfer  the  pattern  in  paint  to  wood. 

2.  Leather  rnanuf.  :  A  machine  having  rollers 
with  raised,  parallel,  straight,  or  diagonal 
threads,  which  indent  the  goat  or  sheep  skins 
and  give  the  wrinkled  appearance  to  morocco 

graining  tool,  s.  Hand  tools  resembling 
combs,  &c,  fur  imitating  in  painting  the  lines- 
which  represent  the  growths  of  timber. 

grain'-ing  (2),  s.  [Etym,  doubtful;  cf. 
Graining  (1).] 

Ichthy.  :  Leuciscus  laneaMriensis.  A  fish 
found  in  England  in  the  Mersey  and  its  tribu- 
taries ;  it  was  recognised  by  Agassiz  during 
a  visit  to  this  country  as  occurring  in  some 
Swiss  lakes.  It  is  from  seven  to  nine  inchea 
long,  the  upper  parts  pale  drab,  tinged  with 
bluish-red,  the  under  parts  pale. 

grain?  (1),  s.  pi.    [Grain  <l),  s.] 

1.  A  residuum  of  fibre  and  insoluble  matters 
after  infusion  or  decoction  ;  as  the  groins  of 
malt  after  the  wort  is  decanted. 

2.  A  bating  solution  of  birds'  dung,  used  in 
destroying  the  effect  of  lime,  and  in  improving 

,  the  flexibility  of  leather. 

3.  Pieces  of  sheet-metal,  cast-iron,  or  tinned 
iron  inserted  into  a  mould  for  the  purpose  of 
supporting  an  accessory  portion,  such  as  a 
core,  in  position. 

grain?  (2),  5.  pi.    [Grain  (2),  s.] 

grain    Staff;  s.     [Eng.  grain,  and  staff.}    A 
quarterstaft"  (q.v.). 

grain' -y;  a.     [Eng.  grain  (1)  ;  -y.] 

1.  Full  of  grains  or  granular  particles; 

"It  presented  on  ita  sui-face  the  grainy  ripple  of 
primaeval  seas."— Edinburgh  Review  (July,  lo58),  p.  9. 

2.  Full  of  grain  or  corn. 

*  graip,  *  grape,  v.t.  &  i.    [Grope.] 

*  graip  (1),  *  grape  (1),  e.  [Grvpe.]  A  vul- 
ture, a  griffin. 

"Apperit  to  Hemus  sex  grapis,  afore  ony  foul  ap- 
perit  to  Romulus."— Bellendene  :  Livy,  bk.  i.,  ch.  iii. 

graip  (2),  grape  (2),  ».  [Sw.  grepe;  GaeL 
grapadh.]    A  dung-fork. 

"Agrape;  vbi  Forke  :  trident." — Gathol.  Anglicum. 

*  graith,  *  grayth,  *  graythe,  *  greithe. 

a.     [Icel.  greidhr.] 

1.  Ready,  willing,  prepared. 

"  Loke  thou,  be  graythe  to  go."         Gawalnc,  448. 

2.  Straight,  direct. 

3.  Earnest. 

i.  Small,  short. 

graith,  *  grayth,  *  graythe,  *  greith, 
'greythe,  v.t.     [Icel.  greidha.] 

1.  To  make  ready  ;  to  prepare. 

"He  dide  greythe  a  super  riche  "       JIavelok,  1,762. 

2.  To  dress. 

"  The  queu  grelthed  hem  gaili  in  garaemeiis  ncne.* 
\Y  illiam  of  J'alarite,  3,207.    i 

3.  To  dress  food. 

"  Of  coukes  graithand  or  makaud  reddie  flesh  or 
nshe,  not  wel  nor  convenient  for  men  to  be  eaten." — 
Chalmerlan  Air,  ch.  xxxviii..  §  41. 

4.  To  steep  in  a  ley  of  stale  urine. 

graith,  *  graythe,  A  greythe,  s.  [icel. 
greidhi.]  Apparatus,  furniture,  or  equipment 
generally  :  as, 

1.  Harness. 

"They  got  ony  leather  graith  that  they  had  use  for 
ready-made  out  of  Holland."— Scott :  Heart  of  Si  id- 
lothlan,  ch.  v. 

2.  Accoutrements  for  war. 

3.  A  miner's  tools. 

i.  Substance,  riches,  property. 

5.  An  article  of  dress, 

"  They  make  shoone,  buites,  and  other  graith,  before 
the  lether  is  barked.  "—Chalmerlan  Air,  ch.  xxii. 

6.  Any  composition  used  by  tradesmen  ia 
preparing  their  work. 

"They  [skinners]  hunger  their  lether  in  default  ol 
graith,  that  is  to  say,  alme  [alum],  egges,  and  other 
graith."— Chalmerlan  Air,  ch.  xxiii.  §  2. 

late,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;  go,  p$t, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who.  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian.    »,  oe  =  e ;  ey  =  a,     qu  =  kw.  , 

grakle— grammar 


7,  "Warm  water  so  wrought  up  with  soap  as 
to  be  fit  for  washing  clothes. 

8.  The  twisted  threads  through  which  the 
warp  runs  in  the  loom. 

"To  deliuer  to  the  vobster  ane  grayth  of  iiij  c.*— 
Aberd.  Reg.  (1548),  v.  20. 

gra-kle,  e.    [Grackle.] 

t  gral'-lss,  s.  pi.    [Lat.  =  stilts.] 

Ornith. :  The  name  given  by  Linnaeus  to 
the  order  of  Wading  Birds  now  called  Gralla- 
tores  (q.v.). 

gral-la-tbV-es,  s.  pi.    [PI.  of  Lat.  grallator 
=  one  who  goes  on  stilts.]    [Grall^;.] 

1.  Ornith.  :  Wading  Birds ;  an  order  of 
birds  sub-class  Carinutse.  They  have  long 
legs,  a  great  portion  of  them  often  bare.  This 
structure  admirably  fits  them  to  wade,  and 
that  without  having  their  feathers  wet.  They 
have  often  long  necks  and  bills  to  reach  the 
ground  when  wading.  The  toes  are  four,  the 
hind  one  variable  both  in  size  and  position. 
They    have    rudimentary    webs,    sometimes 

connecting  the  base  of  the  tarsi,  but  not  the 
extensive  webs  of  the  Natatores  ;  ye,t  some  of 
them  swim  and  dive  well.  They  mostly  fre- 
quent marshy  places,  the  sides  of  streams  and 
lakes  on  the  sea-shore,  where  they  pick  up 
worms  and  insects.  The  order  may  be 
divided  into  four  tribes:  Macrodactyli,  Cul- 
trirostres,  Longirostres,  and  Pressirostres  ; 
they  have  been  divided  also  into  six  families  : 
(I)  Rallidae  (Rails),  (2)  Scolopacidse  (Snipes), 
(3)  Ardeidae  (Herons),  (4)Charadriidse  (Plovers), 
(5)  Otitidae  (Bustards),  and  (6)  Gruidse  (Cranes). 
2.  Pakeont. ;  Representatives  of  the  order 
hnve  been  found  in  the  Cretaceous  racks, 
and  a  succession  of  others  in  the  Tertiary. 

graT-la-tbr'-I-al,  a,.  [Lat.  grallator  ~  a 
walker  on  stilts*;  Eng.  adj.  suff.  -iaL]  Of  or 
pertaining  to  the  Grallatores,  or  wading-birds  ; 

gr&l'-la-tor-^,  a.  [Lat.  grallator;  Eng.  adj. 
suff.  -y.]    The  same  as  Grallatorial  (q.v.). 

gral -line,  +  gral' -lie,  a.  [Lat.  grall(ai) 
(q.v.);  Eng.  adj.  suff.  -ine ;  -ic.)  Of  or  per- 
taining to  the  grallae ;  grallatorial. 

gral'  loch,  gral  lock,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.] 
The  offal  of  a  deer,  antelope,  &c. 

gral  loch,  gral  lock,  v.t  [Gralloch,  s.] 
To  remove  the  offal  from,  as  of  a  deer. 

*gram,  grame,  gramm,  *grom,  a.  &s. 
[A.8.  gram,  grom;  O.S.,  O.  H.  Ger.,  &  Dut. 
gram;  Icel.  gramr;  Dan.  gram;  Sw.  gramse; 
O.Fr.  gram;  Ital.  gramo;  Ger.  gram.] 

A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Angry,  enraged.    (Ormulnm,  7,144.) 

2.  Warlike.    (Gatvan  &  Golnpas,  ii.  13.) 

B.  As  subst. :  Grief,  anger,  sorrow,  vexation. 

-gram,  sutf.  '  [Gr.  ypapL^a  (gramma)  =  that 
whicli  is  written  ;  ypd<pat  (grapho)  =to  write.] 
A  suffix  frequently  used  with  words  of  Greek 
origin  to  express  something  written,  as,  epi- 
gram, chronogram,  telegram,  &c. 

gram  (1),  s,    [Gramme.] 

gram  (2),  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  The  Chick-pea 
(Cicer  arietinum),  used  it)  the  East  Indies  for 
fodder.    (-4  nglo-Indian. ) 

^  fforse-gravi: 

Bot. :  Dolichos  unifiorus. 

*  gram,      grame,    *  granite,    *  grome, 

gromien,    v.t.   &    i.       [A.S,    gramian; 
O.  H.  Ger.  &  Goth,  gramjan.] 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  vex,  to  annoy,  to  make  angry. 

"  For  a  lytyl  wurde  thou  wilt  men  grame." 

flobert  de  Brunne  :  Afeditatums,  845. 

2.  Impersonally; 

"  Swlthe  sore  me  grometh  that  heo  seulle  senden." 
Layamon,  ii.  637. 

B.  Intrans. ;  To  be  angry,  vexed,   or   an- 

"  His  heorte  gromede."  Layamon,  ii.,  161. 

*  gram'-ar-ye,  s.    [Fr.  grimoire  =  a  conjuring 

book.  (Cotgrave.)  This  is  only  another  form 
of  Fr.  grammaire,  and  did  not  appear  till  the 
sixteenth  century.  Grammaire  among  the  un- 
educated stood  for  any  book  of  occult  science, 
by  reading  which  it  was  supposed  adepts  could 
raise  the  devil.]    [Grammar.]    Magic. 

"  I  hope  that  in  Mr.  Scott's  next  poem  his  hero  or 
heroine  will  be  less  addicted  to  gramarye  and  more  to 
gram  mar.  "—Byron ;  English  Bards  &  Scotch  Jieviewers 

gra-mash'-es,  s.  pi.  [Gamash.]  Gaiters 
reaching  to  the  knee ;  leggings. 

"  Hi3  atrong  gramashes,  or  leggings,  of  thick  gray 
cloth."— Scott :  Heart  of  Midlothian,  ch.  xlii. 

*  grame,  a.  &  s.    [Gram,  a.] 

gra'-men-ite,  s.  [Lat.  gramen  =  grass,  and 
suff.  -Ue(Min.)  (q.v.).  Named  from  the  grass- 
green  colour.] 

Min.  :  A  variety  of  Chloropal  found  at  Men- 
zenberg,  in  the  Siebengebirge.    (Dana.) 

*gram'-er,  s.    [Grammar.) 

gra~mer'-9y,  inter).  [O.Fr.  grammerci;  Fr. 
grand  mera=great  thanks.]  An  exclamation 
expressive  of  thanks,  mingled  with  a  feeling 
of  surprise. 

gram'  i-na,  s.  pi.     [PL  of  Lat.  gramen  (genit. 
graminis)  =  grass.] 

Bot.  ;  The  name  given  by  Linnaeus  in  1751  to 
the  fourteenth  of  his  natural  orders  of  plants. 
Jussieu  in  1782  retained  the  name;  Robert 
Brown  in  1810  altered  it  to  Graminese.  Lind- 
ley's  name  for  it  is  Graminaceae  (q.v.). 

gram-in-a'-ce-ee,     gra-min  -  e  se,    s.  pi. 

[Lut.  gramen;  genit.  gramin(is)  —  grass,  and 
fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ace«,  -em.] 

Bot. :  Grasses.  An  order  of  endogens,  al- 
liance Glumales.  It  consists  of  evergreen 
herbs,  a  few  of  them  reaching  a  great  size  and 
living  for  many  years.  The  rhizomais  fibrous 
or  bulbous  ;  the  stem, which  is  covered  with 
a  coat  of  oil,  is  cylindrical,  generally  fistular, 
closed  at  the  joints,  but  sometimes  solid ;  the 
leaves  are  narrow  and  undivided  ;  they  are 
alternate  with  a  split-sheath  and  a  ligula  or 
membranous  expansion  at  the  junction  of  the 
stalk  and  blade.  The  flowers,  which  are  green, 
are  in  little  spikes,  called  locustee,  arranged  in 
racemes  or  panicles.  Flowers  formed  of  im- 
bricated bracts,  the  outer  ones  called  glumes, 
those  within  them  paleae,  and  the  innermost 
ones  scales.  Glumes,  two  or  five  ;  paleae,  two, 
the  outer  one  simple,  the  inner  composed  of 
two,  united  by  their  continuous  margins, 
usually  two-keeled  ;  stamens  generally  three, 
rarely  one ;  two,  four,  six,  or  more  anthers, 
versatile ;  ovary,  simple  ;  styles,  two  or  three, 
distinct,  more  rarely  combined  into  one;  seed, 
one,  anatropal ;  generally  undistinguishable 
from  the  membranous  pericarp  ;  albumen 
farinaceous.  The  order  has  a  remote  affinity 
to  the  Palms  (Palmaceae),  and  a  closer  one  to 
the  Sedges  (Cyperaceae).  Grasses  occur  in 
all  countries  and  in  nearly  all  situations. 
There  are  250  genera,  and  about  4,500  species. 
They  constitute  about  one-twentieth,  if  not 
even  one-sixteenth,  of  all  known  plants.  In 
individuals  theytranscend  all  other  orders,  but 
a  genuine  greensward  is  more  common  in  tem- 
perate countries  than  in  the  tropics,  in  which 
the  grasses  grow  less  closely  together,  besides 
being  often  larger.  All  the  cereals  belong  to 
this  order,  particular  genera  and  species  flour- 
ishing better  in  one  country  than  in  another. 
Thus  the  oat  and  the  barley  come  to  great 
perfection  in  Scotland,  rye  in  the  north  of 
continental  Europe,  wheat  inEngland,  France, 
Germany,  Hungary,  andtheCrimea;  rice  where 
water  abounds,  in  southern  Asia;  and  maize 
in  North  America.  The  order  furnishes  abun- 
dant fodder  for  cattle  and  horses.  Sugar 
exists  in  all  grasses,  and  is  of  great  economic 

value  in  one  ;  silcx  is  made  from  them,  also 
cordage,  &c.  Some  yield  a  fragrant  oil ;  & 
minute  fraction  are  poisonous.  The  order 
Graminaceae  is  divided  by  Liudley  into  the 
following  thirteen  tribes  : — 

"  Oryzeae,  Phalareae,  Paniceae,  Stipeae,  Agrostea?,. 
Arundinese,  Pappophoreie,  ChloreEB,  Avenea;,  Festucea^, 
divided  into  two  families— Bromidie,  and  Bombusid%; 
Hordeae,  Hottboellea;,  and  Andropogoneae  (q.v.). 

gram  i-na  -ce-ous  (or  ceous  as  shus),  a. 

[Mod.  Lat.  graminace(m) ;  Eng.,  &c.  suff.  -oils.] 
Bot. :  Of  or  belonging  to  the  order  Grami- 
naceae (q..v.) ;  having  the  characteristics  of 

"  Nitrogenous  manures  are  more  peculiarly  adapted 
for  graminaceous  plants,  such  as  the  meadow-grasses 
and  the  cereals."— J.  WrigfUon,  in  CasseU's  Technical 
Educator,  pt.  x.,  p.  281. 

gra-min'-e-se,  s.  pi.    [Graminaceae.] 

gra-nun'-e-al,  gra-mxn'-e-ous,  a.    [Lat. 

gramineus,  from  gramen  =  grass.]  Pertaining 
to  or  like  grass  ;  pertaining  to  the  tribe  of 

"  The  true  nard  was  a  gramineous  plant,  and  a 
species  of  Audropogon."— ,Sir  W.Jones;  On  the  Spike- 
nard of  the  Ancients, 

gram  -  in  - 1  -  f6'- li  -  OUS,  a.     [Lat.  gramen, 

(genit.  graminis)  =  grass,  folium  =  a  leaf,  and 
Eng.,  &c.  suff.  -ous.] 

Bot :  Having  leaves  like  those  of  grasses, — 
i.e.,  long,  slender,  pointed,  and  so  veined  as  to 
split  longitudinally. 

gr&m-i-niv'-dr-oiis,  a.    [Lat.  gramen  (genit. 

graminis)  =  grass  ;   voro  =  to   devour;   -ous.] 

Grass  eating ;  feeding  or  living  upon  grass. 

"  In  the  awan,  the  web  foot,  the  spoon  bill,  the  long 

neck,  the  thick  down,  the  graminivorous  stomach, 

bear  all  the  relations  to  one  another."— Paley  :  Natural 

llicology,  ch.  xv. 

gram  ma-logue,  s.  [Gr.  ypanfta  (gramma) 
—  that  wliich  is  written,  a  letter,  and  Adyos 
(logos)  -  a  word.] 

Phouog. :  A  word  represented  by  a  logo- 
gram ;  as  it  represented  by   |  ,  that  is  (. 

gram'- mar,   *  gram  -aire,  *gram-erf 
gram    ere,  *  gram  -mere,   *gram- 

or-y,  s.  &  a.  [O.  Fr.  graviaire;  Fr.  gram- 
maire, from  Low  Lat.  *  grammaria,  from  Lat. 
gramma  =Gr.  ypa.p.y.0.  (gramma),  from  vpa^o> 
(grapho)  =■  to  write.] 

A.  As  substantive  :\ 

1.  The  science  which  treats  of  the  words  of 
which  language  is  composed,  and  of  the  laws 
by  which  it  is  governed.  It  is  of  two  kinds, 
descriptive  and  comparative.  Descriptive 
grammar  classifies,  arranges,  and  describes 
words  as  separate  parts  of  speech,  and  notes 
the  changes  they  undergo  under  certain  con- 
ditions. Comparative  grammar,  which  is  based 
on  the  study  of  words,  goes  further ;  it  ana- 
lyzes and  accounts  for  the  changes  they  have 
undergone,  and  endeavours  to  trace  them  back 
to  their  origin ;  it  thus  deals  with  the  growth 
of  language. 

"  Grammar  is  the  art  of  true'and  well  speaking  alan- 
guage."  —  Ben  Jonson:  English  Grammar,  ch.  i. 

2.  A  book  or  work  containing  the  principles 
and  rules  for  speaking  and  writiug  a  language  ; 
a  treatise  on  the  principles  of  language. 

"Alfric  composed  several  grammars  Tand  diction- 
aries."— Go Idsmith  :  Polite  Learning,  ch.  iii. 

3.  The  art  of  speaking  or  writing  a  lan- 
guage with  correctness  and  propriety  accord- 
ing to  established  rules. 

4.  A  correct  use  of  words  in  accordance 
with  the  established  rules  of  language ;  pro- 
priety of  speech. 

"  I'arium  et  mutabile  semper  femina,  is  the  sharpest 
satire  that  ever  was  made  on  woman ,  for  the  adjec- 
tives are  neuter,  and  animal  must  be  understood  to> 
make  them  grammar"— Drydcn. 

5.  A  treatise  on  the  elements  or  principles 
of  any  science  or  subject ;  as,  a  grammar  of 

B.  As  adj. :  Pertaining  to  or  contained  in 
grammar ;  as  a  grammar  rule. 

grammar-school,   *  gramer  -  scole, 

s.    A  school  in  which  languages,  especially 
Latin  and  Greek,  are  grammatically  taught. 
"Thou  has  most  traitorously  corrupted  the  youth 

of  the  realm  in  erecting  n  grammar -school.' — Shakesp.  : 

2  Henry  VI.,  iv.  7. 

*  gram  mar,  *  gram  -mcr,  v.i.  [Gram- 
mar, c.)  Tb  discourse  according  to  the  rules 
of  grammar. 

"  She  is  in  her 
Moods  and  her  tenses :  111  grammcr  with  you. 
And  make  a  trial  how  I  can  decline  you." 

/;<:>< ton.  ,fc  Flet. :  Laws  of  Candy,  ii.  i. 

boil,  bo3^;  poUt,  J6%1;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this,  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    ph  =  f. 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun;  tion,  sion  =  zhun.    -tious,  -clous,    sious  =  shus.    -hie,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  del* 


grammarian— grand 

gram  -  mar' -I    an,    *  gram    ar    i  -an, 

*  gram-ar    i-'en,    *  gram-ar-y-on, 

*  gram-ar-y-one,    *  gram-mar-y-on, 

s.    [0.  Fr.  gramarien;  Fr.  grammairien.] 

1.  One  who  is  versed  in  grammar  or  the 
science  of  languages  ;  a  philologist  ;  a  master 
of  grammar. 

"Among  the  prieBta  who  refused  the  oaths  were 
some  men  eminent  in  the  learned  world,  as  gram- 
marians, chronologists,  canonists,  and  antiquaries."— 
Macaulay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xiv. 

2.  One  who  writes  or  teaches  grammar. 

"  Casaubon  was  led  into  that  mistake  by  Diomedee 

the  grammarian."— Dryden  :  Juvenal.    (Dedic.) 

*  gram-mar' -i-an-ism,  s.  [Eng.  gram- 
marian; -ism.]  "The  principles  or  use  of 

*gram-mar'-i-our,  5.  [Grammar.]  Formerly, 
the  teacher  of  grammar  in  a  college  ;  the  term 
Professor  of  Humanity  has  long  been  used  in 
its  stead.    (Scotch.) 

gram  mar-less,  a.  [Eng.  grammar;  -less.] 
Destitute"  of  grammar  ;  without  a  grammar. 

'  gram  -mar-ye, 


*  gram-mates,  s.  [Gr.  ypd/j.f±aTa(grammata), 
pi.  of  ypdfifia  (gramma)  =  a  letter.]  Elements, 
first  principles,  or  rudiments,  as  of  grammar. 

"  These  apish  boys,  when  they  but  task  the  gram- 
The  principles  of  theory,  imagine 
They  can  oppose  their  teachers." 

Ford  ;.  Broken  Heart,  i.  a. 

gram  mat  ic-al,  a.  [Fr.  grammatical,  from 
Lat.  gravimaticu-s  —  grammatical,  from  Gr. 
ypafj.(AaTiKo<;  (grammatikos)  =  knowing  one's 
letters  or  rudiments  ;  ypdp.p.a  (gramma),  gen. 
ypdfifiaTOs  (grammatos)  =  a  letter ;  ypd<pw 
Igra/pho)  =  to  write.  ] 

1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  grammar. 

"And  thus  (l.e.  by  taking  certain  grammatical  dis- 
tinctions for  real  differences  in  nature)  the  gramma- 
tisthas  miBled  the  grammarian."—  Tooke:  Diversions 
of  Purley,  vol.  i.,  ch.  lx. 

2.  According  to  the    rules    of   grammar ; 
grammatically  correct. 

"It  is  certainly  not  true  in  that  sense  of  the  words 
that  the  natural  proper  grammatical  construction  of 
them  leads  to." — Sharp,  vol.  v..  Disc.  9. 

gram-mat'  Ic  ally,  adv.  [Eng.  gram- 
matical; -ly.]  In  *a  grammatical  manner;  ac- 
cording to  the  rules  or  principles  of  grammar. 

gram-mat'-Ic-al-ness,  s.  [Eng.  gram- 
matical; -ness.]  The  quality  or  state  of  being 
grammatical  or  according  to  the  rules  of 

*  gram  mat'-i-cas-ter,  s.  [Formed  from 
Eng.  grammatic,  on  analogy  with  poetaster,  criti- 
caster, &c]  A  low  petty  grammarian ;  a  pre- 
tender to  the  knowledge  of  grammar. 

"He  tells  thee  true,  my  noble  Neophitej  my  little 
grammaticaster." — Ben  Jonson  :  Poetaster,  1.  2. 

gram-mat  i  ca'  tion,  s.  [Eng.  gram- 
malic  ;  -ation.]  A  rule  or  principle  of 

gram-mat -i-fism,  s.  [Eng.  grammatic; 
-ism..]    A  point  or  principle  in  grammar. 

"  If  we  would  contest  grammaticisms,  the  Word  here 
is  passive." — Leigh-ton  :  Com.  on  1  Peter  ii.  25. 

*  gram-mat'-I-cize,  v.t.  &  i.  [Eng.  gram- 
matic; -ize.] 

A.  Trans. :  To  render  grammatical ;  to  set 
out  or  arrange  in  accordance  with  a  system  of 

"This  was  the  very  first  attempt  to  embody,  to 
trrange,  or  to  grammaticize  this  language  [the  Celtic]. 
-Fuller:   Worthies;   Wales  QeneraU.    (Note.) 

B.  Intrans. :  To  display  one's  knowledge  of 
grammar  ;  to  act  the  grammarian. 

"  Qrammatloising  pedantically,  and  criticising  spu- 
riously."— Op.  Ward.  ' 

■*  gram'  -  ma  -  tist,  s.  [Gr.  ypa|u.ju.anoT<js 
(grammatistes).]  A  pretender  to  a  knowledge 
of  grammar. 

"Not  instruments  of  burning  plates  ...  as  some 
irammatists  have  imagined."— A  Holland:  Ammi- 
mus,  bk.  xiv.     (Annot.J 

gram   ma  tite,  s.     [Gr,  ypdp\\i.a.  (gramma), 
genit.    ypdixfJLaTos    (grammatos)  =  a    written 
character,  a  line.] 
Min. ;  The  same  as  Tremolite  (q.v.). 

gramme,  s.  [Fr.,  from  Gr.  ypdnna.  (gramma) 
=  a  written  character,  a  letter  ...  a  weight 
used  by  physicians  =  a  scruple.] 

Weight*  £  Measures,  Physics,  i&c. :  A  French 
weight,  equivalent  to  that  of  a  cubic  centi- 
metre of  distilled  water  at  4°  C.  It  weighs 
15-443  grains.  On  the  C.G.3.  System  of 
Units  it  is  nearly  equal  to  981  dynes. 

gramme -centimetre,  5. 

Physics:  A  measure  of  work  on  the  C.  G.  S. 
System  of  Units.  It  is  nearly  =  9*81  x  10* 
ergs.    It  is  rather  less  than  the  kilerg. 

gramme  degree,  s. 

Physics :  A  measure  of  heat.  One  gramme 
degree  Centigrade  is  =  4*2  x  10?  ergs  =  forty- 
two  million  ergs. 

gram'- mite,    s.       [Gr.    ypd^a     (gramma) 
[Grammatite],  and  suff.  -ite  (Min.)  (q.v.).] 
Mln. :  The  same  as  Wollastonite  (q.v.). 

gram-mit-Id'-e-ae,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  gram- 
mit(es),  and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ideai.] 

Bot. :  A  sub-tribe  of  Polypodiaceous  Ferns 
having  naked  sori. 

gram-mi  tis,  s.  [Gr.  -ypaju/x^  (gramme)  = 
the  stroke  of  a  pen,  an  outline;  from  the 
arrangement  of  the  sori.] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  subtribe 
Graminitideae  (q.v.).  What  was  once  termed 
Grammitis  crierach  was  next  called  Veterach 
ojficinarum,  and  has  now  returned  to  AspU- 
nvum  ceterach,  its  old  Linnaean  name. 

Gram  mon-ti !ans,  Grand  mon-tme^, 
Gran  di  mon  tainsjj,  s.  pi.  [From  Gram- 
mont,  in  Limoges,  Muret,  near  which  the  order 
was  first  established.] 

Ch.  Hist. :  A  monastic  order  founded  in  a.d. 
1073,  with  the  sanction  of  Pope  Gregory  VII., 
by  Stephen  of  Thiers,  a  nobleman  of  Au- 
vergne,  who  is  sometimes  called  Stephen  de 
Muret.  [Etym.]  His  rules  enjoined  .poverty 
and  obedience  ;  abstinence  from  animal  food, 
which  was  not  allowed  even  to  the  sick  ; 
as  also  silence,  and  forbade  conversation 
with  females.  The  lay  brethren  were  to 
manage  the  secular  affairs  of  the  monastery 
while  their  clerical  associates  devoted  them- 
selves exclusively  to  spiritual  contemplation. 
The  reputation  of  the  order  remained  high 
during  the  eleventh  and  twelfth  centuries. 
Ultimately,  however,  variance  arose  between 
the  clerical  and  lay  brethren,  and  the  rigour 
of  the  rules  was  modified,  both  courses  tend- 
ing to  lower  the  reputation  of  the  order  in  the 
Christian  world. 

1[  The  order  came  into  the  England  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  I.,  a.d.  1100  to  1135.  They 
established  themselves  at  Abberbury,  in 
Shropshire,  at  Cressewell,  in  Herefordshire, 
and  at  Grosmont  or  Eskdale,  in  Yorkshire. 
(MoshMm:  Ch.  Hist.,  cent,  xi.,  pt.  ii.,  ch.  ii., 
§  26,  &c.) 

t  gram-mo -pet'  a-lous,  a.    [Gr.  ypa^ij 
(aramme)=  the  strok"e  of  a  pen,  a  line ;  irerakov 
(petalon)  =  a  leaf,  and  Eng.,  &c.  suff.  -ous.] 
Bot. :  Having  linear  petals. 

gram'  pie,  s.  [O.  Fr.  grampelle,  crampelle.] 
A  kind  of  crawfish. 

gram- piis,    *  gram- passe,    *  grand 

place,  s.  [A  corruption  of  Ital.  gran  pes  = 
great  fish,  or  of  Port,  gran  peixe,  or  Sp.  grand 
pez,  from  Lat.  grandis  piscis  =  a  great  fish. 
There  is  an  analogous  etymology  to  Porpoise 
(q.v.).     (Skeat.y] 

Zool. :  A  cetacean,  Phocoma  Orca,  closely 
akin  to  the  porpoise,  P.  communis,  but  much 
larger,  beingsometimestwenty-one  feetlong.  It 


has  eleven  thick  conical  teeth,  a  little  crooked, 
the  posterior  ones  flattened  transversely.  It 
is  blaqk  above  and  white  below.  It  is  a  vora- 
cious animal.  It  is  found  in  the  North  At- 
lantic, extending  also  to  the  British  seas. 


[Grand.]    (Scotch.) 

gra  -  na,  s.  pi.    [PI.  of;  Lat.  granum  =  a  grain  ] 

Pharm.,  &c. :  Grains. 

*  granam  oliiccana,  5.  pi. 

Pharm.  :  The  seeds  of  Croton  Tlglium  and 
C.  Pavana,  two  euphorbiaceous  trees  from  the 
Bast  Indies,  the  oil  of  which  is  acrid,  and 
blisters  the  skin. 

*  gra-na'de,  *  gra-na'-dd  (1),  s.  [Grenade.] 

1.  A  grenade. 

2.  A  squib,  a  pamphlet,  a  satire. 

*gr&n-a-dieV,  s.    [Grenadier.] 

gran-a-dil'-la,  s.    [Sp.] 

Bot':  Various  species  of  Passiflora  (Passion 
Flower),  as  Passiflora  quadrangularls,  &c, 
having  edible  fruits ;  also  those  fruits  them- 

*  gra  -  na'-  do  (2),  s.  [Lat.  granatum.]  A 
pomegranate.    [Granatum.] 

gran-am,  s.    [Grand am.] 

gran'-ar-^,  s.  [Lat.  granaria,  from  granum 
=  corn;  Ital.  granaro;  Sp.;  Port. 
granier ;  Fr.  grenter.  Granary  and  garner 
are  thus  doublets.]  A  storehouse  or  reposi- 
tory for  grain  after  it  has  been  threshed ;  any 
place  where  grain  is  stored. 

"  Of  forecast,  the  sitta,  and  the  ant,  which  lay  up 
nuts  and  other  seeds  In  their  granaries,  which  serve 
them  In  winter."— Grew:  Cosmologla  Sacra,  bk.  iiL, 
ch.  it 

gran   at,  s.    [Garnet.] 

Min. ;  The  same  as  Garnet  (q.v.). 

*  gran' -ate  (1),  s.    [Granite.] 

[Lat.  granatum.]    A  pome- 

*  gran -ate  (2), 

*  gran  -ate,  a.  [Lat.  granatus.]  Ingrained  *, 
dyed  in  "grain. 

"  Syne  nixt  hir  raid  tn  granate  violnt 
T w  1  .It  dainiaellis,  ilk  ane  in  that  estalt." 

Lindsay  ■'  Palice  of  Honour,  t  11. 

gra  na'-ti,  s.  [Gen.  sing,  of  Lat.  granatum.] 

GroMati  radicis  Cortex:  [Pomegranate-root 

gran  -a  tite,  e.    [Grenatite.] 

gra-na'  turn,  s.  [Lat.  (pomum) granatum  = 
(an* apple)  with  grains:  granum  =  a  grain.]  A 

grand,  graund,  a.  &  s.  [Fr.  grand- great, 
from  Lat.  grandis,  from  the  same  root  as 
gravis  =  heavy  ;  Sp.  &  Ital.  grande.] 

A.  As  adjective : 

1,  Great),  principal,  chief. 

"  Whom  the  grand  foe  with  scornful  eye  askance, 
Thus  answered."  Milton  :  P.  L.,  vL  149. 

*  2.  Weighty,  important. 

"  In  grand  affairs  thy  days  are  spent, 
In  waging  weighty  compliment." 

firyden :  Sp.  % 

3.  Complete,  full. 

"  Produce  the  grand  sum  of  his  Bias,  the  articles 
Collected  from  his  life." 

Shaketp.  :  Henry  rill.,  lit  2. 

4.  Great ;  illustrious ;  high  in  dignity,  rank, 
or  power ;  noble. 

"  God  hath  planted,  that  is,  mode  to  grow,  the  trees 
of  life  and  knowledge,  plants  only  proper  and  becom- 
ing the  paradise  and  garden  of  so  grand  a  Lord."— 
Raleigh  :  Hist,  of  the  World. 

5.  Splendid,  magnificent. 

"I  have  ever  observed,  that  colonnades  and  avenues 
of  trees  of  a  moderate  length,  were  without  comparison 
far  grander,  than  when  they  were  suffered  to  run  to 
immense  distances."— Burke  :  On  the  Sublime  &  Beau- 
tiful, pt.  ii.,  §  10. 

6.  Worthy  of  admiration,  noble,  illuatrioua, 

,7.  Noble ;  sublime  ;  lofty  ;  conceived  or  ex- 
pressed in  noble  or  dignified,  language  :  as,  a 
grand  conception,  a  grand  idea. 

8.  It  is  used  principally  in  composition  .to 
denote  ascent  or  descent  of  consanguinity: 
as,  grandfather  and  grandson,  grandm other 
and  grandchild,  &c.  ;  more  remote  in  descent. 

,        ,  "  Say  flrat  what  cause 

Moved  our  grand  pnrents  in  that  happy  state. 
Favoured  of  Heaven  so  highly,  to  fall  off 
From  their  Creator  "  AfUton  :  P.  L.,  L  29. 

B,  As  substantive : 

1.  The  head  or  chief  of  certain  secret  socie- 
ties :  a  grand-master. 

2.  [Grand-piano.] 

grand-action,  s.    A  pianoforte  action, 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;   go,  pit 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who.  sin;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur.  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     ee,  ce  =  e;  ey  ~  a.    qu  =  kw. 

grand— grandmother 


to  which'  three  features  are  combined :  (I)  A 
hammer  to  strike  the  string ;  (2)  a  hopper  to 
elevate  the  hammer,  and  then,  escaping  there- 
'frotti,  leave  tlie  latter  instantly  to  fall  away 
from  the  string,  independently  of  the  position 
of  the  key ;  and  (3)  a  check  to  catch  the 
hammer  arid  prevent  rebounding. 

grand-assize,  *. 

Lath:  A  kind  of  trial  introduced  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  V.,  by  which  an  accused  person 
was  allowed  the  option  of  trial  by  battle  or 
trial  by  a  jury  of  his  peers.  It  was  abolished 
by  3-14  William  IV.,  c.  42,  §  13. 

grand  commander,  grand-cross,  s. 

The  highest  class  in  certain  orders  of  knight- 

grand-days,  s.  pi. 

Law:  Certain  days  in  the  terms  which  are 
solemnly  kept  in  the  Inns  of  Court  and 
Chancery — viz.,  Candlemas  Day,  Ascension 
Day,  St.  John  Baptist's  Day,  and  All  Saints' 

grand  distress,  s. 

Law ;  A  writ  of  distress  issued  in  the  real 
action  of  quare  impedit,  when  no  appearance 
has  been  entered  after  the  attachment.  It  is 
directed  to  the  sheriff,  and  commands  him  to 
distrain  the  defendant's  goods  and  chattels, 
in.  order  to  compel  appearance. 

grand-duke,  s. 

1.  Orel.  Lang.  :  A  title  applied  to  members 
of  the  Imperial  family  of  Russia,  and  also  to 
the  sovereigns  of  certain  German  states,  who 
are  considered  as  holding  a  position  between 
duke  and  king.  Before  the,  establishment  of 
the  Italian  kingdom  under  Victor  Emmanuel, 
in  18£il,  there  was  a  grand-duke  of  Tuscany. 

1 2.  ZqoL  :  A  name  for  the  Eagle-owl,  Bubo 
maximus.  ■ 

*  grand -guard,  *  grande  -  garde, 
*  graun  garde,  s. 

Old  Arm. :  A  piece  of/  plate-armour  used  in 
,  the  tournament  as  an  extra  protection  for  the 
left  shoulder  and  breast.  It  was  screwed  to 
the  breast-plate,  and  allpwed  little  or  no  room 
to  the  left  arm,  being  only  used  on  horseback 
in  "jousts  of  peace."    (Fairholt.) 

"The  one  bnre  the  heluie,  the  second  hie  graun- 
ffarde,  the  thlrde  his  spere." — Hall :  Henry  VIII.  (an.  6). 

grand-juror,  s.  A  member  of  a  grand- 
jury  (q.v.), 

"  Never  had  magistrates,  grand  jurors,  rectors,  and 
churchwardens  been  ao  much  ou  the  alert." — Macau- 
lay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  v. 

grand-jury,  s. 

Law :  A  jury,  consisting  of  not  less  than 
twelve  nor  more  than  twenty-three  duly  quali- 
fied men,  selected  by  the  sheriff  of  each  county, 
whose  duty  is  to  inquire  into  charges  of  crime 
or  misdemeanour  against  offenders,  and  to  find 
bills  of  indictment  or  throw  them  out,  as  the 
evidence  requires.     [Juhy.] 

"  The  grand  jury,  haying  ehoaen  their  foreman,  are 
next  instructed  in  the  articles  of  their  inquiry  by  a 
oharge  from  the  judge  who  presides  upon  the  bench. 
They  then  withdraw  to  receive  indictments,  which  are 
preferred  to  them  in  the  name  of  the  sovereign,  but  at 
the  suit  of  any  private  prosecutor ;  and  they  are  only 
to  hear  evidence  on  behalf  of  the  prosecution  ;  for  the 
■  finding  of  an  indictment  U  only  in  the  nature  of  an 
i  ,  inquiry  or  accusation,  which  is  afterwords  to  be  tried 
and  determined;  and  the  grand  jury  are  only  to  in- 
quire upon  their  oaths  whether  there  be  sufficient 
•  cause  to  call  upon  the  party  to  answer  it."— Black- 
atone:  Comment.,  bk.  iv.,  ch.  33. 

grand-juryman,  s. 

Law:  A  grand-juror. 

*  grand-larceny,  «. 

Old  Law :  The  stealing  of  goods  above  the 
Value  of  twelve  pence. 

*  grand -leet,  u.    A  great  assembly. 

"  In  the  grand-leeta  and  solemn  elections  of  magis- 
trates."—P,  Holland :  Livy,  p.  25. 

grand-lodge,  s.  The  principal  lodge  of 
Freemasons  and  of  Good-Templars.  It  is  pre- 
sided over  by  the  grand-master,  and  grants 
charters  of  foundation  pr  affiliation,  and  acts 
generally  as  the  governing  body  of  the  order. 
The  officers  of  grand-lodge  are  delegates  from 
the  various  inferior  lodges. 

grand-mamma,  s.    [Grandmamma.] 

grand-master,  s. 

1.  The  title  given  to  the  head  of  the  military 
orders  of  knighthood;  as,  the'  Hospitallers, 
the  Templars,  &c. 

2.   The  head  of  the  orders  of  Freemasons 
and  Good-Templars. 
grand  -mercie,  s.    [Gramercy.] 

grand-nephew,  e.  The  grandson  of  a 
brother  or  sister. 

grand-niece,  s.  The  granddaughter  of 
a  brother  or  sister, 

*  grand  -panch,  s.  A  gourmand,  a 

"Our  grand-panches  and  riotous  persons." — P.  Hol- 
land: Pliny,  bk.  xix.,  ch.  iv. 

grand-pensionary,  ».    [Pensionary.] 

grand-piano,  s.  A  harp-shaped  piano, 
whose  form  is  caused  by  the  varying  lengths 
of  the  strings,  the  mechanism  being  intro- 
duced in  the  most  effective  manner  regardless 
of  the  dimensions  of  the  instrument.  [Piano- 

grand-relief,  *. 

Sculp. ;  [Alto-relievo]. 

grand-seignior,  s.  A  title  formerly 
given  to  the  Sultan  of  Turkey. 

*  grand  serjeanty,  s. 

Law :  A  form  of  tenure  by  military  service. 

"  These  were  the  principal  qualities,  fruits,  and  con- 
sequences of  the  tenure  l)y  knight-service:  of  which 
there  were  some  other  species,  such  as  the  tenure  by 
grand-serjeanty.per  magnum  servitlum,  whereby  tlie 
tenant  was  bound,  instead  of  serving  the  king  generally 
in  his  wars,  to  do  some  special  honorary  service  to  the 
king  in  person ;  as  to  carry  his  banner,  his  sword,  or 
the  like;  or  to  be  his  butler,  champion,  or  other  officer, 
at  his  coronation."— Blackstone :  Comment,  bk.  il , 
ch.  3. 

grand-stand,  s.  The  principal  stand  or 
structure,  on  a  race-course,  &c,  from  which 
a  view  of  a  race  or  other  spectacle  can  be 

grand-vizier,  s.  The  prime  minister  of 
the  Turkish  Empire.     [Vizier.] 

*  grand,  *  graund,  v.t.     [Grand,  a.]     To 

make  great. 

"To  graund  His  grace  is  sacrilegious."  —  Davies: 
Summa  Totalis,  p.  6. 

gran'  dam,  *  gran-dame,  s.    [Eng.  grand, 
and  dam.]    A  grandmother ;  an  old  woman. 
"Make  merry,  wives  I  ye  little  children  stun 
Tour  grandam's  ears  with  pleasure  of  your  noise." 
Wordsworth  :  Sonnet ;  Anticipation,  No.  1. 

grand'  child,  s.  [Eng.  grand,  and  child.] 
The  offspring  of  a  son  or  daughter ;  a  grand- 
son or  granddaughter. 

"  With  cross  and  garland, over  its  green  turf, 
And  thy  grandchildren's  love  for  epitaph." 

Byron :  Manfred,  11.  1. 

grand  daugh-ter  (gift silent),  s.  [Eng.  grand, 
and  daughter.]  The  daughter  of  a  son  or 

"  Shortly  after  the  Lady  Jane  Grey,  granddaughter 
to  the  second  Bister  of  King  Henry  tne  Eighth,  was 
publicly  proclaimed  Qu,en  of  England."— Camden: 
Elizabeth.    (Introd.) 

grande,  s.    [Sp.] 

Sugar  Man. ;  The  largest  evaporating-pan 
of  a  battery. 

gran-dee',  s.  [Sp.  gra/nde  =  a  nobleman.]  A 
nobleman  ;  a  person  of  high  rank,  power,  or 
dignity:  specif.,  in  Spain,  a  nobleman  of 
the  highest  rank,  who  has  the  privilege  of  re- 
maining covered  in  the  king's  presence. 

"The  pageautry  of  life]  considered  In  a  political 
view,  as  designed  by  the  grandees  to  awe  the  people, 
and  keep  them  out  of  the  park  of  selfish  happiness, 
which  .the  grandees  have  fenced  with  high  pales."— 
Knox :  The  Spirit  of  Despotism,  §  22. 

gran-dee' -ship,  s.  [Eng.  grandee;  -ship.] 
The  rank,  dignity,  or  estate  of  a  grandee. 

"  I  think  the  Conde  de>  Altainira  has  no  less  than 
nineteen  grandeeships  centred  in  his  pereon."— Swin- 
burne :  Spain,  let.  42. 

grand -eur  feur  as  yur),  s.  [Fr.,  from 
grand  =  great.]  The  quality  of  being  grand  ; 
splendour ;  magnificence  ;  state  ;  dignity ; 
vastness  of  size  ;  splendid  or  magnificent  ap- 
pearance ;  elevation  of  sentiment,  language,  or 
thought ;  sublimity. 

"  This  grandeur  and  majestic  show 
Of  luxury.''  Milton  :  P.  £.,  iv.  no. 

IF  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  gran- 
deur  and  magnificence :  "An  extensive  assem- ; 
blage  of  striking  qualities  in  the  exterior  i 
constitutes  the  common  signification  of  these  i 
terms,  of  which  grandeur  is  the  genus  and! 
magnificence  the  species.  Magnificence  cannot ; 
exist  without  grandeur,  but  grandeur  exists 

without  magnificence:  the  former  is  distin- 
guished from  the  latter  both  in  degree  and  in 
application.  When  applied  to  the  same  objects 
they  differ  in  degree;  magnificence  being  the 
highest  degree  of  grandeur.  Grandeur  is  ap- 
plicable to  the  works  of  nature  as  well  as  art, 
of  mind  as  well  as  matter ;  magnificence  is 
altogether  the  creature  of  art.  A  structure,  a 
spectacle,  an  entertainment,  and  the  like, 
may  be  grand  or  magnificent :  but  a  scene,  a 
prospect,  a  conception,  and  the  like,  is  grandt 
but  not  magnificent."    (Crabb :  Eng.  Synon.) 

*  grand-eV-i-ty,  *grand-aev'-I-ty,  s. 

[Lat.  grandcEvitas,  from  grandis  —  great,  and 
cevvm  =  age.]  Great  age,  long  life ;  length  of 

"  Upon  a  true  account  the  present  age  is  the  world's 
grandosvlty." — Glanvill :  Vanity  of  Dogmatizing,  ch.  xv. 

*  grand-eV-ous,  a.  [Lat.  grandcews.]  Of 
great  age  ;  long-lived. 

'  grand  ez  a,  s.    [Sp.]    A  grandee. 

"Of  all  the  grandezas  he  had  received." — HoweU; 
Dodona's  drove,  p.  10L 

grand'- fa  ther,  s.  [Eng.  grand,  and  father.] 
The  father  of  a  mother  or  father ;  the  male  an- 
cestor next  above  a  father  or  mother  in  the 
scale  of  ascent. 

*  grand  -  if  -  1C,  a.  [Lat.  grandificus^  from 
grandis  =  great,  and/acio  =  to  make.]  Making 

*  grand -I-ry,  v.t.  [Eng.  grand;  stiff,  -fy 
(q.v.).]    To  make,  grand,  great,  or  splendid. 

grand  il  o-quence,  s.  [Grandiloquent.  1 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  grandiloquent ; 
lofty  or  pompous  language ;  bombast. 

*  grand-il   o  quent,  a.    [Lat.  grandiloquent* 

from  grandis  =  great;  loquens,  pr.  par.  01 
loquor  =  to  speak.] 

1.  Using  lofty  or  pompous  language ;  bom- 

2.  Bombastic ;  consisting  of  lofty  or  pomp- 
ous language. 

"For  incident  and  style  (with  the  exception  of  a  few 
grandiloquent  extravagances),  it  stands  out  favourably 
from  the  common  run  of  novels."— Atheimum,  Feb,  8, 
1884,  p.  182. 

*  grand  -  II  -  6  -  quous,  a.  [Lat.  grandilo- 
qvus,  from  grandis  =  great ;  loquor  =  to 
speak.]    The  same  as  Grandiloquent  (q.v.). 

Gran-di-mdn -tains,  s.  pi.  [Grammontians.] 

*  grand '-in  ous,  a.  [Lat.  grandineue,  from 
grando  (genit.  grandinis)  =  hail.]  Full  or 
consisting  of  hail. 

*  grand '-i-dse,  a.  [Fr.,  from  grand  =  great ; 
Ttal.  grandiose.] 

1.  Grand,  sublime,  imposing,  magnificent; 
full  of  grandeur. 

"  Hardly  anything  could  seem  more  grandiose."— 
0,  Eliot :  Romola,  ch.  xxi. 

2.  Pompous,  bombastic  ;  vulgarly  showy  or 
grand ;  grandiloquent. 

"  Worth  more  than  the  grandiose  memoirs  of  im- 
mortal statesmen."— Forster:  Life  A  Times  of  Gold- 
smith, bk.  ilL,  ch.  v.,  p.  801. 

*  grand-i-os'-I-ty, s-  £®nS-  grandiose);  -ity.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  .being  grandiose  ;  bom- 
bastic or  pompous  style  or  language. 

*  grand'-l-ty,  s.  [Lat.  granditas,  from  grandis 

=  great]  Greatness,  grandeur,  magnificence.] 
"Our  poets  excel  in  grandUy  and  gravity,  smooth- 
ness  and  property.   In  quickness  and  briefness."— 
Camden:  Remaines;  Poems. 

*  grand -ling,  s.  [Eng.  grand ;  dim.  Buff. 
'ling.]    A  petty  noble  or  grandee. 

"  Should  he  (not)  heare  of  billow,  wind  and  storm, 
From  the  tempestuous  grandHngs."  ■  ' 

Ben  Jonson :  Speech  according  to  Horace. 

grand'-rjf,  adv.  [Eng.  grand ;  -ly.] '  In  a 
grand  .manner ,  splendidly,  magnificently,  ad- 
mirably, sublimely. 

grand  -  mam  -  ma,  s.  [Eng.  grand,  and 
mamma  (q.v.).]     A  grandmother  (q.v.). 

*  grand-ma-teV-nal,  a.  [Eng.  grandt  and 
maternal  (q.v.).]  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  grand- 
mother or  female  ancestor. 

"Fresh  strength  1b  given  him  In  his  struggled  by 
contact  with  his  grandmatemal  earth."— Mortimer 
Collins  :  Two  Plunges  for  a  Pearl,  voL  i.,  ch.  v. 

Grand-mon'  tines,  s.  pi.  [GrammontiansJ 

grand'-moth-er,  s.  [Eng.  grand,  and  mo- 
ther.]   The  mother  of  one's  father  or  mother. 

b$il,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,      ing. 
-cian.  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun :  -tion,    sion  ^=  zhiin.    -tious,  -siovs.  -cious—  shua.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  hel.  del. 


grandmotherly— granite 

grand  -moth-er-ly,  a.  [Eng.  grandmother; 
-ly.]  Pertaining  to  or  "becoming  a  grand- 
mother. (Generally  used  in  the  expression 
grandmotherly  legislation  or  government,  that 
is,  fit  for  children,  childish,  treating  those 
concerned  as  children.) 

"Tavern  hours  tyrannically  and  ridiculously  cur- 
tailed by  grandmotherly  legislation.  "—Daily  Tele- 
graph, Nov.  20. 1882. 

grand  ness,  s.     [Eng.  grand;  -ness.]    The 
quality  or  state  of  being  grand  ;  grandeur. 
"The  grandness  of  this  fabric    of  the  world."— 
WoUaston  ;  Religion  of  Nature,  §  5. 

*  grand  paungh,  s.  [Eng.  grand,  and 
paunch.]  A  greedy  fellow,  a  glutton,  a  gour- 

*  grand'-schir,  *  grant -schir,  s.     [Eng. 

grand;    Scotch   schir  =  sir.]    A  great-grand- 

"His  said  vmqulule  darrest  grandschir  deceissit 
frome  this  present  lyff  in  the  field  of  Flowdoune."— 
Acts  Jos.  VI.,  1592  (ed.  1814),  p.  619. 

grand -sire,  grand  sicr,  ^  [Eng.  grand, 
and  sire.] 

1.  A  grandfather. 

"  The  boy  set  up  betwixt  his  grandsire's  knees." 
Tennyson ."  Dora,  128. 

2.  An  ancestor,  a  forefather. 

"  Great  Romulus,  the  grandsire  of  them  all." 

Spenser;  F.  Q.,  I.  v.  49. 

grand- son,  *  grand  -Sonne,  s.  [Eng. 
grand,  and  son,]  The  son  of  one's  son  or 

"  Ak.ijus  grandsonne  searching  long." 

Warner :  Albions  England,  bk.  ii.,  c.  xi. 

*gran-dy,  s.     [Grandee.] 

*  grane  (1),  a.    [Grain,  s.] 

*  grane  (2),  «.    [Groan,  s.] 

*  grane,  v.i.  &  t.    [Groan,  s.] 

A.  Intrans. :  To  groan.     (Scotch.) 

B.  Trans.  :  To  exhaust  or  wear  out  by 

"X  might  grane  my  heart  out  or  onybody  wad  gie 
me  either  a  bane  or  a  bodle. "  —  Scott :  Antiquary, 
ch.  xii. 

*gran-er,  s.  [Granary.]  A  granary,  a 

grange,      graunge,   *  gronge,   s.      [Fr. 

grange,   from  Low  Lat.  granea  =  a  barn,   a 
grange;  granum  =  grain,  corn  ;  Sp.  &  Port. 
*1.  A  barn,  a  granary. 

"Their  teeming  flocks,  and  granges  full." 

MUton :  Comus,  175. 

2.  A  farmhouse  or  farmstead  standing  away 
at  a  distance  from  other  houses  Or  a  village  ; 
applied  to  the  residence  of  the  bailifT  of  a 
feudal,  the  dwelling  of  a  yeoman,  &c. 

"  Till  thou  return,  the  Court  I  will  exchange 
For  some  poor  cottage,  or  some  country  grange." 
Drayton  :  Lady  Geraldine  to  the  Earl  of  Surrey. 

*3.  The  farmhouse  or  farmstead  of  a  reli- 
gions house,  where  the  crops  from  the  ground 
attached  to  the  monastery  and  also  the  tithes 
and  rent  paid  in  kind  were  stored :  one  of 
the  monks,  called  the  prior  of  the  grange,  was 
deputed  to  keep  the  account  of  the  farm. 

' '  An  officer  out  for  to  ride, 
To  sen  her  granges  and  her  bernes  wide." 

Chaucer:  C.  T.,  12,996. 

4.  A  combination,  society,  or  association  of 
farmers  for  the  promotion  of  the  interests  of 
agriculture,  by  abolishing  the  restraints  and 
burdens  imposed  on  it  by  railway  and  other 
companies,  and  hy  getting  rid  of  the  system 
of  middlemen  or  agents  between  the  producer 
and  the  consumer.    (American.) 

*  grange,  v.t.    [Grange,  s.]     Apparently,  to 


"  They  presume  thus  to  grange  and  truck  causes." — 
Birch :  Memoirs  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  i.  354. 

gran'-ge-a,  s.  [Named  probably  after  some 
one  called  Grange,  known  to  Addison  (Pax- 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  sub-tribe 
Grangeinese  (q.v.).  Grangea  maderaspatana, 
found  iu  India  and  in  Brazil,  is  used  in  the 
latter  country  as  a  substitute  for  calomel. 

gran-ge-in'-e-fie,  s.  pi  [Mod.  Lat.  grange(a), 
and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  stiff,  -inece.] 

Bot. :  A  sub-tribe  of  Composites,  tribe  As- 

grang'-er,  *  graung-er,  s.     [Eng.  grange  ; 
*  1.  A  farm  bailiff  or  steward. 

"The  graunger  or  maister  of  husbandrie  hath  not 
done  his  part,"— P.  Holland:  Plinie,   bk.  xviii.,   ch. 


2.  A  member  of  a  grange  or  association  for 
the  promotion  of  the  interests  of  agriculture. 

(American. ) 

Grang'-er -ise,  v.t.  [Grangerism.]  To 
mutilate  books  in  the  manner  described  under 
Grangerism  (q.v.). 

"Mr.  Aahton's  Social-  Life  in  tlie  Reign  of  Queen 
Anna  .  .  .  would  bo  a  capital  book  to  Grangerize." — 
G  A.  Sola,  in  must.  London  News,  Nov.  4.,  1882,  p.  463. 

Grang'-er-ism,  s.  [For  etym.  see  def.  and 
extract.]  The  practice  of  illustrating  some 
particular  book  with  engravings  torn  from 
others.  As  will  be  seen  from  the  example 
under  Grangerite  the  custom  itself  was  known 
in  the  18th  century,  but  the  name  is  derived 
from  the  special  delight  bibliophiles  took  in 
thus  illustrating  Granger's  Biographical  His- 
tory of  England.  G.  A.  Sala  (loc.  cit.)  says, 
on  the  authority  of  the  advertisement  of  the 
fifth  edition,  that  at  its  first  appearance  the 
rage  to  illustrate  it  became  so  prevalent  that 
scarcely  a  copy  of  any  work  embellished  with 
portraits  could  be  found  in  an  uninutilated 

"  Grangerism,  as  the  innocent  may  need  to  be  told, 
is  the  pernicious  vice  of  cutting  plates  and  title-pages 
out  of  many  books  to  illustrate  one  book." — Saturday 
Review,  Jan,  29,  1883,  p.  123. 

Grang'-er-ite,  s.  [Granger;  -ite.]  One  who 
mutilates  books  for  the  purpose  of  illustrating 

"Diderot  was  not  only  a  hardened  Grangerite  but  as 
far  in  advance  of  his  epoch,  in  respect  of  the  theory  of 
book  illustration,  as  he  was  in  respect  of  art  criticism." 
— Saturday  Review,  Feb.  17,  1883,  p.  207. 

gran  gus'-to,  &,    [it.] 

1,  Music :  Elevated  taste  or  expression. 

2.  Paint.:  Anything  in  a  picture  very  extra- 
ordinary or  calculated  to  excite  surprise. 

*  gran'-i-er,  *.    [Garner.] 

gra-nif '-er-se,  s.  pi.  [Graniferous.]  A 
nanis  given  by  Agardh  in  1S21  to  the  Endo- 
geus  (q.v.). 

gra-nif '  -er-oiis,  a.  [Lat.  granum  =  grain, 
seed ;  fero  =  to  bear,  to  produce  ;  and  Eng. 
adj.  suff.  -oiis.]  Bearing  grain  or  seeds  like 

gran'  l- form,  s.     [Lat.  granum  (genit.  grant) 
—  grain,  seed,  and  forma  =  form,  shape.] 
Bot. :  Resembling  grains  of  corn  in  form. 

t  gran'-i-lite,  s.    [Fr.,  from  grantff),  and  Gr. 
Atflos  (lithos)  =  stone.] 
Petrology  : 

1.  Granite  with  small  grains.    (Littre.) 

2.  Indeterminate  granite. 

3.  Granite  which  contains  more  than  three 
constituent  parts.  (Ogilvie.)  The  word  is  not 
recognised  by  Rutley. 

gra-nir-la,  s.  [Sp.,  dimin.  of  grano ;  Lat. 
grantm  =  a  grain,  seed.]  The  dust  or  small 
grains  of  the  cochineal  iusect. 

"  gran-it,  a.     [Eng.    grain   (2),  s. ;  -it, 
Forked,  barbed. 

"  He  has  na  power  nor  ancthorytye 
On  seyis,  nor  on  the  thre  granit  sceptour  wand 
Quhilk  is  by  cut  geuin  me  to  bere  iu  hand." 

Douglas:  Virgil,  17,  23. 

*  gran'- 1  -  tar,   s.     [Eng.   grain;    -ter.]     An 
officer  belonging  to  a  religious  house,  who  had 
ri_  the  charge  of  the  granaries ;  a  grainger. 

"  Memorandum  that  the  granitar  sete  na  teynds  to 
na  baroms,  nether  landit  men."— Chart.  Aberbroth. 
fo.  126,  ju  Afacfarl.,  p.  433. 

gran  -ite,  s.  &  a.  [Ital.  granito,  as  s.  =  granite, 
as  adj.  =  grained,  from  Lat.  granum  =  a  grain' 
Port,  granito;  Fr.  granit;  Sp.  granate.  So 
named  because  the  rock  has  a  course  granular 

A.  As  substantive: 

I,  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  1. 

2.  Anything  very  difficult  to  be  destroyed, 
as  when  an  individual  is  said  to  have  a  con- 
stitution of  granite. 

IL  Technically: 

1.  Petrol.  £  Geol.  :  An  unstratified  rock, 
normally  consisting  of  three  simple  minerals, 

felspar,  quartz,  and  mica,  or,  in  Dana's  nomen- 
clature, of  orthoclase,  quartz,  and  mica.     For 
a  long  time  the  universally  accepted  view, 
which  is  still  the  prevalent   one,  was  that 
it    is  an  "igneous"  rock,    of  a    4,plutonic" 
type.     The  difficulty  has,  however,  to  be  en- 
countered that  it  is  not  seen  in  process  of 
formation  on  the  earth's  surface.     This  was 
met  by  Sir  Chas.  Lyell,  the  apostle  of  Uni- 
formitarianism,  by  the  hypothesis  that  it  ori- 
ginates beneath  the  surface  and  under  high 
pressure,  produced  in  most  cases  by  earth, 
but  in  some  instances  by  a  weight  of  incum- 
bent water.     Like  surface  volcanic  rocks  it 
has  been  fused  and  afterwards  cooled  ;  but  it 
does  not    like  them   comprehend   tuffs  and 
breccias,  &c,  but  assumes  a  crystalline  tex- 
ture, destitute  of  pores,  or  cellular  cavities  to 
which  gases  entangled   in  lava  or  any  such 
rock  give  rise.     It  is  in  favour  of  its  igneous- 
origin  that  it  has    in    many  places  broken 
through  ordinary  sedimentary  or  metainorphic 
strata,  sending  veins  through  them  in  various 
directions.    It  rarely,   however,  overtops   or 
caps  them,  as  if  coming  up  molten  through  a 
crater  it  had  overflowed  them  above.    Hence 
Mr.  Necker  proposed  for  it  the  term  under- 
lying to  distinguish  it  from  the  volcanic  rocks, 
called  by  Dr.   MacCulloch  overlying  rocks. 
Some  geologists  consider  it  not  an  "  igneous  " 
or  "plutonic,"  but  a  metamorphic  rock,  more 
altered  than  gneiss,  which  agrees  with  it  in 
composition,  but  in  which  stratification  has 
not  been  obliterated.     The  two  views  are  not 
necessarily  antagonistic ;  some  granites  may 
have  the  one  origin  and  others  the  other. 
Werner  ranked  granite  as  one  of  his  "primary"' 
rocks,  and  long  after  his  time  it  was  looked 
upon  as  always  very  old,  if  not  even  the  most 
ancient  of  rocks.    This  view  is  obsolete  ;  it  is 
of  all  ages,  some  granite  in  the  Alps  having 
broken  up  the  strata  during  Tertiary  times. 
Mr.  Sorby,  F.G.S.,  has  shown  that  granite 
encloses  fluid  cavities,  having  in  them  water, 
containing  chlorides  of  potassium  and  sodium, 
with  sulphates  of  potash,  soda,  and  lime.    He 
reasons  out  that  the  Cornish  elvans  (granite 
dykes)  were  consolidated  on  an  average  at  a 
temperature  not  less  than  250°  C,  and  a  pres- 
sure of  40,300  cubic  feet  of  rock  ;  the  Cornish 
granites  at  a  temperature  of  216°,  and  under  a 
pressure  of  50,000  feet,  and  the  centre  of  the 
mass  of  granite  at  Aberdeen  at  a  temperature 
of  89°,  and  under  a  pressure  of  78,000  feet. 
(Sorby,  in  Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  xiv.  484,  &c.) 

2.  Chem.,  &c.  :  M.  Durocher  supposes  that 
a  mass  containing  in  combustion  silica, 
alumina,  alkaline,  and  earthy  bases,  potash, 
soda,  sometimes  lithia,  with  a  little  lime  mag- 
nesia, the  oxides  of  iron  and  manganese,  with 
minute  quantities  of  hydrofluoric,  and  even  of 
boracic  acid,  would,  as  it  cooled,  separate  into 
quartz,  mica,  and  felspar,  the  felspar  crystal- 
lizing sooner  than  the  quartz,  which  would  long 
remain  in  a  viscous  state.  (Quar.  Jour.  Geol. 
Soc.,  v.,  page  c.) 

3.  Physical  Geog.,  Scenery,  &c. :  Granite  often 
constitutes  the  axis  of  high  mountain  chains  ; 
the  Sinaitic  range  has  an  axis  of  granite. 
Granite  hills  have  a  peculiar  rounded  form, 
with  a  scanty  vegetation.  They  are  easily 
distinguishable  from  the  flat-topped  precipice- 
flanked  basaltic  hills.  Von  Buch  considers 
that  granitic  mountains  so  much  tend  to  be 
portions  of  a  sphere,  that  he  looks  upon  thein 
as  ellipsoidal  bubbles,  which  were  forced  up- 
wards only  in  a  partially  fluid  state ;  then, 
when  the  upper  dome-shaped  surface  con- 
tracted, many  granitic  blocks  were  formed. 
Both  phenomena  exist  in  the  Brocken  moun- 

L  Comm.,  &c. :  Granite  is  of  much  economic 
value  as  a  building  stone.  Aberdeen  is  some- 
times called  the  Granite  City,  from  the  ma- 
jority of  its  houses  being  built  of  that  mate- 
rial, and  New  Hampshire  is  popularly  called 
the  Granite  State,  on  account  of  the  quantity 
of  granite  composing  its  mountains.  [Granite- 
polishing.]  Aberdeen  granite  is  grayish- 
white,  Peterhead  granite  is  red. 

B.  As  adjective : 

I.  Ord.  Lang. :  Consisting  of  or  belonging 
to  granite.  ~ 

"All  round  the  mouth  of  Eskdale  and  south  in  the 
direction  of  Boo  tie,  the  granite  blocks  are  chiefly 
congregated."—  Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  x 

Q.Jfy-J  Resembling  granite  in  any  of  the 
qualities  for  which  that  material  is  noted. 

"  £°,nPMhy  ^U1*  A^rosial  Riclimond  !  heaves 

'  SSHP'SmS        hlS  aranite  wei*ht  of  leaves  • 
Smooth,  solid  monument  of  mental  pain." 

Byron :  English  Bards  &  Seotcli  Reviewers. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;  we,  wSt,  here,  camel,  her,  there;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine-  go    pot. 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,    as.  ce  =  e;  ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw- 

granitel— granulate 


granite-dispersing,  u. 

Geol. :  Dispersing  granite  in  the  form  of 
erratic  blocks, 

"The  granite-dispersing  power  of  Kirkcudbright- 
shire."—Q««r,  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  xxxv.  431. 

granite-dispersion,  s. 

(ri-ol. :  The  act  of  dispersing  or  scattering 
granite  in  the  form  of  erratic  blocks. 

"  The  great  Kirkcudbrightshire  granite-dispersion." 
— Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Hoc,  xxxv.  4SL 

granite-group,  s. 

Petrol. :  A  group  of  rocks  of  which  granite 
Is  the  type,  arranged  under  the  class  Crystal- 
line Rocks.  Rutley  includes  in  it  the  follow- 
ing species  :  granite,  porphyritic  granite,  fei- 
stone,  granitite,  cordierite  granite,  luxullianite, 
aplite  or  haplite,  granulite,  greisen,  gneiss, 
protogine,  and  cornubianite  (q.v.). 

granite-polishing,  s.  The  polishing  of 
granite.  The  method  of  doing  this  was  dis- 
covered by  MacDonald  of  Aberdeen.  Tomb- 
stones, and  pedestals  of  statues,  pillars,  &c, 
cut,  smoothed,  and  polished  on  his  system, 
may  be  seen  not  merely  all  over  Britain,  but 
en  the  Continent. 

grfox'-I-tel,  gran'-i-telle,  s.  [Fr.  grani- 

Petrol. :  A  variety  of  grey  granite  with  small 
crystalline  granules,  the  components  being 
felspar  and  quartz.  It  was  worked  by  the 
ancient  Romans  as  marble.  Graphic  granite 
is  a  variety  of  it. 

gra-nit'-ic,  t  gra-mt'-ic-al,  a.  TEng. 
granit(e);  -ic,  -icai ;  Fr.  granitique.]  Of  or 
pertaining  to  granite  ;  like  granite ;  of  the 
nature  of  granite;  consisting  or  composed  of 
granite.    (Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  ix.  264.) 

t  granitic-aggregate,  s. 

Petrol. :  A  granular  rock  consisting  of  two 
or  more  simple  minerals,  only  one  of  which 
is  one  of  the  ordinary  constituents  of  granite. 
Thus  there  may  be  rock  of  quartz  and  horn- 
blende, or  of  felspar  and  schorl. 

gra-nit-3E-fS£-ca'-tion,  s.  [Eng.  granitify; 
c  connective;  sufF.  -ation.]  The  act  of  form- 
ing into  granite ;  the  state  or  process  of 
becoming  formed  into  granite. 

gra  mt  i-form,  a.  [Eng.  granite,  and  form.] 
liaving  the  form  of  granite  ;  having  a  granitic 
structure  or  shape. 

gra-nlt-I-fy,  v.t,  [Eng.  granite;  suff.  -fy 
(q.v.).]    To  form  into  granite. 

"gran'-X-tinf*gran'-i-tine,s.  [Fr.  granitin.] 
Petrol. :  A  rock  consisting  of  felspar  and 
quartz.    Called  also  Pegmatite  (q.v.). 

gran'-i-tite,  s.  [Eng.  granite,  and  suff.  -ite 

Petrol. :  Any  variety  of  granite  which  con- 
tains a  certain  amount  of  plagioclase  (oligo- 
clase).  It  has  also  flesh -red  orthoclase,  quartz, 
and  a  small  quantity  of  blackish-green  mag- 
nesian  mica.     (Rutley.) 

gran  i-toid,  a.  [Eng.,  &c.,  granit(e),  and 
suff.  -oid;  from  e!8os  (eidos)  =  form,  appear- 

Petrol. :  Resembling  granite  ;  having  the 
same  mineral  composition  as  granite,  or  having 
the  minerals  of  which,  the  rock  is  composed 
distinct,  as  in  granite. 

"  We  found  it  to  be  only  a  huge  erratic  of  the  usual 
granitoid  gneiss.  "—Prof.  Geikie,  in  MacmUlan's  Maga- 
zine, Oct,  1881,  p.  426. 

gran-i-toid-ite,  s.  [Eng.  granitoid;  -ite.] 
Petrol.  :  A  name  proposed,  in  1879,  by  Prof. 
Bonney  for  certain  Dimetian  granitoid  rocks, 
which  in  general  aspect,  much  resemble  a 
granite  poor  in  mica ;  they  are  metamorphie 
clastic  rocks,  but  differ  from  ordinary  gneiss  in 
being  scarcely,  if  at  all,  foliated,  and  in  the 
small  amount  of  mica.  The  word  has  a  plural, 
granitoidites.  (Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  xxxv. 
322  (Note) ;  see  also  p.  664.) 

gran'-I-tone,  s.    [Ital.] 

1.  Petrol.,  dr.  The  name  given  in  Tuscany 
to  a  very  dense  rock  with  large  crystals  of 
diallage,  and  milk-white  or  slightly  steel-gray 
crystals  of  felspar  of  the  hardest  kind,  occa- 
sionally replaced  by  steatite.  The  same  as 
Euphotide  (q.v.). 

2.  Palmont. :  It  is  of  miocene  age.  (Quar. 
Jour,  Geol.  Soc,  xvi.  481.) 

gra-niv'-or-OUS,  a.  [Lat.  grannm  =  grain, 
seed;  voro  —  to  devour;  and  Eng.  adj.  sun". 
-ous.]    Feeding  or  living  on  grain. 

"  I  speak  of  granivorous  birds,  Buch  as  common  fowls, 
turkeys,  ducks,  geese,  pigeons,  &c." — Paley  :  Natural 
Theology,  ch.  xvt 

'gran -nam,  *gran'-num,  s.    [A corrupt, 
of  granddm  (q.v.).]     A  grandmother. 
"  Ghosts  never  walk  till  after  midnight,  if 

gran'-ny,   gran'-nie,  s.     [Grannam.]    a 
grandmother  ;  an  old  woman. 

"  I've  heard  my  reverend  grannie  nay, 
In  lanely  glens  you  like  to  stray." 

Burns :  Address  to  the  Deil. 

granny's  knot,  s. 

Naut. :  A  knot  in  which  the  second  tie  is 
across,  differing  from  a  reef-knot,  in  which 
the  end  and  outer  part  are  in  line. 

grant,    *  granti,    *  grantte,    *  grante, 

*graunt,  *graunte,  v.t.  &  i.  [O.  Fr. 
graanter,  grawnter,  forms  of  craanter,  creanter 
=  to  caution,  to  assure,  from  Low  Lat.  *  cre- 
dento,  ereanto  =  to  guarantee  ;  credential  =  a 
promise  ;  from  Lat.  credens,  pr.  par.  of  credo 
=  to  trust.] 

A.  Transitive :  I 

1.  To  bestow,  give,  or  confer,  particularly 
in  answer  to  prayer  or  request ;  to  concede. 

"  He  is  wortbiethat  thou  graunteto  him  this  thing." 
,       Wycliffe  :  Luk  vli. 

2.  To  admit  as  true  something  not  yet 
proved  ;  to  allow,  to  concede. 

"I  take  it  for  orated  .  .  .  in  this  article  it  signifieth 
not  holythings,  but  holy  ones." — Pearson:  On  the 

3.  To  transfer  or  bestow  the  right  or  title 
to ;  to  convey  by  deed  or  writing  ;  to  give  or 
make  over  for  any  good  consideration. 

"  Grant  me  the  place  of  this  threshing-floor."  — 
1  Chron.  xxi.  22. 

*  4.  To  agree  with  ;  to  assent  to. 

"  Us  thought  it  was  not  worth  to  make  it  wise. 
And  granted  him  withouten  more  avise." 

Chaucer:  0.  T.,  "6. 

*5.  To  admit  of,  to  allow,  to  permit. 

*'  His  heart  granteth 
No  penetrable  entrance  to  her  plaining." 

Shakesp.  :  Rape  of  Lucrece,  558. 

B.  Intransitive  : 

1.  To  allow,  to  concede,  to  admit. 

"But  granting  your  excellence  has  at  last  forced 
envy  toconfess  that  your  works  liave  some  merit." — 
Goldsmith  :  Polite  Learning,  ch.  x. 

*  2.  To  consent,  to  agree. 

"  Before  I  would  have  granted  to  that  act." 

Shakesp.  :  .3  ffenry  VI.,  i.  1. 

If  For  the  difference  between  to  grant  and 
to  give,  see  Give. 

grant,  s.    [Grant,  v.] 

*  I.  Ordinary  Language : 

I,  The  act  of  granting,  bestowing,  or  con- 

*  2.  Consent,  agreement. 

"You  grant  or  your  denial  shall  be  mine." 

Shakesp.  ;  3  Henry  VI.,  iii.  3. 

3.  That  which  is  granted,  bestowed,  or  con- 
ferred ;  a  gift,  a  boon  ;  property  conveyed  by 
deed  or  patent. 

"  All  the  Irish  grants  of  William  were  annulled."— 
Macaulay:  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xxv. 

*4.  The  admission  of  something  not  yet 
proved  as  true  ;  concession. 

"  But  of  this  so  large  a  grant,  we  are  content  not  to 
take  advantage." — Hooker:  Eccles.  Polity. 

II.  Law:  The  conveyance  in  writing  of  such 
things  as  cannot  be  passed  or  conveyed  by 
word  only,  as  lands,  reversions,  rents,  &c.,  or 
made  by  such  persons  as  cannot  give  but  by 

"Thus mutual  convenience  introduced  commercial 
traffic,  and  the  reciprocal  transfer  of  property  by  sale, 
grant,  or  conveyance :  which  may  be  considered  either 
as  a  continuance  of  the  original  possession  which  the 
first  occupant  had,  or  as  an  abaudoning  of  the  thing 
by  the  present  owner,  and  an  immediate  successive 
occupancy  of  the  same  by  the  new  proprietor. " — Black- 
stone:  Comment.,  bk.  ii.,  ch.  1. 

'  grant'-a  ble,  u,.    [Eng.  grant;  -able.] 

1.  That  may  or  cau  be  granted  or  conveyed 
by  grant. 

"  TitheB  and  Church  lands  .  .  .  coming  to  the  crown 
became  grantable  in  that  way  to  the  subject."— Burke  : 
Dormant  Claims  of  the  Church. 

2.  That  may  or  can  be  granted,  allowed,  or 

"  The  Statute  of  Clarendon  gave  the  accused  of  felony 
or  treason,  although  quitted  by  the  ordeal,  forty  days 
to  pass  out  of  the  realm  with  his  substance,  which  to 
other  felons  taking  sanctuary  and  confessing  to  the 
coroner,  he  affirms  not  grantable."— Selden:  JUustrat. 
Drayton  s  Poly-Olbion,  s.  17. 

granted,  -pa.  par.  or  a.    [Grant,  v.] 

%  To  take  as  or  for  granted :  To  assume  as 
conceded  or  allowed ;  to  take  as  admitted  to 
be  true,  though  not  yet  proved. 

grant-ee',  s.    [Eng.  grant;  -ee.] 

Law :  The  person  to  whom  a  grant  or  con- 
veyance is  made. 

"Some  of  the  living  grantees  were  unpopular."— 
Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xxiii. 

grant'-er,  *graunt-er,  s.  [Eng.  grant; 
-er.]    One  who  grants. 

"Both  sides  being  desirers,  and  neither  granters, 
they  broke  off  the  conference." — Sidney:  Arcadia, 
bk.  iii. 

*  granf-ise,  s.    [O.  Fr.]  A  grant  or  granting. 

"Asked  Henry  a  bone  of  grantise  of  grace." 

liobert  de  Brunne,  p.  134. 

*  grant'-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  grant ;  -ly.]  Wil- 
lingly ;  with  consent  or  willingness. 

grant'-Sr,  s.    [Eng.  grant;  -or.] 

Law:  The  person  by  wliom  a  grant  or  con- 
veyance is  made. 

"  A  duplex  querela  shall  not  be  granted  uuder  pain 
of  suspension  for  the  grantor  from  the  execution  of 
his  office.  "—A  ylffle  :  Parergon. 

gran'-u-la,  s.  pi.    [Lat.  granulum,  dimin.  of 
granuvi  =  a  grain.] 
Botany : 

1.  Large  sporulcs  contained  in  the  centre  of 
many  algals,  as  in  the  genus  Gloionema. 

2.  The  spore-case  of  a  fungal.  (Treas.  of 

gran'-U-lar,  a.     [Eng.  granul(e);  -ar,] 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  Composed  of  or  resembling 
granules  or  grains. 

"  The  protoplasm  comprising  them  is  finely  granu- 
lar throughout." — Quain;  Anatomy,  ii.  23. 

2.  Bot.  :  Divided  into  little  knobs  or  knots, 
as  the  roots  of  Saxifraga  granulata.  (Lindley.) 

granular  crystalline  orthoclase,  •>. 

Min.  &  Petrol.  :  A  variety  of  orthoclase. 
Dana  includes  under  it  granite,  gneiss,  mica- 
schist,  syenite,  syenitic  gneiss,  granulyte, 
albitic  granite,  pyroxenite,  and  miascyte. 

granular-diabase,  s. 

Petrol. :  A  variety  of  diabase  in  which  the 
individual  constituents  can  be  recognised  by 
the  naked  eye.     (Rutley.) 

granular-limestone,  s. 

Petrol.  :  A  metamorphie  limestone,  com- 
posed of  small  grains  or  minute  crystals  inter- 
secting each  other  in  all  directions,  so  as  to 
produce  a  glimmering  lustre,  though  they 
themselves,  taken  singly,  are  brilliant.  It  is 
white,  grey,  yellowish,  bluish  grey,  reddish, 
greenish,  &c.,  occasionally  veined  or  spotted. 
It  has  no  fossils,  but  at  times  contains 
various  minerals,  such  as  quartz,  garnet,  mica, 
hornblende,  talc,  actinolite,  asbestos,  sulphuret 
of  lead  and  of  zinc,  &c.  Of  old  it  was  called 
also  primitive  limestone,  but  it  is  now  known 
that  it  may  be  of  any  age.  It  is  often  called 
crystalline  limestone.  Probably  it  is  in  all 
cases  indirectly  of  animal  origin.  [Lime- 
stone.] It  occurs  in  Cornwall,  in  the  Isle  of 
Skye,  in  Glen  Tilt,  in  Antrim,  Londonderry, 
&c.  A  variety  of  it  is  called  statuary-marble 
(q.v.).    (Phillips,  <fcc.) 

gran'-u-lar-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  granular;  -ly.] 
In  a  granular  manner  or  form. 

*  gran'-u-lar-y,  a.  [Eng.  gramd(e);  -ary.] 
Granular  ;  resembling  granules  or  grains  ;  con- 
sisting of  granules. 

"  Proportionably  mixed,  tempered,  and  formed  into 
granulary  bodies."  —  Browne :  Vulgar  Errours,  bk. 
lL,  ch.  v. 

gran'-u-late,  v.t.  &  i.  [Eng.  granul(e);  -ate; 
Fr.  granuler.] 

A.  Transitive: 

1.  To  form  into  granules  or  small  masses. 

"  Tin  and  lead  may  be  quickly  and  better  granu- 
lated by  the  mechanical  way." — Boyle:  Works,  iii.  464. 

2.  To  raise  granules  or  small  asperities ;  to 
make  rough  on  the  surface. 

"  It  would  he  too  much  to  assert  that  the  skin  of  the 
dog-fish  was  made  rough  and  granulated  on  purpose 
for  the  polishing  of  wood."— Paley  :  Nat.  TheoL,  en.  v. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  be  formed  into  granides  or 
small  masses  ;  to  become  granulated. 

"It  is  a  property  of  granulating  substances  to  ad- 
here promptly  and  permanently  if  brought  together 
accurately.  '—Ashhurst :  Encyclopcedia  of  Surgery,  L 

boil,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  3£enophon,  exist,     ph  =  f. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.     -tion,  -  sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.     -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  dpi. 


granulate— grapnic 

gran '-u-late,  gr&n'-u-lat-ed,i>a.  par.  or  a. 
L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Consisting  of  or  resembling  grains  or 
grannies  ;  granular. 

2.  Having  numerous  small  asperities. 

II.  Bot. ;  The  same  as  Granular,  2  (q.v.). 

granulated  -  glass,  s.  A  kind  of 
roughened  glass,  used  for  stained  windows. 

granulated-steel,  s. 

Metall. :  Melted  pig-iron  is  scattered  by  a 
wheel  into  a  cistern  of  water,  and  thus  reduced 
to  fragments.  These  are  imbedded  in  powdered 
hematite  or  sparry  iron  ore,  and  subjected  to 
furnace  heat,  The  exterior  of  the  fragments 
become  decarbonized,  and  thus  reduced  to 
the  condition  of  malleable  iron.  The  metal  is 
made  homogeneous  by  melting,  and  steel  is 

gr&n-u-la'-tion,  «.    [Fr.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  The  act  of  forming  into  granules  or 

2.  The  state  or  process  of  becoming  granular. 
II.  Technically : 

1.  Chem.  :  Zinc  and  tin  are  granulated  by 
pouring  the  melted  metal  into  cold  water :  the 
metal  is  thus  obtained  in  small  fragments. 
Granulated  zinc  is  used  for  preparing  hydro- 
gen gas,  and  granulated  tin  along  with  con- 
centrated hydrochloric  acid  is  used  to  reduce 
nitro  compounds  to  amido  compounds. 

"Granulation  is  the  process  by  which  metals  are 
reduced  to  minute  grains.  It  in  effected  by  pouring 
them,  in  a  melted  Btate,  through  an  iron  cullender 
pierced  with  small  holes,  into  a  body  of  water,  or 
directly  upon  a.  bundle  of  twigs  immersed  in  Water. 
In  this  way  copper  ia  granulated  Into  bean  shot,  and 
■liver  alloys  are  granulated  preparatory  to  refilling." — 
Ure:  Oycloposdia. 

2.  Surgery. 

(1)  A  process  by  which  little  granular  or 
grain-like  fleshy  bodies  are  formed  on  the  sur- 
faces of  ulcers  and  suppurating  wounds,  and 
serve  both  for  filling  up  the  cavities  and  bring- 
ing closer  together  and  uniting  their  sides. 

"The  mode  of  healing  by  granulation." — Ashhurat : 
Encyclopaedia  of  Surgery,  i.  112. 

(2)  The  fleshy  grain-like  bodies  thus  formed. 

"Small  conical  eminences  called  granulations,  .  .  . 
in  which  by  the  aid  of  a  pocket  lens,  minute  vessels 
can  be  distinguished." — Ashhurat:  Encyclopedia  of 
Surgery,  i.  113. 

gran'-ule,  s.  &  a.     [Fr.,  from  Lat.  granulum, 
dimin."  of  granurn  =  a  grain.] 

A.  As  substantive  : 

I.  Gen.  (for  the  most  part  technically)  :  Any 
small  body  like  a  grain  of  wheat,  oats,  &c.  ; 
a  little  grain. 

"With  an  excellent  microscope,  whore  the  naked 
eye  did  see  but  a  green  powder,  the  assisted  eye  could 
discern  particular  granules,  some  blue,  and  Borne 
yellow."— Boyle:   Works,  L  680. 

II.  Specially : 

1.  Anat.  :  There  are  granules  in  the  blood 
and  in  the  nerve  substance.    (See  also  B.  H) 

2.  Botany: 

(1)  &  (2)  [Gbantjla.] 

(3)  PI. :  Pollen-grains. 

(4)  Knobs  or  knots  constituting  portions  of 
a  root.     [Granular.] 

3.  Petrol.  :  A  minute  grain  of  a  simple 
mineral,  as  one  of  the  mechanically  united 
constituents  of  a  rock. 

"THe  quartz  occurs  in  small  rounded  granules  in  the 
rock."— Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  xii.  183. 

4.  Astron.  :  [f  (1),  (2)] . 

B.  As  adj. :  Consisting  of  granules. 

H  There  is  a  granule-layer  of  the  cerebellum. 
It  consists  of  granule-like  corpuscles  lying 
in  dense  groups  near  the  medullary  centre. 

If  (1)  Granules  of  Huggins : 

Astron. :  Groups  of  the  granules  described 
under  (2). 

(2)  Granules  ofLangley : 

Astron.  :  Minute  bodies  scattered  over  the 
whole  surface  of  the  sun,  and  assumed  to  be 
the  immediate  source  of  solar  light  and  heat. 

granule -cells,  s.  pi 

A  natomy : 

1.  Gen.  :  Cells  containing  globules  of  fat  or 
oil  existing  in  animal  sblids  or  liquids. 

2.  Spec.  :  Such  cells  when  of  new  formation 
in  inflammation,  cancer,  &c.  (Griffith  &  Hen- 

gran-u-lif'-er-ous,  a.  [Eng.  granule;  Lat. 
faro  ="  to  bear,  to  produce,  and  Eng.  adj.  suff. 
-ous.]    Bearing  grains  ;  full  of  grains. 

gran'-u-ll-form,    a.      [Eng.   granule,   and 


Petrol.  &  Min. :  Having  a  granular  structure. 

gran'-u-lite,  gran'-u-lyte,  s.  [Mod.  Lat. 
granulum),  and  suff.  -ite  (Min.)  (q.v.).] 

Petrol. :  A  mixture  of  granular  orthoclase 
and  more  or  less  quartz.  It  is  sometimes 
called  semi -granite.  It  often  contains  small 
garnets.  Rutley  considers  it  a  metamorphic 
rock.  A  variety  of  it  is  termed  Aplite.  Granu- 
lite  is  called  also  Leptinite. 

"This  granulite  or  'semi-granite,'  as  it  is  well- 
called."— ^««r.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  xxxiii.  320. 

gran'-u-ldse,  s.  [Eng.,  &c.  (granule);  -ose.] 
A  name  given  to  the  part  of  the  starch 
granules  which  is  dissolved  by  dilute  acids 
and  acted  upon  by  ferments  ;  the  Tesidue  is 
said  to  consist  of  a  variety  of  cellulose,  in- 
soluble in  water,  which  by  long  boiling  is 
converted  into  granulose. 

gran'-U-lous,  a.  [Fr.  granuleuz,  from  granule; 
Sp.  granuloso ;  Ital.  granelloso.]  Full  of  grains 
or  granules ;  granular. 

grape  (1),  a.    [Graip(i),  *.] 

grape  (2),  a.    [Graip(2),  s.] 

grape  (3),  *  graap,  s.  [Fr.  grappe  =  a  bunch 
or  cluster  of  grapes;  M.  H.  Ger.  krappe; 
O.  H.  Ger.  chrapho  =  a  hook ;  M.  H.  Ger. 
Icripfen ;  O.  H.  Ger.  chripphen  =  to  seize,  to 

I,  Ordinary  Language : 

A.  As  substantive : 

Bot.,  Hort.,  &c. :  The  fruit  of  Vitis  viniferat 
or  that  important  plant  itself.  [Vitis.] 
The  native  country  of  the  vine  is  the  region 
round  the  Caspian  Sea,  extending  through 
Armenia  as  far  west  as  the  Crimea.  It  has 
been  cultivated  from  the  remotest  antiquity 
(Gen.  ix.  20).  Though  flourishing  in  Turkey, 
Greece,  Italy,  Spain,  France,  and  Germany,  it 
is  not  a  profitable  crop  in  Britain.  In  the 
south  of  England  it  can  be  grown  in  the  open 
air,  as  an  ornamental  climber,  and  sometimes 
the  vine  and  fig-tree  are  made  to  intertwine  in 
allusion  to  Micah  iv.  4  (cf.  also  1  Kings  iv. 

TI  Bear's  grape  is  Vaccinium  arctostaphylos, 
also  Arctostaphylos  Uva  ursi ;  the  Corinth 
grape  is  the  Black  Corinth  variety  of  Vitis 
vinifera,  the  one  which  furnishes  dried  cur- 
rants ;  the  Sea-grape  is  Ephedra  distachya, 
also  Sargassum  bacciferum ;  and  the  Seaside 
grape  Coccoloba  uvifera. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Farr.  (PI.) :  A  mangy  tumour  on  the  legs 
of  horses. 

2.  Mil. :  [Grapeshot]. 

3.  Ord.  :  The  cascabel  or  knob  at  the  end  of 
a  cannon. 

B.  As  adj. :  Of,  belonging  to,  or  in  any  way 
resembling  the  fruit  described  under  A  or  the 
climbing  shrub  on  which  it  grows. 

*  grape-bunch,  s.  A  bunch  or  cluster 
of  grapes. 

"  Bees  like  a  long  grape-bunch  settle  on 
Some  temple's' top. " 

Holiday :  Juvenal,  sat.  xlii. 

grape-flower,  s. 

Bot.  :  Muscari  racemosum. 

grape-fungus,  s. 

Bot ,  &c. :  Oidhtm  Tuckeri.   [Vine-Mildew.] 

grape-hyacinth,  ». 

Bot.  :  The  genus  Muscari. 

grape-pear,  s. 

Bot. :  Amelanchier  Botryapiwn. 

grape-sugar,  s.    [Glucose.] 

grape  -  trellis,  s.  A  trellis  on  which 
grape-vines  are  trained.     [Trkllis.] 

grape-vine,  s.  The  vine  which  bears 
grapes.    [Vine.] 

"  9ho  was  sporting  with  her  women. 
Swinging  in  a  awing  of  grape-vines." 

Lortgfettow .  Hong  of  Hiawatha,  iii. 

If  In  America  the  word  vine  is  used  more 
generically  than  with  us.  It  is  made  to  signify 
any  plant  climbing  with  tendrils.     Thus  there 

is  the  melon-vine  and  even  the  V^VJf'  . 2 
is,  therefore,  necessary  to  have  a.  specific  worn 
to  distinguish  one  from  the  other ;  hence  tne 
use  of  the  term  "grape-vine." 

*  grape, 


grape-less,  a.  [Eng.  grape;  -less.]  With- 
out  grapes  ;  wanting  the  strength  and  flavour 
of  the  grape. 

*  grape-let,  s.  [Eng.  grape;  dimin.  suff. 
-let.]    A  little  grape. 

"  With  its  grapelets  of  gold 
Growing  Vight  through  my  fingers. 
£.  B.  Drowning  :  Rhapsody  of  Life  a  Progress. 

grap'-er-^,  s.  [Eng.  grape;  -ry.]  A  build- 
ing, inclosure,  or  other  place  where  grape- 
vines are  cultivated  ;  a  vinery. 

"  A  little  grapery  and  a  Utile  aviary."— Miu  Edge* 
worth:  Absentee,  ch,  vl. 

gra  pe  shot,  5.    [Eng.  grape,  and  shot] 

Ordnance:  Spherical  iron  shot,  rather  less 

than  half  the  diameter  of  the  bore  of  the 

piece  for  which  they  are  in- 
tended, and  put  up  in  stands 

consisting  of  three  tiers  of 

three  shot  each ;   the  stand 

has  a  circular  cast-iron  plate 

at  top  and  bottom,  connected 

by  a  bolt  and  nut.  Grapeshot 

is  now  little  used.     Quilted 

grape  is  formed  by  sewing 

the  shot  up  in  a  sort  of  can- 
vas-bag, which  is  afterwards 

wrapped  around  with  twine 

or  cord,  so  as  to  form  meshes ; 

bullets  put  up  in  this  way 

were  formerly  employed  for 

blunderbusses  and  small  artillery.     This  form 

has  some  resemblance  to  a  bunch  of  grapes, 

whence  the  name. 

ans,    laden   with  grapeshot,  was 
oats. "— Marryat :   Peter   Simple, 


"'  One    of    these   , 
now  fired  at  the 
ch.  xxxiii. 

grape-stone,  s.  [Eng.  grape,  and  stone.] 
The  stone  or  seed  of  the  grape. 

"  Nay,  in  Death's  hand,  the  grapestone  proves 
As  strong  as  thunder  is  in  Jove's." 

Cowley  :  Elegy  upon  Anacreon. 

gra'pe-wdrt,  a.     [Eng.  grape,  and  wort.] 
Bot. :  The  Bane-berry,  Acta?a  spicata. 

-graph,  suff.  [Gr.  vpa^o)  (grapho)  =  to  write, 
to  draw.]  A  suffix  largely  used  in  the  names 
of  scientific  instruments :  as,  pantograph, 
sei sinograph,  telegraph,  &c,  to  denote  the 
action  of  delineation  or  figuring  performed 
by  such  instruments. 

graph'-ic,  *  graph'-Ick,  *  graph'-ic-al, 

a.  [Lat.  graphicus  =  pertaining  to  drawing 
or  painting  =  Gr.  ypa^iKoj  (graphikos),  from 
ypa%(o  (grapho)  =  to  write,  to  draw ;  Fr.  gra- 

*  1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  art  of  writing, 
delineating,  or  describing. 

*  2.  Written,    drawn,    inscribed ;    well    or 
plainly  delineated. 

"  Writing  with  a  needle,  or  bodklD,  or  knife,  or  the 
like,  when  the  fruit  or  trees  are  young :  for  as  they 
grow,  so  the  letters  will  grow  more  large  and  gra- 
phical."—Bacon :  Natural  History,  g  503. 

3.  Described  with  vivid  and  clear  language ; 
vividly  or  forcibly  described. 

"  Could  the  prophet  have  possibly  given  a  plainer  or 
more  graphical  description?"—  Warburton :  Divine- 
Legation,  uk.  iv.,  §6. 

4.  Having  the  power  or  faculty  of  describ- 
ing things  graphically  :  as,  a  graphic  writer. 

graphic  formula,  s. 

Chem.  :  Graphic  formulae  represent  the  re- 
lations of  the  atoms  contained  in  a  molecule 
to  each  other.  Thus,  the  nitro-paraffins  con- 
tain the  same  number  of  atoms  of  the  various 
elements  as  are  contained  in  the  corresponding 
nitrous  ethers,  as  CH4NO  is  the  formula  for 
methyl  nitrite  and  nitro-m ethane,  but  the 
graphic  formula  shows  that  in  nitromethane, 
1  11 


the  nitrogen  atom  Is  in  direct  union 

with  a  carbon  atom,  and  in  methyl  nitrite  the 
nitrogen  atom  is  attached  to  an  oxygen  atom, 

•  H 

x  O— N=0, 

When  atoms  are  united  by 

two  affinities  it  is  represented  by  a  double 
bond,  by  three  affinities  by  a  triple  bond,  &c. 

fiite,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pit, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  fullf;  try,  Syrian,    se,  ce  =  e ;  ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

graphically— graptolite 


graphic  gold,  graphic  -  ore,  gra- 
phic-tellurium, s. 

Min. :  The  same  as  Stl-vanite  (q.v.).  The 
term  graphic  refers  to  the  arrangement  of  the 
crystals  in  a  manner  to  suggest  written  cha- 

graphic-granite,  s. 

Petrol. :  Granite  consisting  of  felspar  (ortho- 
clase),  quartz,  and  a  little  mica.  When  a  sec- 
tion Is  made  in  a  particular  direction,  an  ap- 
pearance is  presented  as  if  the  stone  had  been 
written  over  with  characters  bearing  a  remote 
resemblance  to  Hebrew  letters. 

graphic  microscope,  s.  A  microscope 
provided  with  a  reflector,  which  casts  down 
the  image  upon  a  piece  of  paper.  The  instru- 
ment has  two  reflectors,  the  second  one  of 
which  is  a  prism,  across  the  edge  of  which  the 
eye  observes  the  image,  which  may  be  traced 
by  a  pencil. 

graphic-ore,  $.    [Graphic-gold.] 

graphic  representation,  s.  Repre- 
sentation by  means  of  lines  or  diagrams. 

graphic -tellurium,  s.  [Graphic-gold.] 

graph'-ic-al-ly,  adv.     tfSng.  graphical;  -ly.] 

In  a  graphic  manner;  wvth  graphic  language. 

"Those  infernal  throes  and  frightful  agitations  so 

graphically    described." —  Warburton :     Doctrine     of 

Grace,  bk.  iL,  ch.  viiL 

* graph'-ic-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  graphic;  -ly.]  In 
a  graphic  manner  ;  graphically. 

graph  -icness,    *  graph -ic-al-ness,  5. 

[Eng.  graphic,  graphical;  -ness.]    The  quality 
or  state  of  being  graphic. 

graph-i-da'-ce-fle,  5.  pi.  [Lat.  graphis  (genit. 
graphidis,  graphidos),  and  fern.  pL  adj.  suff. 

Bot. ;  An  order  proposed  by  Lindley  for 
those  lichens  which  have  the  nucleus  breaking 
up  into  naked  spores.  The  same  as  Graphidei 

graph  -I-dae,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  graph(is),  and 
Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff".  -ides.] 

Bot. :  A  family  of  lichens,  tribe  Idio- 
thalaineffi.  (Lindley.)  It  is  now  elevated 
into  an  order  Graphidei  (q.v.). 

gra-phid'-e-i,  tgra-phid'-e-ffl,  s.  pi. 

[Mod.  Lat.  graphis,  genit.  graphid\is),  and  Lat. 
mase.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ei,  or  fern,  -em.] 

Bot. ;  A  natural  order  of  lichens,  having 
the  disc  of  the  fruit  linear,  and  either  simple 
or  branched.  In  most  cases  there  is  a  distinct 
receptacle.  The  species  occur  both  in  tempe- 
st rate  and  tropical  countries.  They  are  some- 
times called  Letter-lichens. 

*  graph-i-ol'-d-gy,  s.  [Gr.  ypaxfxa  (grapho) 
=  to  write,  and  Aoyos  (logos)  =  a  discourse,  a 
treatise.]  The  art  of  writing  or  delineating ; 
a  treatise  on  the  art  of  writing. 

graph  -  is,  s.  [Lat.  graphis;  Gr.  ypafyU 
(graphis)  =  a  style  for  writing,  a  drawing  in 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family 
Graphidae,  or  the  order  Graphideae  (q.v.). 

graph  -  ite,  s.  [Gr.  ypo$u  (grapho)  =  to 
delineate,  to  write  ;  suflF.  -ite  (Min.)  q.v.).] 

1.  Min. :  An  hexagonal  mineral,  crystallizing 
in  flat  six-sided  tables.  Hardness,  1  to  2 ;  sp. 
gr.,  2*1  to  2' 2.  Colour,  iron-black  to  dark 
steel  gray,  with  a  metallic  lustre  and  a  black 
shining  streak.  Compos. :  carbon,  either 
pure  with  an  admixture  of  iron,  or  occa- 
sionally of  silica,  alumina,  and  lime.  It 
occurs  foliated,  columnar,  radiated,  scaly, 
granular,  massive,  earthy,  &c.  It  is  met 
with  in  the  metaraorphic  rocks,  being  occa- 
sionally altered  coal,  and  also  in  greenstone. 
It  is  found  in  many  parts  of  the  world,  the 
most  celebrated  mine  being  at  Borrowdale,  in 
Cumberland.  It  is  popularly  called  black- 
lead,  though  there  is  no  lead  even  as  an  im- 
purity in  its  composition. 

2.  Cowm. :  It  is  used  for  the  manufacture 
of  pencils.  The  Borrowdale  mine  furnished 
much  graphite,  but  the  mineral  becoming 
scarce,  Mr.  Brockedon  invented  a  method  of 
consolidating  the  dust  of  pure  graphite  by 
great  pressure. 

3.  Geol. :  Graphite  from  con- 
siderably altered  vegetable  or  animal  remains, 
in  all  likelihood  the  former. 

graphite-battery,  s. 

Elect.  Mach.  :  A  galvanic  battery  consisting 
of  zinc  and  carbon  in  sulphuric  acid. 

gra-phit'-lC,  a.  [Eng.,  &c.  graphite);  -ic.] 
Derived  from  graphite  (q.v.). 

graphitic-acid,  s. 

Chem. :  CuH406.  Obtained  by  mixing  one 
part  of  powdered  graphite  with  three  parts  of 
potassium  chlorate,  and  treating  the  mixture 
with  concentrated  nitric  acid,  and  warming 
to  60°  till  no  more  orange  vapours  are  given 
off".  The  residuum  is  washed  with  water, 
dried,  and  the  operation  repeated  five  times. 
Graphitic-acid  is  scarcely  soluble  in  water, 
and  forms  transparent  light-yellow  crystals. 
When  heated  it  gives  off  gases,  and  leaves 
finely  divided  charcoal.  It  forms  compounds 
with  bases. 

graph -i-toid,  graph-i-told'-al,  a.  [Eng. 
graphite,  and  Gr.  elfios  (eidos)  =  appearance.] 
Having  the  appearance  of  graphite. 

*  graph'-o-lite,  s.  [Gr.  ypd<£w  (grapho)  =  to 
write,  and  \C80s  (lithbs)  =  stone  ;  Fr.  grapho- 

Petrol. ;  Any  fissile,  metamorphic,  or  other 
rock  suitable  to  be  made  into  "slates"  for 
use  in  schools.  Ordinary  writing  slates  are  of 
Clay-slate  (q.v.). 

gra-phom'-e-ter,  s.  [Gr.  ypa<f>co  (grapho)  = 
to  write,  to  draw,  and  p,erpov  (metron)  =  a 
measure.]  A  surveying  instrument  for  taking 
angles.    It  is  also  called  a  demi-circle. 

graph-d-met'-ric-al,  a.  [Eng.  graphometer ; 
-icaL]  Pertaining  to  or  measured  by  a  grapho- 

graph'-dn,  s.  [Graphite.]  An  allotropic 
form  of  graphite.    (Rossiter.) 

graph  -6  scope,  s.  [Gr.  ypa^-q  (graph?)  = 
delineation,  a  drawing,  and  cKon-em  (skoped)  = 
to  look  at.]  An  optical  apparatus  for  magni- 
fying and  giving  tine  effects  to  engravings, 
photographs,  &c.  Invented  by  C.  J.  Rowsell, 
exhibited  in  1871.    (Haydn.) 

graph'-6-type,  5.  [Gr.  ypa.<f>u  (grapho)  =  to 
write,  and  Eng.  type.]  A  process  for  obtain- 
ing blocks  for  surface-printing.  A  zinc  plate 
is  covered  with  a  thick  coating  of  oxide  of  zinc, 
placed  under  an  hydraulic  press  to  make  a 
perfectly  plane  and  hard  surface,  and  the  design 
drawn  upon  the  oxide  with  an  ink  consisting 
of  a  chloride  of  zinc  and  a  menstruum.  This 
produces,  as  to  the  parts  where  the  ink  touches, 
a  very  hard  material,  the  oxychloride  of  zinc. 
The  remaining  surface  is  rubbed  away  by 
brushes,  velvet,  and  the  fingers,  leaving  the 
lines  in  relief  to  be  printed  from. 

grap'-nel,  grap'  -nail,  *  grape  -nel,  s. 

[Formed  with  dimin.  suff.  -el,  from  Fr.  grappin 
=  a  grapnel,  from  grappe  =  a  hook.] 

1.  A  small  anchor  with  four  or  more  flukes 
arranged  in  a  circular  manner,  used  by  boats 
or  small  vessels,  and  sometimes  as  a  kedge 
in  warping  or  hauling. 

"  Aiter  this  a  canoe  waa  left  fixed  to  a  grapnel  in  the 
middle  of  the  harbour." — Anson:  Voyage  round  the 
World,  bk.  iL,  ch.  xiii, 

*  2.  A  grappling-iron  used  in  sea-fights,  to 
enable  one  ship  to  seize  and  hold  on  to  ano- 
ther for  the  purpose  of  boarding. 

3.  An  implement  for  recovering  tools,  &e., 
dropped  into  a  bored  shaft ;  or  for  breaking  aud 
raising  the  axial  stem  left  by  the  annular  borer. 

grap -pie,  *  gra-ple,  v.t.  &  i.    [Grapple,  s.] 

A.  Transitive ; 

1.  To  seize,  to  lay  fast  hold  of,  either  with 
the  hands  or  hooks. 

*  2.  To  fasten  ;  to  fix  with  grappling-hooks. 
"  The  rallies  were  grapled  to  the  Centurion  in  this 

manner.  '—Hackluyt:  Voyages,  vol.  L,  pt.  iL,  p.  168. 

*  3.  To  apply,  to  fasten. 

"  Grapple  your  minds  to  eternage  of  this  navy." 

Skakesp. :  Henry  V.,  iiL    (Chorus.) 

B.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  seize  and  contend ;  to  wrestle ;  to 

' '  Fiercely  with  Roderick  grappled  Grseme." 

Scott  :  Lady  of  the  Lake,  v.  34. 

2.  To  struggle  or  contend,  as  with  difficulties. 

"  To  grapple  with  the  difficulties  of  the  quinijuar- 
ticular controversy. "Sp.  Bordey:  Charge,  Aug.,  1806. 

*  3.  To  seize,  to  lay  hold. 

"  Their  hands  oft  grappled  to  their  sworda." 

Scott :  Lady  of  the  Lake,  vL  3. 

grap'-ple,  s.     [O.  Fr.  grappil,  from  grappe  = 
a  hook.]    [Grape.] 
1.  A  struggle  ;  a  contest  hand  to  hand  ;  a  hug 

"In  mortal  grapple  overthrown." 

Scott :  Lord  of  the  Isles,  iiL  29. 

*  2.  A  close  tight. 

"  In  the  grapple  I  boarded  thein." — Shakesp.  :  Mam. 
let,  iv.  6. 

3.  A  hook  for  securing  one  vessel  to  ano- 
ther or  one  object  to  another.  Used  in  holding 
vessels  in  engagement  while  boarding,  or  in  a 
more  peaceable  way  to  hold  them  associated 
while  loading,  unloading,  or  transferring  ear- 
go  ;  a  grappling-iron. 

"  At  the  end  he  [Archimedes]  fastened  a  strong  hook 
or  grapple  of  iron." — Wilkins:  Archimedes,  bk..  L,  ch. 

4.  Grasping  tongs,  used  in  various  shapes, 
and  for  many  purposes,  as  for  recovering  well- 
tubes  from  bored  wells  or  shafts. 

*  5.  Anything  by  which  a  body  attaches 
itself  to  another. 

"  The  creeping  ivy  to  prevent  his  fall, 
Clings  with  its  fibrous  grapples  to  the  wall." 

Blackmore :  Creation,  bk.  ii 

grapple-plant,  s. 

Bot. :  The  name  given  at  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope  to  Unca/ia  procuwibens,  one  of  the  Pe- 
daliaceae.  The  name  was  given  because  the 
hooks  surrounding  the  fruit  grapple  or  lay 
hold  of  the  clothes  of  people,  the  fur  of  ani- 
mals, &c,  and  are  difficult  to  disengage. 

*  grap'-ple-ment,  s.     [Eng.  grapple  ;  -ment.} 
A  grapple,  a  grappling,  a  close  struggle. 
"  [They]  down  him  stayed 
With  their  rude  hands  and  griesiy  grapplement." 
Spenser ;  F.  Q.,  IL  xL  29. 

grap'-pling,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Grapple,  v.) 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  <£  particip.  adj.  :  (See 
the  verb). 
C.  As  substantive : 

1.  The  act  of  seizing  or  laying  fast  hold  on. 

2.  A  grapple,  a  struggle. 

"  A  match  for  pards  in  "fight,  in  grappling  for  the 
bear."  Dryden  ;  Palamon  A  Arcite,  ill.  57. 

*  3.  A  grapple,  a  grapnel,  a  grappling-iron. 

*  4.  An  anchorage. 

"  We  run  under  the  land,  and  came  to  a  grappling, 
where  we  took  such  rest  as  our  situation  would  ad- 

mit."—Coofc.'  First  I 

.ge,  voL  L,  bk.  iL,  ch  iiL 

grappling-iron,  s.  An  iron  instrument 
made  with  four  or  more  claws  or  hooks  for 
laying  hold  on  anything. 

grap'-sl-dse,  s.  pi.  [Lat.  graps(us),  and  fern, 
pi.  adj.  surf,  -idee.] 

Zool. :  Grapsoidians ;  a  family  of  brachyu- 
rous  crustaceans,  tribe  Catametopes.  Milne 
Edwards  places  them  between  the  Gonopla- 
eians'and  the  Oxystonies.  They  have  a  less 
regularly  quadrilateral  carapace  than  in  the 
Gonoplacians,  to  which  they  are  closely  akin, 
They  are  inhabitants  of  the  seashore  or  of 
rocks  bordering  the  ocean.  They  are  timid, 
and  escape  with  much  speed  at  the  first  appear- 
ance of  danger. 

grap-s6id'-i-ans,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  grapsus  ; 
Gr.  eTSos  (eidos)  == *lbrm,  appearance,  and  Eng. 
pi.  suff.  -ans.] 

Zool. :  The  English  name  of  the  family 
Grapsidae  (q.v.). 

grap  -sus,  s.  [Gr.  ypaif/alos  (grapsaios)  =  a 

1.  Zool. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family 
Grapsidae  (q.v.).  The  genus  was  founded  by 
Lamarck,  but  its  limits  have  been  narrowed 
by  Milne  Edwards,  whu  confines  it  to  species 
with  their  body  greatly  flattened.  They  are 
widely  distributed. 

2.  Palceont. :  Grapsus  is  found  in  the  Ter- 
tiary strata. 

grap'-to-lite,  s.    [Graptolites.] 

Palaont. :  The  English  name  of  any  animal 
of  the  sub-class  Graptolitidse,  and  specially 
of  the  typical  genus  Graptolites  (q.v.). 
%  (1)  Double  graptolites. 
Zool. :  Diplograpsus,  Didymograpsus,  &c. 
(2)  Twin  graptolites : 
Zool.:  Didymograpsus.     [Graptolite.] 

graptolite  -  schists,     graptolitic- 

schists,  s.  pi. 

Geol.  :  Schists  of  L^ower  Silurian  age  con- 
taining graptolites  with  their  slope  as  a  rule 
E.N.E.  and  W.S.W. ;  occurring  in  Dumfrie- 
shire,  Kirkcudbrightshire,  Wigtownshire,  and 
elsewhere.    (Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  vii.  46.) 

boil,  boy;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    -ing. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shav,    -tion,    sion-  shun;  -(ion,  -sion  -  zhun.     -tious,  -sious,  -cious  -  saus.    -ble,  -die.  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


graptolites— grass 

grap-to'-li-tes,  *grap-to-lith'-us,s.   [Gr. 

7paTTTos  (graptos)  =  painted,  marked  with 
'  letters,  written,  and  A.i'0os  (lithos)  =  stone.] 

Palaeontology : 

*  1.  (Of  the  form  graptolithus) :  A  genius 
belonging  to  the  mineral  kingdom,  instituted 
by  Linnaeus,  and  placed  by  him  in  his  class 
Fossilia  and  his  order  Petri ficata.  He  de- 
fines it  as  a  petrifaction  resembling  a  picture. 
It  is  quite  a  medley.  One  species  resembles 
a  map  ;  a  second  is  variegated  Florentine 
marble ;  another  looks  like  a  fossil  alga ;  a 
fourth  is  a  recent  serpula  on  oysters  and  other 
shells ;  and  a  fifth  dendritic  markings  on 
agates.  None  of  these  are  graptolites  in  the 
modern  sense. 

2.  (Of  the  form  graptolites)  :  The  typical 
genus  of  the  sub-class  (formerly  the  family) 
Grnptolitidae.  Only  one  side  lias  a  row  of 

grap-td-lith'-iis,  s.     [Graptolites.] 

grap-to-lit'-lC,  a.  [Mod.  Lat.  graptolit(es), 
and  Eng.,  &c.  suff.  4c] 

Pahvant.  :  Of,  belonging,  relating  to,  or 
containing  graptolites. 

graptolitic-schists,   s.  pi.      [Geapto- 


grap-to-lit'-i-dae,  s.  pi.     [Mod.  Lat.  grapto- 

lit(es),  and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idee.] 

Paheont. .  A  sub-class  (formerly  a  family)  of 
Hydrozoa.  They  have  a  compound  hydro- 
soma,  occasionally  branched,  consisting  of 
numerous  polypites  protected  by  hydrotheca?., 
and  united  by  a  ccenosarc  enclosed  in  a 
strong  tubular  polypary.  Their  nearest 
Jiving  allies  are  the  Sertularida.    Some  have  a 


1.  Rastrites  peregriiius  (Barraude). 

2.  Diplograpsus  folium  (Hisinger). 

3.  Didymograpsus  Murcbisoni. 

tow  of  cellules  only  on  one,  and  others  on 
both  sides.  They  are  characteristic  Silurian 
fossils.  They  occurred  where  the  sea-bed 
-was  of  mud.  Prof.  Allman  calls  the  sub-class 
which  they  constitute  Rhabdopleura.  Genera 
Graptolites  and  Rastrites,  with  rows  of  cell- 
ules only  on  one  side,  the  former  coiled  like  a 
watch-spring,  Diplograpsus,  Didymograpsus, 
&e.,  with  two  rows,  the  cellules  in  the  latter 
turned  to,  and  in  the  former  away  from  each 
other.  For  English.  Scotch,  and  other  species, 
see  Murchison's  "  Siluria '  ;  see  also  for  the 
latter  Quar.  Jour,  Geol.  Sec.,  vii.  46. 

**grap'-y;  «.    [Eng.  grap(e);  -y.]    Consisting 
of  or  resembling  grapes. 

"The  grapy  clusters  spread." 

Addison  :  (hid;  Metam. ,  iii. 

*  gras  (1),  $.    [Grace.] 

*  gras  (2),  ^.    [Grass.] 

*  grase,  v.t.     [Graze.] 

*gras-hop,  *gres-hop,  s.    [Grasshopper.] 

grasp,  *graasp,  *graspe,  *  grasp-en, 

v.t.  &,  i.  [From  grapsen,  an  extension  of  grapen 
=  to   grope  ;    cf.   Ger.   grapsen  =  to    snatch ; 
Ital.  graspare  =  to  grasp.] 
A.  Intransitive : 

I,  Lit. :  To  seize  and  hold  fast  in  the  hands 
or  arms;  to  clutch. 

"  [He]  fiercer  grasped  hia  gim." 

Scott :  Von  Roderick,  vii.    {Cone. ) 

II.  Figuratively : 

1.  To  seize  or  try  k)  win  or  gain ;  to  take 
possession  of. 

■"  Kings,  by  grasp-ing  more  than  they  could  hold, 
First  made  their  subjects,  by  oppression,  bold." 
Denham  ;  Cooper's  Hill,  343. 

2.  To  lay  hold  of  mentally ;  to  become 
thoroughly  acquainted  or  conversant  with ;  to 
comprehend  thoroughly. 

"The  memory  will  yrasp  and  retain  all  that  is  suffi- 
cient for  the  purposes  of  valuable  improvement."— 
Knox :  Liberal  Education,  §  11. 

*3.  To  have  in  one's  power ;  to  rule. 

"  Great  king  of  seas,  that  graspest  the  ocean,  heare." 
P.  Fletcher,  Eel.  2. 

B.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  catch  or  seize. 

2.  To  make  grasps  ;  to  clutch,  to  struggle. 

"  See,  his  face  is  black,  and  full  of  blood  ; 
"      His  hands  abroad  displayed,  as  one  that  graspt 
And  tugged  for  life." 

Shake&p.  :  2  Henry  VI.,  111.  2. 

3.  To  seize  eagerly  or  avariciously  ;  to  act 
greedily  or  avariciously. 

"  Like  a  miser  midst  hia  store, 
Who  grasps  and  grasps  'till  he  can  hold  no  more." 
JJryden.    (Ogttvie.) 

1J  To  grasp  at :  To  try  to  seize  or  gain ;  to 
catch  at ;  to  struggle  after. 

"  For  what  are  men  who  grasp  at.  praise  sublime, 
But  bubbles  on  the  rapid  stream  of  time." 

Voang  :  Loae  of  Fame,  ii,  2S5. 

grasp,  s.    [Grasp,  v.] 

1.  The  grip  or  seizure  of  the  hand. 

2.  The  reach  of  the  hand. 

"  They  looked  upon  it  as  their  own,  and  had  it  even 
within  their  grasp." — Clarendon, 

3.  The  power  of  seizing  or  grasping  :  hence, 
possession,  power,  hold. 

"  I  would  not  be  the  villain  that  thou  thinkest, 
For  the  whole  space  that's  in  the  tyrant's  grasp." 
Shakesp. :  Macbeth,  iv.  3. 

4.  The  power  of  the  intellect  to  grasp  or 
comprehend  things  ;  the  reach  or  range  of 
the  intellect. 

grasp'-a-ble,  a.   [Eng.  grasp,  and  able.]  That 
may  or  can  be  grasped. 

"  His  every  sense  had  grown 
Ethereal  for  pleasure ;  'hove  his  head 
Flew  a  delight  half  graspable." 

Keats  :  Endymion,  ii.  673. 

grasp' -er,  s.    [Eng.  grasp;  -er.] 
1.  One  who  grasps  or  seizes. 
*  2.  A  grapple  or  grappling-hook. 

The  bandes  and  graspers  wherewith  the    galyes 

were  fastned  togethei 
f  o.  59. 

—Brende;   Quintus  Curtius, 

grasp  -mg,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Grasp,  v.] 

A.  As  pr.  par. :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective : 

1.  Seizing,  laying  hold  on. 

2.  Avaricious,   greedy,    covetous,    miserly, 

"  My  wealth,  on  which  a  kinsman  nigh 
Already  casts  &  grasping  eye." 

Scott :  Rokeby,  iv.  28. 

C.  As  siibst. :  The  act  of  seizing  or  laying 
fast  hold  on. 

grasp'-ing-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  grasping ;  -ly.] 
In  a  grasping  manner  ;  avariciously,  greedily, 


*  grasp'-Ing-ness,  s.  [Eng.  grasping ;  -ness.] 
The  quality  of  being  grasping ;  greed,  covet- 
ousness,  avarice. 

"A  graspingness  that  is  unworthy  of  that  indul- 
gence.'— Richardson  :  Clarissa,  i.  137. 

*  gras  -pie,  *  gras'-peL  v.i.  [Eng.  grasp  ; 
freq.  suff.  -le.]     To  grap'ple. 

"  With  whom  the  cynquereme  graspeled."— Brende  : 
Quintus  Curtius,  io.  61. 

*  gras'-ple,  s.  [Grasple,  v.]  A  grapnel,  or 

"To  the  which  they  fastened  grasplcs  of  iron  and 
great  hookea  lyke  sithes. "— Brende  :  Quintus  Curtius, 
fo.  60. 

*  gras'-pler,    s.       [Eng.   graspl(e);    -er.]     A 

grappling-hook ;  a  grapnel. 

"The  grasplers  letten  downe  (called  Corvi)  tooke 
violently  awaye  many  of  thesouldiers  that  were  within 
the  shippes." — Brende  :  Quintus  Curtius,  to.  60. 

grasp  less, a.  [Eng. grasp;  -less.]  Relaxed, 
not  grasping. 

"  From  my  graapless  hand 
Drop  friendship's  precious  pearls,  like  hour-glass 
sand."  Coleridge.  On  a  Friend. 

grass,   *graes,  *gras,      grasse,  *gres, 

*  gress,  *  gresse,  *  gers,  *  gerse, 
*griss,  *  gyrse,  s.  [A.S.  gwrs,  grass ;  cogn. 
with  Dut.  gras;  Sw.  &  Dan.  gras;  Icel.  gras; 
Goth,  gras;  Ger.  gras.] 

I.  Ord.  I&ng.  :  The  herbage,  or  verdant 
covering  of  the  earth. 

"She  checks  her  reins,  and  on  the  verdant  grass, 
Beneath  the  covering  trees  her  limbs  she  throws, 
Hoole  :  Orlando  Furioso,  xxiii. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Botany: 

(1)  Strictly :  , 
(a)  Sing. :  Any  plant  belonging  to  the  order 

Graminaceaa  and  no  others. 
(6)  PI. :  The  order  Graminacese. 

(2)  Loosely  : 

(a)  The  popular  name  of  various  endogens, 
some  of  them  not  belonging  to  the  Graminaceaj. 
Thus,  the  Arrow  Grass  is  Triglochin,  a  genus  of 
JuneaginaeetB,  and  the  Cotton  Grass  is  Eno- 
phorum,  a  genus  of  Cyperacese. 

(b)  The  popular  name  for  various  genera, 
which  are  not  even  endogens.  Thus,  the 
Grass  of  Parnassus  (Pamassia)  is  an  exogen 
of  the  order  Saxifragacese;  and  the  Goose 
Grass  (Galium  Aparine),  also  an  exogen,  of  the 
order  Rubiaeese. 

If  The  numerous  plant  names,  in  which 
grass  is  the  last  word  of  a  compound,  will  be 
found  scattered  throughout  the  work.  They 
are  too  numerous  to  be  brought  together  here. 

2.  Scripture : 

(1)  Lit. :  In  the  same  sense  as  I.  1. 

(2)  Fig.  :  That  which  is  fading,  or  subject  to 
decay  and  death. 

"  All  flesh  is  grass  .  .  .  Surely  the  people  is  gram." 
— Isa.  xl.  6,  7, 

%  To  give  grass :  To  yield. 

grass-blade,  s.  A  single  blade  or  stem 
of  grass.    (Byron:  Don  Juan,  viii.  47.) 

grass-cold,  *  gerse-cauld,  *.  A  slight 
cold  or  catarrh  affecting  horses. 

"There  is  a  grass-cold,  as  the  farmers  call  it,  that 
seldom  does  much  harm,  or  lasts  long." — Agr.  Su?-v. 
Uuin/r.,  p.  380. 

grass-cutter,  s.  One  who,  or  an  instru- 
ment which,  cuts  grass ;  specif,  one  of  the 
attendants  on  an  Indian  army,  whose  busi- 
ness it  is  to  cut  and  bring  into  the  camp  green 
fodder  for  the  chargers  and  transport  cattle. 

grass-fed,  a.  Fed  on  grass  or  green  food  ; 
fed  by  pasturing,  as  distinguished  from  stall- 

"  Killing  cattle  young  and  only  grass-fed."— Sir  W. 
Temple:  Of  Trade  in  Ireland. 

grass-finch,  grass-quit,  s. 

Ornith.  :  The  genus  Spermophila,  consisting 
of  American  birds  placed  by  Swainson  under 
the  family  Fringillidaeandthe  sub-family  Pyr- 
rhulinae  (Bullfinches). 

grass-grown,  «.  Overgrown  with  grass 
or  weeds. 

"  A  solitary  sentinel  paced  thel  grass-grown  pave- 
ment." — Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xL 

*  grass-hearth,  s. 

Law :  An  old  customary  service  of  tenants, 
who  brought  their  ploughs  and  did  one  day's 
work  for  their  lord. 

grass-Ill,  s.    A  disease  of  lambs. 

"When  about  three  weeks  old,  and  beginning  to 
make  grass  their  food,  a  straggling  lamb  or  two  will 
sometimes  die  of  what  is  called  the  grass-ill." — Prize 
Essay,  Highl.  Soc.  Scot.,  iii.  351. 

grass-lambs,  s.  pi.  Lambs  of  which  the 
dams  are  running  on  pasture-land  ;  hence  their 
milk  is  richer,  and  the  flesh  of  the  lambs  of  a 
superior  quality  than  under  other  conditions. 

grass-male,  *  gerss-male,  *.    Rent 
for  grass,  or  the  privilege  of  grazing. 

"  James  "Weir  grantit  that  he  resavit  the  said  scheipe 
in  gresing  [for  grazing]  fra  the  said  lady,  and  tuke  and 
is  pait  of  nifl  gerss  male  tharfor." — Act.  Horn,  Cone 
(1170),  p.  41. 

grass-moths,  s.  pi. 

Entom.  :  The  family  Crambidae,  which 
belongs  to  the  group  Pyralidina.  Thirty-four 
British  species  are  known.  They  are  called 
also  Veneers.    (Stainton.) 

grass  of  Parnassus,  s. 

Bat.  :  The  genus  Pamassia.  It  consists  of 
perennial  herbs,  with  radicle  quite  entire,  ex- 
stipulate  leaves,  and  a  scape  bearing  at  the 
top  a  solitary  large  yellow  or  white  flower, 
with  a  five-lobed  calyx,  live  persistent  petals, 
five  stamens,  alternating  with  five  staminodes 
and  a  many-seeded  superior  capsular  fruit. 
Twelve  species  are  known,  one  (Pamassia 
palustris)  in  British  bogs,  and  two  (P.  carolini- 
ana  and  P.  asarifolia)  from  the  United  States. 

grass-Oil,  s.     A  fragrant  volatile  oil,  dis- 

fatG,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pot, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur.  rule,  full :  try,  Syrian,    se,  ce  =  e ;  ey  =  a ;  qu  =  kw. 

grass— gratefully 


tilled  from  various  kinds  of  Indian  grasses, 
especially  of  the  genus  Andrupngon,  and  used 
in  perfumery. 

grass-snake,  .  The  same  as  Ringed- 
snake  (q.v.). 

grass-table,  s. 

Arch. :  Tlie  same  as  Earth-table  (q.v.). 

grass-tree,  s. 

Bot. :  The  liliaceous  genus  Xanthorrhaia. 
On  the  Swan  River  and  elsewhere  in  Australia 
they  furnish  valuable  fodder  for  cattle.  Be- 
fore the  native  Tasmanians  became  extinct, 
they  were  wont  to  eat  the  tender  leaves  at 
the  top  of  the  stem.  The  name  grass-tree  is 
used  also  of  Eicliea  dracophylkt  and  Kingia 

grass  vetch,  s. 

Bot. :  Lathyrus  Nissolia. 

*  grass-week,  s.  An  old  name  in  the 
Inns  of  Courts  for  Rogation -week,  because  the 
commons  then  consisted  chiefly  of  vegetables 
and  salads. 

grass,  v.t.  &  i.    [Grass,  s.] 
A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  cover  with  grass  or  turf;  to  sow 
grass  on. 

2.  To  bleach  on  the  grass  or  ground,  as  flax. 

3.  To  bring  to  the  ground  ;  to  lay  or  cause 
to  lie  on  the  grass  :  as,  To  grass  a  fish. 

"At  the  close  of  the  twenty-fifth  round  the  doctor 
had  killed  twenty  out'of  twenty-five,  while  hia  oppo- 
nent had  grassed  seventeen  out  of  the  same  number." 
— Daily  Telegraph,  Nov.  26,  1881. 

*  B.  Intrans. :  To  produce  grass ;  to  be- 
come pasture. 

"  Land  arable,  driven,  or  worn  to  the  proof. 
With  oats  ye  may  bow  it  the  sooner  to  grass. 
More  Boon  to  be  pasture,  to  bring  it  to  pass." 

Tusser;  Husoandrie. 

**  gras  -  sa'-  tion,  s.  [Lat. '  grassatio,  from 
grassatus,  pa.  par.  of  grassor,  freq.  of  gradior 
=  to  walk.]    A  progress  or  progression. 

",If  in  vice  there  be  a  perpetuall  grassation,  there 
must  be  in  virtue  a  perpetuall  vigilance  :  and  'tis  not 
enough  to  be  incessant,  but  it  must  be  universalis " — 
Feltham  :  Resolves,  pt.  ii.,  res.  8. 

grass' -  cloth,  s.  [Eng.  grass,  and  cloth.] 
Cloth  made  from  the  grassy  fibres  of  the  inner 
bark  of  the  grass  cloth-plant  (q.v.).  It  equals 
the  best  French  cambric  in  softness  and  fine- 
ness. In  India  it  is  made  into  light  white 
jackets,  used  by  guests  at  parties,  when  cloth 
<ioats  would  be  oppressively  hot. 

grasscloth-plant,  ». 

Bot.  :  Bohmeria  nivea,  one  of  the  Urticacete. 
It  grows  in  Sumatra,  China,  and  Assam.  Called 
more  fully  the  Chinese  grasscloth-plant. 

grass  green,  grasse-greene,  *gras- 
grene,  a.  &  s.  [A.S.  grcesgrene;  Dut.  gras- 
groen;  Icel.  grasgrom;  Dan.  gnesgron ;  Ger. 

A,  As  adjective: 

I.  Ordinary  Language . 

1.  Green  with  grass  ;  verdant. 

"JAs  grass-green  meads  pronounced  the  summer  near." 
Fawkes  :  Theocritus,  Idyl.  xiii. 

2.  Of  the  colour  of  grass ;  dark  green. 

"  A  gown  of  grassgreen  silk  she  wore." 

Tennyson :  Lancelot  &  Guinevere,  24. 

IL  Bot,  &c. :  Clear,  lively  green,  without 
any  mixture.  The  rendering  of  Lat.  smarag- 
dinus  and  prasinus. 

B.  As  subst. :  The  colour  of  grass. 

grass'-hop-per,  *gras'-ho'p-per,  *gras- 
hop-pyr,  gras  hop,  '  gres  hoppe, 
*  gress  hope,  *  gress-hoppe,  *  gres- 
SOp,  ^grys-obe,  s.  [A.S.  gmrshoppa;  Icel. 
grashoppa;  Dut.  grashupper  ;  Sw.  grceshoppa; 
Daa  gr&shoppe.] 
Entomology  ; 

1.  Singular: 

(1)  Properly  Gryllus  viridissimus,  an  orthop-- 
terous  insect,  with  long  antennae,  and  its  hind 
legs  formed  for  leaping.  It  is  above  two 
inches  long,  and  is  common  in  marshy  places. 

(2)  Various  other  grasshoppers  are  really 
small  species  of  locusts. 

2.  PI. :  The  family  Acridiidse,  belonging  to 
the  order  Orthoptera.     They  are   sometimes 

1  called  Gryllina.  They  have  long  setaceous 
'antennae,  thus  distinguishing  them  from  the 
Locusts  (Locustidai),  to  which  they  are  allied, 
and  which  have  short  antenna?. 

grasshopper-beam,  $.  One  form  of 
beam  used  in  steam-engines ;  the  fulcrum  is 
at  one  end,  and  the  connecting  rod  between 
it  and  the  piston-rod,  usually  midway. 

grasshopper  -  engine,  ».  An  engine 
having  a  grasshopper- beam. 

grasshopper-warbler,  s. 

Ornith. .-  SalicarLa  locustella,  one  of  the 
Sylvidse.  Its  note  is  like  that  of  a  cricket. 
It  is  a  summer  visitant  to  Britain,  arriving  in 
the  middle  of  April  and  departing  in  Sep- 

*  gras-sil,  *  grls-sel,  *  girs-sil,  v.i.    [Fr. 

gresiller  =  to  crackle.]    To  rustle ;  to  make  a 
rustling  or  crackling  noise. 

"  9one  eftir  this  of  men  the  clamor  rais. 
The  takillis  grassiUis,  cabillia  can  frate  and  frais." 
Douglas :  Virgil,  15,  *t 

grass'-i-ness,  s.  [Eng.  grassy;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  grassy  or  abounding 
in  grass. 

grass'-land,  s.  [Eng.  grass,  and  land.\  Land 
kept  always  under  grass,  as  distinguished  from 
land  which  is  alternately  under  grass  and 

grass  -less,  *  grasse-lesse,  a.  [Eng.  grass ; 
-less.    Destitute  of  grass. 

"  Grassless  floor  of  red-brown  hue, 
By  sheddings  from  the  pining  umbrage  tinged." 
Wordsworth;  Yew-trees. 

grass  man,  gerss-man,  s.  [Eng.  grass, 
and  man.)  One  who  possesses  a  house  in  the 
country  without  any  land. 

"The  tenants,  cottars,  and  grassmen,  who  for  fear  of 
their  lives  had  fled  here  and  there."— Spalding,  ii.  187. 

grass-plot,  s.  [Eng.  grass,  and  plot.]  A 
plot  or  piece  of  ground  covered  with  grass  ;  a 
space  consisting  of  beds  of  flowers  with  grass 
between  them  instead  of  gravel. 

*'  Here  on  this  grassplot,  in  this  very  place." 

Shakesp. :  Tempest,  iv.  1. 

grass'-pol-$r,  *  grass -pol-a,  s.  [Etym. 

Bot. :  Lythrum  hyssopifolia,  the  Hyssop- 
leaved  Purple-loosestrife.  It  is  a  small  plant 
with  red  axillary  flowers,  growing  occasionally 
in  inundated  places  in  the  east  of  England. 

grass  iim,  ger'-sum,  ger  -some,  s.  [A.S. 
gazrsuma  =  store,  treasure,  a  premium.]  A 
sum  of  money  paid  by  a  tenant  to  a  landlord 
on  entering  upon  a  farm.    {Scotch.) 

grass'-wld-6"w,  s.  [Fr.  grace  =  courtesy ; 
Eng.  widoiv.] 

*  1.  An  unmarried  woman  who  has  had  a 

2.  A  married  woman  whose  husband  is  tem- 
porarily separated  from  her,  as  when  the  wife 
lives  in  England  and  the  husband  in  India. 
"  She  ia  a  grass-widow ;  her  husband  is  something  in 
some  Indian  service  "—Saturday  Review,  Feb.  11,  1882. 

grass-wrack,  s.  [Eng.  grass,  and  wrack.] 
Bot. :  The  genus  Zostera,  belonging  to  the 
order  Naiadaceaa.  Two  species  are  British, 
the  Broad-leaved  Grasswrack,  Zostera  marina, 
and  the  Dwarf  Grasswrack,  Z.  nana.  The  re- 
semblance to  grass  is  in  the  leaves,  and  the 
term  "wrack"  suggests  that  the  plants  are 
cast  on  beaches  like  seawrack  of  algse,  zoo- 
phytes, &c.  The  Common  Grasswrack  is 
used  for  packing  bottles  and  earthenware. 
Pallas  says  that  in  the  south  of  Kussia  it  is 
found  with  pottery  in  old  tombs.  It  is  the 
alva  (ulva  or  alga)  of  the  shops,  sold  to  stuff 
beds,  a  purpose  for  which  it  is  largely  used 
in  Iceland  and  in  the  north  of  continental 

gras'-sy,  *gras-sie,  a.    [Eng.  grass;  -y,] 

1.  Covered  or  abounding  with  grass. 

2.  Like  grass,  green,  verdant. 

"  The  wearied  eye 
Reposes  gladly  on  as  smooth  a  vale 
As  ever  Spring  yclad  in  grassy  dye." 

Byron :  Chtide  Harold,  ii.  54. 

*  graste,  pa.  par.,  or  a.     [Graced.] 

gras'-tlte,  s.    [Gr.  ypao-ng  (grastis)  =  grass, 
Min. :  The  same  as  Clinochlore  (q.v.). 

grat,  pret.  of  v.    [Greet  (2),  v.]    Cried,  wept. 
"But  he  grat  when  he  spak  o'  the  Colonel,  ye  never 
saw  the  like."— Scott :  Waverley,  ch.  lxiii. 

grate,  s.     [Low  Lat.  grata,  crata,  from  Lat. 
crates  =  a  hurdle ;  ItaL  grata.  ] 
L  Ordinary  Language : 
1.  A  partition  or  screen  made  of  bars  fixed 

parallel  or  at  angles  to  each  other  with  in- 
terstices ;  a  kind  of  lattice-window,  sut-h  as  is 
used  in  cloisters,  nunneries,  &e. 

"  Glimmering  vaults,  with  iron  grates." 

Tennyson  :  Dream  of  Fair  Women,  35. 

2.  A  grated  box  or  basket,  or  a  box  with  a 
series  of  bars  for  a  floor,  in  which  fuel  is 

"  My  dear  is  of  opinion  that  an  old-fashion  grate 
consumes  coals,  but  gives  no  heat."— Steele:  Spectator 
No.  308. 

II.  Mm. :  A  metallic  perforated  plate  on 
which  ores  are  stamped. 

grate-bar,  s.  The  iron  bar  in  a  furnace 
which  supports  the  fuel.  A  part  of  a  grid  in 
a  furnace. 

grate-surface,  s. 

Steam-engin. :  The  area  of  surface  of  grate 
by  which  air  has  access  to  the  fuel.  In  an 
average  boiler  this  is  one  square  foot  per 
horse-power,  and  is  expected  to  evaporate  one 
cubic  foot  of  water  per  hour. 

grate  (1),  v.t.  [Grate,  s.]  To  famish  with  a 
grate  or  grating  ;  to  fill  in  or  cover  with  cross 

"  She  has  grated  port-holes  between  the  decks."— 
Burke  :  Sketch  of  the  Negro  Code. 

grate  (2),  v.t.  &  i.  [O.  Fr.  grater;  Fr.  gratter, 
from  Low  Lat.  crato,  from  Sw.  Icratta  =  to 
scrape  ;  Dan.  kratte,  kratse  ;  Dut.  krassen  =  to 
scratch;  Ger.  kratzen ;  Mid.  Eng.  ci'acchen; 
Ital.  grattare.] 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  rub  one  thing  against  another,  so  as 
to  cause  a  harsh  sound  :  as,  To  grate  one's 

2.  To  rub  two  bodies  together,  so  as  to  re- 
duce one  or  both  to  small  particles. 

"Orate  it  [horse  radish]  on  a  grater  which  has  no 
bottom,  and  so  it  may  pass  through." — Evelyn;  Ace- 

*3.  To  offend,  to  vex;  to  annoy  by  any- 
thing harsh  or  vexatious. 

"  Grating  so  harshly  all  his  days  of  quiet." 

Shakesp.  :  Hamlet,  iii.  1. 

*  I.  To  cause  to  creak  or  make  a  harsh, 
grating  noise. 

*  5.  To  produce  as  a  harsh,  discordant 
sound  by  the  collision  or  friction  of  rough 

"  On  a  sudden  open  fly  .  .  . 
The  infernal  doors,  and  on  their  hinges  grate 
Harsh  thunder,"  Milton :  P.  L.,  ii.  88L 

*  6.  To  grind  down,  to  reduce. 
"Mighty  states  are  grated  to  dusty  nothing." 

Shakesp. :  Troilus  d-  Cresslda,  Hi.  2. 

B.  Intransitive : 

*  1.  To  rub  together ;  to  touch. 

"Their  speres  grated  nat;  if  they  had,  by  moost 
lykelhod  they  had  taken  hurt." — Berners:  Froissart ; 
Cront/cle,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  clxviiL 

2.  To  rub  against  any  body  so  as  to  produce 
a  harsh,  discordant  noise  ;  to  give  out  a  harsh 

"  Hear  a  dry  wheel  grating  on  the  axle-tree." 

Shakesp.  :  1  Henry  IV.,  iiL  1. 

*  3.  To  be  offensive,  to  offend. 

"I  never  heard  him  make  the  least  complaint,  in  a 
case  that  would  have  grated  sorely  on  some  men's 
patience,  and  have  flllea  their  lives  with  discontent.'' 
— Locke. 

*  L  To  be  grieved,  to  fret. 

"For  grief  his  heart  did  grate." 

Spenser :  F.  Q.,  II.  L  66. 

*  grate,  a.  [Lat.  gratus  =  pleasant.]  Pleasant, 

"  It  becomes  grate  and  delicious  enough  by  custom." 
—Sir  T.  Herbert:  Travels. 

grate'-fttl,  a.  [From  the  stem  seen  in  Lat. 
gratus ;  O.  Fr.  grat ;  Mid.  Eng.  grate  —  pleas- 
ing ;  Eng.  suff.  -ful{l).~] 

t  1.  Pleasing  ;  pleasant ;  acceptable  ;  wel- 
come ;  gratifying. 

"  0  death  was  grateful!" 

Longfellow  :  Skeleton  in  Armour. 

2.  Having  a  due  sense  of  benefits  received  ; 
willing  and  ready  to  acknowledge  obligations 
for  kindnesses  done ;  thankful. 

"  The  Queen  herself. 
Grateful  to  Prince  Geraint  for  service  done. 
Loved  her."  Tennyson  ;  Qeraint  &  £nid,  15. 

3.  Exhibiting  or  expressing  gratitude ;  in- 
dicative of  gratitude. 

"  Although  the  constant  sun 
Cheer  all  their  seasons  with  a  grateful  smile." 

Cowper :  Task,  L  623. 

grate'-ful-ly,  adv.    [Eng.  grateful;  -ly.] 
1 1.  In  a  pleasing,  gratifying,  or  agreeable 

boll,  bo^-;  poilt,  jo^rl;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  911111,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  a$;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist.     ph  =  L 
-clan,    tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -slon  =  shun :  -tion*  -slon  =  zhun.  -cions.  -tious.  -sious  =  shus.    -ble.  -die.  &c.  =  beL  deL 



gratefulness— gratulate 

2.  In  a  grateful  manner  ;  with  gratitude. 
"  They  do  gratefully  recommend  you  and  your  well- 
devoted  labours  in  their  prayers   to  God."— Boyle: 
Works,  vi  652. 

grate  -fulness,  s.    [Eng.  grateful;  -ness.] 
1 1.  The  quality  of  being  grateful,  pleasing, 
or  acceptable  ;  pleasantness. 

2.  The  quality  of  being  grateful  or  thankful 
for  benefits  received  or  kindnesses  done ; 
gratitude ;  thankfulness. 

"Out  of  gratefulness,  in  remembrance  of  the  many 
courtesies  done  to  him.  —  Baker:  Henry  II.  (an.  1165). 

grat'-er,  *,  [Eng.  grate  (2),  v. ;  -er ;  Fr. 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  One  who  or  that  which 
grates  ;  specif.,  a  plate  roughened  by  punch- 
ing holes  which  raise  protuberances  forming 
a  rasping  surface.  Used  for  grating  ginger, 
nutmeg,  horseradish,  lemons,  biscuits,  &c. 

"  WhoBe  bony  hips,  which  out  of  both  Bides  stick. 
Might  serve  tor  graters." 

Sherburne  ;  Choice  of  his  Mistress. 

2.  Bookbind. ;  An  iron  instrument  used  by 
the  forwarder  in  rubbing  the  backs  of  sewed 

*  gra-tlc-U-la'-tion,  s.  [Fr.  graticulation, 
craticulatibn,  from  graticuUr,  cratieuler  =  to 
divide  into  squares,  from  graticule,  craticule; 
Lat.  craticula  =  a  little  hurdle ;  crates  =  a 
hurdle.]  The  division  of  a  design  or  drawing 
into  little  squares  for  the  purpose  of  produc- 
ing a  copy  of  it  on  a  larger  or  smaller  scale. 

*graf-i-cule,  s.  [Fr.]  [Graticulation.]  A 
design  or  drawing  divided  into  little  squares 
for  the  purpose  of  reproduction  on  a  larger  or 
smaller  scale. 

grat-I-f  l-ca'-tion,  s.  [Lat.  gratification  from 
gratificatus,  pa.  par.  of  gratificor  =  to  gratify 
(a.  v. ) ;  Fr.  gratification  ;  Ital.  gratijicazione  ; 
op.  gratification.] 
1.  The  act  of  gratifying  or  pleasing. 
"The  Infant  deBires  only  the  gratification  of  its 
physical  wants." — Lindsay  :  Mind  in  the  Lower  Ani- 
mals, i.  38. 

*  2.  Congratulation;  well-wishing. 

"  Whereupon  Bhe  sent  .  .  .  a  letter  of  gratification." 
—Hackluyt :  Voyages,  ii.  306. 

3.  That  which  gratifies  or  pleases ;  anything 
which  affords  pleasure ;  a  pleasure ;  a  satis- 
faction ;  an  enjoyment. 

"The  riches  of  the  world,  and  the  gratifications  they 
afford." — Bp.  Sorsley :  Sermons,  voL  i.,  ser.  10. 

*  4.  Reward ;  recompense  ;  gratuity. 

TJ  For  the  difference  "between  gratification 
and.  enjoyment,  see  Enjoyment. 

grat'-I-fi-er,  s.  [Eng.  gratify;  -er.]  One 
who  or  that  which  gratifies  or  pleases;  any 
person  or  thing  which  affords  gratification, 
pleasure,  or  satisfaction. 

"It  chanced  he  had  under  him  in  one  of  Mb  do- 
minions, a  briber,  a  gift-taker,  a  grati&er  of  rich  men." 
— Latimer :  Sermon  the  third,  before  Sing  Edward. 

grat-i-fy,  *  grat-i-fie,  *  grat-i-fye,  v.t. 
[Fr.  gratifier,  from  Lat.  gratificor  =  to  please  ; 
gratus  —  pleasing,  and  facio  =  to  make  ;  Ital. 
gratificare;  Sp.  grutificar.] 

1.  To  please,  to  afford  pleasure,  satisfaction, 
or  gratification  to  ;  to  meet  the  wishes  of. 

"The  soldan  devised  how  to  gratify  the  pope  and  to 
alay  his  enemy." — Bale :  Pageant  of  Popes,  fo.  100. 

*  2.  To  congratulate,  to  welcome. 
"Togratifie  and  welcome  him  into  those  parts."— 

Ball :  Henry  VII.  (an.  15.) 

*  3.  To  humour,  to  indulge. 

"  Much  less  might  serve,  when  all  that  we  design 
Is  but  to  gratify  an  itching  ear." 

Cowper :  Task,  vi.  648. 

*  i.  To  make  pleasing,  agreeable,  or  grateful. 

"  Some  one  that  would  with  grace  be  gratlfide." 

Spenser  ;  Muiopotmos,  110. 

*  5.  To  grant  or  allow  for  the  sake  of  pleas- 

"  You  steer  between  the'eountry  and  the  court, 
Nor  gratify  whate'er  the  great  desire." 

Dryden:  To  John  Driden,  129. 

*  6.  To  reward,  to  requite,  to  recompense. 

"  To  gratify  his  noble  Bervice." 

Shakesp. :  Coriolanus,  ii.  £. 

%  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  to 
gratify,  to  indulge,  and  to  humour:  "To 
gratify  is  a  positive  act  of  the  choice.  To 
indulge  is  a  negative  act  of  the  will,  a  yielding 
of  the  mind  to  circumstances.  One  gratifies 
the  appetites ;  one  indulges  the  humours.  To 
gratify  and  indulge,  as  individual  acts,  may  be 
both  allowable ;  but  to  gratify  is  unrestricted 
by  any  moral  consideration ;  indulging  always 
involves  the  sacrifice  of  some  general  rule 
of  conduct  or  principle  of  action.      We  may 

sometimes  gratify  a  laudable  curiosity,  and 
indulge  ourselves  by  a  salutary  recreation  ; 
but  gratifying  as  a  habit  becomes  a  vice,  and 
indulging  as  a  habit  is  a  weakness.  To  hu- 
mour is  to  indulge  or  fall  in  with  the  humour ; 
it  may  be  selfish  or  prudent.  A  good  parent 
indulges  his  child  in  whatever  he  knows  is  not 
hurtful ;  it  is  sometimes  necessary  to  humour 
the  temper  in  some  measure,  the  better  to 
correct  it.  Things  gratify  ;  persons  only  in- 
dulge."   (Crabb:  Eng.  Synon.) 

grat'-ing  (1),  s.    [Grate  (1),  v.] 

1.  Ordinary  Language : 

fl.  The  act  of  furnishing  with  a  grate. 

2.  An  open  frame  of  iron  bars  covering  tin- 
entrance  to  a  sewer  or  drain  in  a  street, 

3.  An  open  iron  frame  or  lattice  in  the  pave- 
ment, to  admit  light  to  a  basement. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Naut.  :  Open  wood-work  of  cross  slats  to 
cover  hatchways,  and  yet  to  admit  light  and 
air.  Before  the  abolition  of  flogging  in  the 
Navy,  men  sentenced  to  be  flogged  were  tied 
to  a  grating  to  receive  their  punishment. 

2.  Optics:  [Diffraction-gratings]. 

3.  Met-all. :  The  act  of  separating  large  from 
small  ore  ;  the  perforated  plate  used  in  the 

grat'-ing  (2),  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Grate  (2),  v.] 

A.  As  pr.  par. :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective : 

1.  That  makes  a  harsh,  discordant  sound, 
as  of  two  rough  bodies  rubbing  together. 

"To  have  his  ears  wounded  with  some  harsh  and 
grating  sound."— Burke  :  Sublime  &  Beaut.,  pt.  i.,  §  2. 

2.  Harsh,  vexing,  irritating,  annoying,  un- 

C.  As  substantive : 

1.  The  act  of  causing  a  harsh,  discordant 
sound,  by  the  rubbing  together  of  two  bodies. 

"  The  grating  and  rubbing  of  these  axes  against  the 
sockets."—  Wilkins:  Datdalus,  ch.  xv. 

2.  A  harsh,  discordant  sound. 

3.  Annoyance,  irritation,  vexation. 

"The  hard  grating  and  afflicting  contrariety  that 
bears  to  the  flesh." — South :  Sermons,  vol.  xi.,  ser.  l. 

grat'-Ing-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  grating;  -ly.]  In  a 
grating,  harsh,  discordant,  or  offensive  man- 
ner ;  harshly,  discordantly,  offensively. 

gra-tl'-o-la,  s.  [Lat.  gratia  =  grace,  favour ; 
meaning  here  the  grace  of  God,  from  the  sup- 
posed medicinal  virtues  of  the  plant,  which 
was  formerly  called  gratia  Dei.] 
,  Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  family  Grati- 
olese  (q.v.).  Gratiola  officinalis,  the  Hedge 
Hyssop,  grows  in  the  south  of  Europe,  and, 
according  to  Haller,  is  so  abundant  in  the 
Swiss  pastures  as  to  render  them  useless  for 
cattle.  It  is  very  bitter,  and  acts  both  as  a 
purgative  and  an  emetic.  It  is  said  that  it 
was  the  base  of  the  gout  medicine,  called  eaw 
medicinale.  It  has  been  used  in  hypochon- 
dria. G.  peruviana  is  also  a  purgative  and 

gra-tl-dT-e-se,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  gratioUa), 
and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ece.] 

Bot. :  A  tribe  of  Scrophulariacese,  divided 
into  four  sub-tribes,  Aptosimeee,  Manuleee, 
Eugratiolese,  and  Linderniese. 

grat^I-o-ler'-i-tin,  &    [Gratiolin.] 

grat-i-6-le'-tin,  «.    [Gratiolin.] 

grat-i-6-lin,  s.  [Eng.,  &c,  gratiol(a);  -in.] 
Cliem.  :  C20H34O7.  A  glucoside  contained 
in  Gratiola  officinalis.  It  dissolves  in  sulphuric 
acid,  forming  a  purple  solution.  When  boiled 
with  dilute  sulphuric  acid,  it  yields  Gratioletin 
CyyHsgOg,  a  crystalline  substance  insoluble  in 
water  and  ether ;  gratioleretin,  CtfHtgOg,  a 
resinous  substance  insoluble  in  water,  but 
soluble  in  ether  ;  and  glucose. 

gra-t$-o'-sa,  adv.    [Grazioso.] 

*  gra-tious,  "■•    [Gracious.] 

gra'-tis,  adv.  &  a.    [Lat.] 

A.  As  adv.  :  For  nothing ;  freely :  without 
charge  or  recompense  ;  gratuitously. 

"  Justice  never  was  in  reality  administered  gratis  in 
this  country."— Smith;  Wealth  of  Nations,  pt  ii.,  bk. 
iv.,  ch.  L 

B.  As  adj.  :  Given  or  done  freely  or  for 
nothing ;  gratuitous. 

grat'-l-tude,  a,  [Fr.,  from  Low  Lat.  grati- 
tudo,  from  Lat.  gratus  =  pleasing,  thantiui  T 
Ital.  gratitudine.] 

1  The  quality  or  state  of  being  grateful ;  a 
feeling  of  thankfulness  for  benefits  or  kindness 
received  ;  grateful  sentiments  towards  a  bene- 
factor ;  gratefulness  ;  thankfulness. 

"  Gratitude  is  properly  a  virtue,  disposing  the  min<I 
toantaward  sense,  and  an  outward  acknowledgment 
of  a  benefit  received. "-South  :  Sermons,  vol.  l,  ser.  VL. 

*  2.  A  gratuity ;  a  reward  ;  a  recompense. 
grat'-toir  (oi  as  wa),  *.    [Fr.]    [Scraper.} 

*  gra-tu'-i-tal,  a.  [Lat.  gratuitous) ;  Eng. 
adj.'  suff.  -al.]'  Gratuitous,  free. 

*  gra-tuite,  s.  [Fr.  gratuite.]  A  favour,  kind- 

gra-tu  -i-toiis,  a.  [Lat.  gratuitus,  from  gra- 
tus =  pleasing,  thankful;  Fr.  gratuit;  Ital. 
&  3p.  gratuito.] 

1.  Given  freely  or  for  nothing ;  granted  with- 
out claim  or  charge  ;  free  ;  voluntary ;  gratis. 

"The  peasantry  were  forced  to  give  their  gratuitous 
labour  six  days  in  the  year." — Macaulay:  Hist.  JSng.r 
ch.  iii. 

2.  Not  required,  called  for,  or  warranted  by 
the  circumstances  of  the  case  ;  done  or  made 
without  sufficient  grounds  or  reason  :  as,  a 
gratuitous  assumption,  a  gratuitous  insult. 

If  "  Gratuitous  is  opposed  to  that  which  is 
obligatory  ;  voluntary  is  opposed  to  that  which 
is  compulsory  or  involuntary."  (Crabb:  Eng. 

gratuitous-deeds,  s.  pi. 

Scots  Law:  Deeds  granted  without  any  value 
being  given  for  them. 

gra-tu'-i-tOUS-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  gratuitous  ;  -ly.J 

1,  Freely  ;  voluntarily  ;  without  any  claim. 
or  merit ;  without  charge  or  compensation  ; 

"  Gratuitously  conferred  upon  him  by  the  credulity 
of  posterity." — Scott :  Tliomas  the  Rhymer.    (Note.) 

2.  Done,  said,  or  adopted  without  sufficient 
grounds,  reason,  or  cause ;  without  sufficient 
reason  or  grounds. 

"  This  obliquity  of  direction,  which  they  ffratut- 
tously  tack  to  matter." — Oheyne  :  Philosophical  Princi- 

gra-tu'-i-toiis-ness,  s.  [Eng.  gratuitous; 
-ness.]  The  quality  or  state  of  being  gratui- 

gra-tu  -I-ty,  s.  [Ft.  gratuiti,  from  Low  Lat. 
gratuitas,  from  Lat.  gratuitus= gratuitous,  free.], 

1.  That  which  is  given  or  granted  gratui- 
tously, or  as  a  free  gift ;  anything  given  or 
done  freely  or  for  nothing ;  a  free  gift ;  a  dona- 
tion ;  a  kindness. 

"These  gratuities  auayled  not  to-  make  tbie  King: 
James  friendly  to  the  realme  of  Englande."— Grafton  : 
Henry  VI.  (an.  2). 

2.  Something  given  in  return  for  a  favour  or 
service ;  an  acknowledgment ;  a  recompense ; 
a  return. 

"Performing,  now  and  then,  certain  offices  of  reli- 
gion forBmallffra(uitie«." — Burke :  Penal  Laws  against 
Irish  Catholics. 

If  "Gratuity  and  recompense  both  imply  a 
gift,  and  a  gift  by  way  of  return  for  some  sup- 
posed service;  but  the  gratuity  is  inde- 
pendent of  all  expectation  as  well  as  right ; 
the  recompense  is  founded  upon  some  admis- 
sible claim."    (Crabb:  Eng.  Synon.) 

*  grat'-u-lan$e,  s.  [Lat.  gratulans,  pr.  par. 
of  gratulor.]    [Gratulate.]    A  favour,  akind- 

ness,  a  gratuity. 

"  Some  add  disburse,  some  bribe,  some  gratulomee." 
Machin:  Dumb  Knight,  v. 

*  grat  -u-lant,  a.  [Lat.  gratulaiis^  pr.  par. 
of  gratulor = to  congratulate.]  Congratulating. 

"At  Heaven's  wide-open  portal  gratulant." 

Coleridge :  Destiny  of  Nations. 

*  grat'-u-late,  v.t.  &  i.  [Gratulate*  o.  Sp. 
gratular ;  Ital.  gratulare.] 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  congratulate  ;  towishjoy  to ;  to  salute 
with  congratulations. 

"  Dangers  ?  how  mean  you  dangers,  that  so  courtly 
You  gratulate  my  safe  return  from  dangers?" 

Ford  :  Lover's  Melancholy,  i.  1. 

2.  To  welcome. 

"  To  gratulate  the  sweet  return  of  mom." 

Milton:  P.R.t\v.  488. 

3.  To  reward ;  to  recompense. 

"  I  could  not  choose  but  gratulate  your  honest 
endeavours  with  this  remembrance." — Reywood. 

B.  Intrans.  :  To  exult.  (Milton:  P.  L., 
ix.  472.) 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;   go,  pit, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,     ee,  ce  ~  e  ;    ey  =  a.    qu  —  kw. 

gr  atulate— gravel 


*  grat'-u-late,  a.  ,  [Lat.  gratula$us,  pa.  par. 

of  gratulor  ='  to  wish  one  joy ;  gratus  —  pleas- 
ing, thankful.]  Gratifying,  felicitous ;  to  he 
Tejoiced  at ;  fortunate. 

"  There's  more  behind  that  is  more  gratulate." 
Shaketp.  :  Measure  for  Measure,  v.  L 

grat-u-la  -tion,*  grat  u  la  cion,  s.  [Lat. 
gratuldtio,  from  gratulatus,  pa.  par.  of  gratu- 
lor ;  Ital.  gratulazione ;  Sp.  gratuladon.].  The 
act  of  congratulating  or  felicitating  ;  a  con- 
gratulation or  expression  of  joy  or  pleasure. 

"  Angelic  gratulatioru  rend  the  skieB." 

Gawper :  Truth,  587. 

*  grat'-U-la-tdr-i-l^,  adv.  [Eng.  gratulatory; 

-ly.]  In  *a  gratulatory  or  congratulatory 

grat-U-la-tor-Jr,  a.  &  s.  [Lat.  gratulatorius, 
from  'gratulatus,  pa.  par.  of  gratulor;  Ital.  & 
Sp.  gratulatorio.] 

A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Congratulatory ;  expressing  gratulation 
or  congratulations. 

"  The  usual  groundwork  of  such  gratulatory  odes." 
— Bp.  Horsley  :  Sermons,  vol.  i.,  ser.  5. 

2.  Expressing  gratitude  or  thanks  ;  grateful. 

"  Whereas  formerly  he  had  dUowned  any  propitia- 
tory sacrifice,  content  with  gratulatory  ...  be  now 
makes  it  properly  propitiatory." —  Waterland :  Works, 
viii.  263. 

E.  As  subst. :  An  address  or  expression  of 
congratulation  or  felicitation  to  any  person 
for  some  good  which  has  hefallen  him. 

*  grat'-u-ling,  a.  [Lat.  gratulor  =  to  con- 
gratulate.]Congratulatory,  well-wishing. 

"Where's  orator  Higgen  with  his  gratuling  Bpeech 
now?"  Beaum.  &  FJet.  :  Beggar's  Bush,  ii.  1. 

graul-itc,  s.     [From  Graul,  near  Schwarzen- 
berg,  in  Saxony,   where  it  occurs ;  surf.  -He 
(Min.)  (q.v.).] 
Min. :  The  same  as  Tecticite  (q.v.).  (Dana). 

grau'-wac-ke,  «.    [Graywacke.] 

gra-va'-men,  s.  [Lat.,  from  gravo  =  to 
weigh  down ;  gravis  =  heavy.] 

1.  The  substantial  cause  of  an  action  at  law  ; 
the  ground  or  burden  of  complaint ;  that  part 
of  an  accusation  which  weighs  most  heavily 
against  the  accused. 

2.  A  representation ;  a  motion :  specif.,  a. 
motion  proposed  in  Convocation. 

*  gra-vam'-in-ous,  a,    [Lat.  gravamen,  gen. 

grdvamin(is) ;  Eng'.  adj.  suff.  -ous.]  Grievous, 

grave  (1),  v.t.    [Graves.]' 

Naut. :  To  clean  a  ship's  bottom  by  burning 
off  the  weeds,  barnacles,  &c,  and  coating  it 
with  pitch  and  tallow. 

grave  (2),  graif,  *grav-yn,  v.t.  <fci.  [A.S. 
grafan  =  to  dig,  to  engrave  ;  cogn.  with  Dut. 
graven;  Dan.  grave;  Sw.  grafva;  Icel.  grafa; 
Goth,  graban  =  to  dig;  Ger,  graben;  Gr. 
ypanjyo}  (graphd)  =  to  write,  to  engrave ;  Fr. 
graver  =  to  engrave ;  Ir.  grajdim  =  to  scrape.] 

A*  Transitive : 

*  1.  To  dig. 

"  The!  .  .  .  badde  grave  on  the  ground  many  gret« 
cauyB."  Alexander  &  Dindimus,  6. 

2.  To  bury,  to  inter,  to  entomb. 

"  Than  in  a  grate  thai  gan  him  grave." 

Legends  of  Holy  Rood,  p.  19. 

*3.  To  carve  ;  to  form  or  shape  by  cutting 
with  a  chisel,  as  a  sculptor. 

"Thou  not  make  to  thee  any  graven  image." — 
Exodus  xx.  4. 

L  To  carve ;  to  cut  as  letters  or  figures  on 
atone,  wood,  metal,  &c,  with  a  chisel  or 
graver ;  to  engrave. 

[He]  graved  it  on  a  gem  and  wore  it  next  his  heart " 
Oowper :  Anti-Thelyphthora. 

5.  To  impress  deeply. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  carve  ;  to  write  or  cut 
words  or  figures  on  wood,  metal,  &c.  ;  to  en- 

"  Thou  Bhalt  make,  a  plate  of  pore  gold,  and  grave 
Upon  it."— Exodus  xxviii.  36. 

*  grave,  *  grafe,  *  graive,  s.    [A.S.  graf; 

O.  S.  graf;  O.  Fris.  gref;  Dut.  graf; 
0.  H.  Ger.  graf;  Icel.  grof;  Sw.  graf;  Dan. 
grav;  Ger.  grab.] 

1.  A  hole  or  excavation  in  the  earth,  in 
which  a  human  body  is  buried ;  a  place  ©f 
interment;  a  tomb,  a  sepulchre. 

"  The  graves,  all  gaping  wide, 

Every  one  letB  forth  his  Bpright" 
Shaketp.  ;  Midsummer  Wight's  Dream,  v.  2. 

*  2.  Anything  graven  or  carved ;  a  carved 

'  3.  A  place  of  great  slaughter  or  mortality. 
4.  Destruction  ;  ruin  ;  death. 

"  Richard  marked  him  for  the  grave.7' 

Shaketp. :  8  Henry  VI.,  ii.  6._ 

grave-clothes,  s.  pi.  The  clothes  or 
dress  in  which  the  dead  are  buried ;  a  winding 

"  Alice,  in  her  grave-clothes  bound. 
Ghastly  smiling,  points  a  seat." 

Scott :  Frederick  A  Alice. 

grave-digger,  s. 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  One  who  digs  graves. 

2.  Entom. ;  The  name  given  in  Jamaica  to  a 
fossorial  insect  of  the  order  Hymenoptera, 
family  Sphegidae,  which  digs  holes  in  clay,  in 
which  it  lays  its  eggs,  depositing  along  with 
them,  for  the  future  sustenance  of  its  larvae, 
caterpillars  and  spiders  slightly  stung,  so  as 
to  leave  them  half  dead.  Its  allies  every- 
where pursue  essentially  the  same  method  of 

grave-maker,  *  graf-makere,  5.    A 


'    "  Gardeners,  ditchers,  and  grave-makers." — Shaketp. : 
Hamlet,  v.  1. 

grave-making,  &-.  The  act  or  occupa- 
tion of  digging  graves. 

"  Has  this  fellow  no  feeling  of  bis  business  ?  he  singB 
at  grave-making."— Shaketp. :  Hamlet,  v.  1. 

*  grave -man,  s.  A  sexton,  a  grave- 

grave-mound,  e. 

Anthrop. :  The  generic  term  for  what  is 
probably  the  earliest,  and  certainly  the  most 
widely-distributed  form  of  funeral  monument. 
Greenwell  (British  Barrows  (Introd. ),  p.  i.)  per- 
tinently applies  to  the  grave-mound  thi.  words 
of  Horace,  '*  monuraentura  aare  perennius;" 
how  pertinently  may  be  perceived  by  a  mental 
glance  at  the  barrows  of  the  Yorkshire  wolds, 
at  the  grave-mounds  that  spread  like  a  cover- 
ing over  the  steppes  of  Western  Asia,  and  at 
the  pyramids,  the  sepulchres  of  the  early 
Egyptian  kings.  The  facility  with  which  the 
savage  could  heap  a  mound  of  earth  over  the 
remains  of  his  dead  commended  this  form  of 
commemoration  to  his  little-developed  mind, 
and  to  this  day  such  sepulture  is  common 
ainong  certain  tribes  of  American  Indians  ; 
on  the  other  hand,  as  civilization  advanced, 
its  durability — whether  in  the  form  of  an  arti- 
ficial hill,  a  huge  cairn,  or  a  stupendous 
pyramid— was  recognised  and  seized  on  by 
those  who  wished  to  raise  a  monument  be- 
fitting a  hero,  or  to  perpetuate  their  own 
memory.  In  British  barrows  flints  and  broken 
pottery  are  found  scattered  in  such  a  way  as 
to  preclude  the  idea  of  accident.  Greenwell 
,  suggests  that  they  symbolised  some  religious 
idea,  and  adds  that  the  lines  in  Hamlet  (v.  1) — 
"  For  charitable  prayers, 
Shards,  flints,  and  pebbles  should  be  thrown  on  her"— 

may  have  reference  thereto.  He  accounts  for 
the  rite  being  practised  at  the  grave  of  a 
suicide  denied  Christian  burial,  by  the  sup- 
position that,  as  a  survival  of  paganism,  it 
was  held  in  detestation  by  the  professors  of 
a  higher  form  of  religion.  [Babrow,  Cairn, 
Pyramid,  Tumulus.] 

"If  people  passing  by  the  spot  called  out  to  her. 
'  Miuialamina  P  ehe  would  reply  'Hoi'  as  the  Norse 
heroes  used  to  speak  from  their  grave-mounds." — 
Jour.  Anthrop.  Instit.,  xi.  417. 

grave-post,  ». 

Anthrop. :  A  board  fixed  at  the  head  of  the 
graves  of  many  Indian  tribes.  It  usually 
contains  the  totem  of  the  deceased,  and 
■  should  the  tomb  be  that  of  a  warrior,  devices 
denoting  how  often  he  had  been  in  war  parties 
and  the  number  of  scalps  he  had  taken. 

"On  looking  at  his  grave-post,  it  bore  a  pictorial 
inscription  of  this  kind."— Schoolcraft :  Indian  Tribes, 

grave-robber,  s.  One  who  steals  dead 
bodies  from  graves ;  a  resurrectionist  (q.v.). 

grave-robbing,  s.  The  act  of  robbing 
a  grave ;  body-snatching. 

grave-stone,  s.  A  stone  or  slab  laid 
over  or  erected  near  a  grave,  on  which  are 
written  or  cut  the  name,  age,  &c,  of  the 
person  there  buried ;  a  tombstone. 

"  Timon.  presently  prepare  thy  grave : 
Lie  where  the  light  foam  of  the  sea  may  beat 
Thy  grave-stone  daily."     Shakesp.  :  Timon,  iv.  8. 

t  grave-wax,  s.    Adipocere  (q.v.). 

grave-yard,  s.  Au  inclosed  ground  in 
which  the  dead  are  buried  ;  a  burial-ground ; 
a  cemetery. 

grave,   a.     [Fr.,   from  Lat.  gravis  =  heavy, 
grave ;  cogn.  with  Goth,  haurs  —  heavy  ;  Gr. 
J3apvs  (barns);  Sansc.  guru;  Sp.  &  Ital. wave.] 
L  Ordinary  Language : 

*  1.  Lit. :  Heavy  ;  of  weight. 

"  His  shield  grave  and  great."       Chapman. 

2.  Figuratively ; 

(1)  Weighty ;  serious  ;  important ;  mo- 

"  Gordon  however  positively  refused  to  take  on  him- 
self so  grave  a  responsibility.  —Macautay :  Hist.  Eng., 
ch.  xiii. 

(2)  Important ;  of  weight,  credible. 

"  The  gravest  of  their  own  writers,  and  of  strangers, 
do  bear  them  witness."— Grew ;  Cosmologia  Sacra, 

3.  Sedate ;  solemn  ;  sober  ;  serious. 

"Justice  is  grave  and  decorous.'' — Burke:  On  the 
French  Revolution. 

i.  Serious  ;  heavy  :  as,  a  grave  charge. 

*  5.  Plain ;  staid ;  sedate ;  not  gaudy ;  quiet : 
as,  a  grave  dress. 

6.  Not  sharp  of  sound  ;  not  acute.  [Ac- 

"  The  acute  accent  raising  the  voice  .  .  .  and  the 
grave  depressing  it  lower,  and  both  having  some  era 
phasis,— i.e.  more  vigorous  pronunciation. "—Holder. 

IL  Music : 

1.  Deep  in  pitch  :  as,  grave  hexachord,  the 
lowest  hexachord  in  the  Guidonian  system. 

2.  Slow  in  pace  ;  solemnly. 

Tf  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  grave, 
serious,  and  solemn:  ''Grave  expresses  more 
than  serious;  it  does  not  merely  bespeak  the 
absence  of  mirth,  but  that  heaviness  of  mind 
which  is  displayed  in  all  the  movements  of 
the  body.  A  man  may  be  grave  in  his  walk, 
in  his  tone,  in  his  gesture,  in  his  looks,  and 
all  his  exterior ;    he  is  serious  only  in  his 

feneral  air,  his  countenance,  and  demeanour. 
olemn  expresses  more  than  either  grave  or 
serious;  like  serious,  it  is  employed  not  so 
much  to  characterize  either  the  person  or  the 
thing :  the  judge  pronounces  the  solemn  sen- 
tence of  condemnation  in  a  solemn  manner  :  a 
preacher  delivers  many  solemn  warnings  to  his 
hearers."    (Crabb:  Eng.  Synon.) 

*  grave  (3),  v.t.    [Grave,  a.] 

Music :  To  render  grave,  as  a  note  or  tone. 

grav'-el,  *grav-elle,  *gra-vylle,  s.    [0. 

Fr.  gravele,  gravelle ;  Fr.  gravelle,  gravier. 
dimin.  of  O.  Fr. .  grave,  greve  —  rough  and 
mixed  with  stones.  Prob.  from  the  same  root 
as  Bret,  grouan ;  Coru.  grow ;  Wei.  gro  = 
gravel;  Gael.  grotklach=  gravelly  ;  Sansc.  grd- 
van  =  a  stone.] 

I.  Ord.  Lang. :  Small  pebbles,  stones,  or 
fragments  of  stone,  intermixed  with  sand, 
loam,  clay,  flints,  &c. 

"Gravel  consists  of  flints  of  all  the  usaal  sizes  and 
colours,  of  the  several  sorts  of  pebbles :  sometimes 
with  a  few  pyritm,  and  other  mineral  bodies,  con- 
fusedly intermixed,  and  common  samj."—  Woodward, 

II.  Technically: 

1.  Geol. :  Gravel  is  formed  by  the  action  of 
water  upon  disintegrated  portions  of  rock, 
which  tend  to  be  first  blocks  or  boulders, 
then  pebbles,  next  gravel,  and  finally  sand,  if 
not  even  silt.  The  fragments  of  which  it  is 
composed  vary  from  the  size  of  a  pea  to  that 
of  a  hen's  egg. 

2.  Pathol. :  The  presence  of  minute  concre- 
tions in  the  urine  constitutes  the  affection 
known  as  the  gravel.  It  is  usually  owing  to 
the  presence  of  uric  acid,  urates,  oxalates,  and 
phosphates.  Amongst  exceptional  urinary 
calculi  are  carbonate  of  lime,  cystine,  xanthine, 
fatty  and  fibrinous  concretions.  The  chief 
symptoms  are  dull,  aching  pains  over  the 
renal  regions,  extending  to  the  thighs,  fre- 
quent micturition,  and  the  occasional  appear- 
ance in  the  urine  of  blood,  pus,  epithelium, 
or  unorganized  sediments,  chiefly  uric  acid 
and  oxalates. 

"Most  physicians  doe  highly  commend'their  roots 
us]  brused  and  taken  in  white  wine,  for  to 

expell  the  stone  and  graueU."—P.  Holland:  PHnie, 
bk.  xx.,  ch.  x. 

gravel-path,  gravel- walk,  5.  A  path 
or  alley  covered  with  gravel ;  a  gravelled  path. 
"  My  garden  was  laid  out  in  gravel-walks,  intersect- 
ing each  other  in  right  angles."— Knox :  Essays,  No.  76. 

gravel-pit,  s.     A  pit  or  excavation  out 
of  which  gravel  is  dug. 

"He  saw  Mr.  Buch-a-one  go  this  morning  at  nine 
o'clock  towardB  the  graveVpitt"— Steele;  Spectator, 
No.  138. 

boll,  t>6^;  pollt,  jowl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;   go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  ^tenophon,  exist.    -Ing. 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -  sion  -  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.     -clous,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.   -ble,  -die,  &c.  ■=  bel.  del. 


gravel— gravitation 

gravel-root,  *>. 

Hot. :  Eupatorium  purpureum. 

gravel-stone,  s. 

Ghem.,  &c. :  One  of  the  minute  concretions 
whose  presence  in  the  urine  constitutes  the 
disease  called  Gravel  (q.v.). 

grav'-el,  v.t.    [Gravel,  s.] 
I.  Literally  : 

1,  To  cover  with  gravel ;  to  lay  gravel  on. 
^  "  The  lounger  seldom  Btrays 

Beyond  the  aroooth  and  gravelled  niaze," 

Scott :  Bridal  of  Trlermain,  II.  ii.  28. 

*  2.  To  run  a  ship  on  to  the  sand  or  beach. 

"  And  when  we  were  fallen  into  a  place  between  two 

Sean,    they   gravelled   the   ship."       TGr.    eirtuK€i\av 

iepdkeilan),  Auth.  Vers.,  ran  the  ship  aground.]— A c(n 

xxvii.  41.  (Rheims.) 

*3.  To  cause  to  stick  in  the  sand  or  gravel. 

"William  the  Conqueror,  when  he  invaded  this 
island,  chanced  at  hia  arrival  to  be  gravelled :  and  one 
of  his  feet  stuck  so  fast  in  the  aand,  that  he  fell  to  the 
ground."— Camden:  Jlemains. 

4.  To  hurt  the  foot  of,  as  a  horse  by  sand 
or  gravel  lodged  under  the  shoe. 

*  II.  Fig.  ;  To  perplex  utterly,  to  confound, 
to  worry  and  distress.    [Gravel,  s.  II.  2.] 

.  "The  physician  was  so  (travelled  aDd  amazed  withall, 
that  he  had  not  ft  word  moro  to  say."— iVor(Jt  .■  Plu- 
tarch, p.  764. 

gra've-less,  a.  [Eng.  grave,  s.  ;  -less.]  With- 
out a  grave  or  tomb  ;  unburied. 

"  My  brave  Egyptians  all, 
By  the  discandying  of  this  pelletted  storm. 
Lie  ijraveless." 

Shakesp.  :  Antony  &  Cleopatra,  iii.  11. 

graV-elled,  pa.  par.  or  a.    [Gravel,  v.] 

grav'-el-ll-ness,  s.  [Eng.  gravelly;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  gravelly,  or 
abounding  with  gravel. 

grav'-el-ling,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Gravel,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj :  (See 
the  verb). 
C.  As  substantive : 
I.  Literally : 

1.  The  act  of  covering  or  coating  with  gravel. 

2.  The  gravel  with  which  any  area  is  covered. 
II.  Fig. :  The  act  of  worrying,  perplexing, 

or  confounding  utterly. 

grav'-el-rjr,  a.  [Eng.  gravel;  -ly.]  Full  of 
or  abounding  with  gravel ;  consisting  or  of 
the  nature  of  gravel ;  covered  with  gravel. 

"  Oft  pacing,  as  the  mariner  his  deck. 
My  gravelly  bounds."       Cowper :  Four  Ages. 

gra've-ljf,  adv.     [Eng.  grave,  a.  ;  -ly.) 

1.  In  a  grave,  serious,  or  solemn  manner ; 
seriously ;  solemnly  ;  in  sober  earnest. 

"  It  was  gravely  said  that  she  had  cast  fearful  spells 
on  those  whom  Bhe  hated." — Macauiay :   Mist.  Eng., 

ch.  xiii. 

v  2.  In  a  sober,  staid,  or  quiet  manner ; 
without  grandness  or  show  :  as,  To  be  gravely 

gra-ve-men'-te,  adv.    [Ital.] 

Music :  Slowly  and  in  a  solemn  style. 

grav'-en,  pa.  par.  or  a.    [Grave,  v.]  \ 

gra've-ness,  s.  [Eng.  grave,  a. ;  -Tiess.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  grave ;  serious ; 
solemnity  ;  gravity  ;  sobriety  of  behaviour  ; 

"  Hia  sables  and  his  weeds 
Importing  health  and  graveness." 

Shakesp. :  Hamlet,  iv.  7. 

*  gra-ve'-O-lence,  s.  [Lat.  graveolentia,  from 

graveolens  =  smelling  strongly  (q.v.)  ;    Fr. 
graveolence.)    A  strong  and  otfensive  smell. 

*  gra-ve'-O-lent,  a.  [Lat.  graveolens,  from 
gravis  =  heavy,  and  olens,  pr.  par.  of  oleo  =  to 
smell.]  Smelling  strongly  and  offensively; 

"The  butter  was  yellow,  and  something  graveolent." 
—Boyle :   Works,  iv.  5BB.        ._ 

grav'-er,  *  grater,  *  graf  ere,  *  grav- 
owre,  s.     [A.S.  grozjere;  Fr.  graveur.] 

1.  One  who  carves  or  engraves  ;  one  whose 
business  is  to  carve  or  engrave  upon  wood, 
stone,  metal,  &c. ;  an  engraver,  a  sculptor  t 

"  Just  like  a  marble  statue  did  he  atand, 
Cut  by  aome  skilful  graver's  artful  hand." 

Cowley  :  Pyramusji  Thisbe.    The  Song. 

2.  The  tool  or  style  used  in  graving.  They 
are  made  of  different  shapes,  according  to  the 
purpose  intended,  and  are  of  fine  steel ;  a  burin. 

3.  An  instrument  used  for  turning  iron  after 
it  has  been  roughed  out  by  the  heel-tool. 

*  grav'-er-y,  s.  [Eng.  graver ;  -y.]  The  pro~ 
cess  or  art  of  graving  ;  engraving,  engravery. 

"  Any  piece  of  picture,  or  gravory  and  embossing,"— 
/'.  Holland. 

grave?,  s.  pi     [Greaves  (2).] 

*  grav'-lC,  a.  [Eng.  grav(ity) ;  ~ic.)  Pertain- 
ing to  or  causing  gravitation  ;  as,  gravio 
forces,  gravic  attraction, 

graV-Id,  a.  [Lat.  gravidus,  from  gravis  = 
heavy.]  Big  or  heavy  with  child  ;  pregnant ; 
fruitful.     (Lit.  &  fig.) 

"  The  gracloua  king 
To  e;ise  and  crown  their  gravid  piety, 
Grunts  their  request." 

Beaumont :  Psyche,  c.  xv. 

*■  grav'-I-date,  v.t.  [Lat.  gravidatvs,  pa.  par. 
of  gravida  =  to  load,  to  impregnate  ;  gravidus 
=  loaded,  pregnant.]  To  cause  to  become 
gravid  or  big  with  child. 

"Her  womb  is  said  to  bear  him  (blesaed  ia  the  womb 
that  bare  thee},  to  have  been  gravidated  er  great  with 
child." — Barrow  :  So-mons,  vol.  ii.,  aer.  24. 

*  graV-i-da'-tion,  5.  [Lat.  gravidatus,  pa. 
par.  of  gravido.)  The  act  of  making  preg- 
nant ;  the  state  of  becoming  or  being  preg- 
nant ;  pregnancy. 

"  As  eV  yatrrpi  sx.eiv  expresseth  &  proper  gravida- 
tion,  30  doth  ei/  yacrrpt  avWafietv  a  proper  concep- 
tion."— Pearson  :  On  the  Creed,  Art.  iil. 

*  gra-vid'-i-ty,  s.     [Lat.   gravidus  =■  loaded, 

pregnant.]     The    state    of    being   pregnant ; 

"  The  signs  of  gravidity  and  obstructions  are  hard  to 
be  distinguished  in  the  beginning."— Arbuthnot :  On 

gra-vif  '-Ic,  a.  [Lat.  gravis- heavy,  and  faoio= 
to  make.]  Making  heavy;  adding  or  giving 
weight  to. 

grav-i-gra'-da,  s.  pi.  [Lat.  gravis  =  heavy, 
and  gradus  =  a'step  ;  gradior  =  to  take  steps, 
to  walk.] 

Palmont.  :  Ground-sloths  ;  a  tribe  or  family 
of  edentate  mammals,  now  extinct.  The 
name  is  modelled  on  Tardigrada,  sometimes 
used  for  the  Bradypodidse,  or  ordinary  sloths, 
to  which  the  Gravigruda  were  akin.  Besides 
other  differences,  they  were  much  larger.  The 
tribe  or  family  comprised  the  huge  Megathe- 
rium, the  Mylodon,  the  Megalonyx,  <fec.  (q.v.). 
All  are  American,  and  of  Post-pliocene  age. 

graV-i-grade,  a.    [Graviorada.] 

Pakeont. :  Walking  heavily  ;  of  or  belonging 
to  the  edentate  tribe  or  family  Gravigrada 

*  gra-vil'-o-quence,  s.  [Lat.  gravis  =heavy, 
grave,  and  loquens,  pr.  par.  of  toquor  =  to 
speak.]   Grave  or  weighty  speech  or  language. 

gra-vim'-e-ter,  s.  [Lat.  gravis  —  heavy  ; 
Gr.  jueTpoi-  (metron)  =  a  measure.]  An  instru- 
ment for  determining  the  specific  gravities  of 
bodies,  solid  or  liquid. 

grav-l-met'-rlc,  a.  [Eng.  gravimetric);  -ic.) 
Of  or  pertaining  to  gravimetry ;  determined 

or  ascertained  by  a  gravimeter. 

gravimetric  analysis,  s. 

Chem.  :  The  method  of  analyzing  compound 
bodies,  performed  by  decomposing  them  and 
finding  their  elemental  weight. 

gra-vim'-e-try,  s.  [Lat.  gravis  =  heavy,  and 
Gr.  fierpov  (metron)  =  a  measure.]  The  art  or 
science  of  determining  the  specific  gravity  of 

grav'-ing,  pa.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Grave  (2),  v.) 
A.  &  S.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj.  ;  (See 
the  verb). 
C.  As  substantive : 
I.  Literally : 

1.  The  act  or  art  of  engraving  or  carving 
wood,  stone,  metals,  &c. 

"He  [Holbein]  learned  besides,  graving,  casting, 
modelling,  and  architecture. "—Walpole :  Anecdotes  of 
Painting,  vol  1.,  ch.  iv. 

2.  That  whicli  is  carved  or  engraved ;  carved 

"Skilful  to  work  in  gold ;  also  to  grave  any  manner 
of  graving."— 1  Chronicles  ii.  4. 

II.  Fig. :  Anything  impressed  deeply  upon 

the  heart  or  mind. 

grav'-ing,  s.  [Grave  (l),  v.]  Cleaning  a 
ship's  bottom  by  burning  off  the  sea-weed, 
and  then  paying  the  planks  with  pitch.  Ships 

were  formerly  benched  for  this  l'»l'I'<^; J™1 
the  work  was  done  during  the  tunc  ot  tm  ew. 
It  is  also  Hilled  beaming  (q.v.). 

••At  work  on  the  outside  of  U"  ^W^tto*™* 
side?  washing,  and  gi-«vn,.j.  an.l  -topping.  «  i  ery 
seafaring  man  knows  how.  -Ar/to:  Hobmson  U«, 

'craving-dock,  *.  A  dock  into  which 
veKrTnoated  to  have  their  bottoms  exa- 
mined and  cleaned;  a  dry-dock.  Ihe  \essel 
is  floated  in  and  the  gates  at  the  entrance 
closed  when  the  tide  is  at  ebb. 

graving-piece,  s. 

ShivbnUd. :  A  small  piece  of  wood  inserted 
to  supply  the  defects  of  a  plank. 

gra'-vi-ta,  adv.    [Ital.] 

Mus.  :  With  weight,  dignity,  and  majesty. 

grav'-i-tate,  v.i.     [Lat.  gravitatem,  accus.  of 
gravitus  =  weight,  gravity  ;  Fr.  graviter.] 

1.  lit. ;  To  be  affected  by  or  under  the  in- 
fluence of  gravitation  ;  to  move  by  gravita- 
tion ;  to  tend  to  the  centre. 

"All  ita  parts  magnetic  power  assert, 
And  te  each  other  gravitate." 

Blackmore;  Creation,  bk.  11. 

2.  Fig. :  To  tend  iowards  any  centre  of 
attraction;  to  be  attracted. 

"A  multitude  of  those  mean  and  timid  politicians 
who  naturally  gravitate  towards  the  stronger  party." 
—Macauiay :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xiii. 

grav-i-ta'-tion,   s.     [Eng.  gravitat(e);  -ion; 
Fr.  gravitation.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Lit. :  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  1. 

"  When  the  loose  mountain  trembles  from  on  high, 
Shall  gravitation  cease,  if  you  go  by 't " 

Pope :  Essity  on  Man,  lv.  128, 

2.  Figuratively : 

(1)  Attraction  produced  not  by  a  physical, 
but  by  some  moral  force. 

(2)  Downward  tendency  in  the  literary 

"  With  all  the  might  of  gravitation  blest." 

Pope  :  Dunviud,  ii.  318. 

II.  Physics :  A  natural  force  acting  upon  all 
material  bodies  throughout  the  universe,  with 
the  effect  of  attracting  or  drawing  them  to 
each  other.  Hence  it  is  often  called  the  at- 
traction of  gravitation.  It  has  been  shown 
that  every  molecule  of  one  body  acts  upon 
eveiy  molecule  of  the  other.  The  attraction 
between  two  material  particles  is  directly  pro- 
portional to  the  product  of  their  masses,  and 
inversely  proportional  to  the  square  of  their 
distances  asunder,— i.e.,  the  force  of  gravity 
decreases  in  exact  proportion  as  the  square 
of  the  distance  increases.  Universal  or  general 
gravitation  may  be  divided  into  celestial  and 
terrestrial  gravitation  ;  but  when  the  earth  is 
viewed  as  a  planet  the  second  category  disap- 
pears in  the  first. 

1.  Celestial  gravitation : 

(1)  Hist.  :  A  glimmering  perception  that 
the  heavenly  bodies  attracted  each  other  was 
possessed  by  Democritus  and  Epicurus  in  an- 
cient times,  and  by  Bacon,  Galileo,  Kepler, 
and  Hooke  during  the  dawn  of  modern 
science  ;  but  the  decisive  discovery  of  the 
universality  of  gravitation  and  the  "  law  " 
regulating  the  operations  was  reserved  for 
Sir  Isaac  Newton.  Cavendish  illustrated 
Newton's  discovery  by  experiment. 

(2)  (rravitation  among  the  heavenly  bodies  : 
Two  forces  operate  against  each  other,  the 
one  a  projectile  and  the  other  an  attractive 
force.  If  the  former  only  existed,  the  several 
planets  would  go  off  into  space,  moving,  un- 
less collision  with  other  bodies  occurred,  in 
straight  lines  onward  for  ever,  unless,  indeed, 
some  subtle  ether  gradually  retarded  their 
progress  and  ultimately  brought  them  to  a 
state  of  rest.  If  gravity  alone  operated,  the 
planets  would  fall  towards  the  centre  of  the 
sun  with  continually  increasing  velocity,  till 
they  impinged  upon  his  surface  with  de- 
structive effect.  The  working  against  each 
other  of  the  two  antagonistic  forces  makes 
them  move  around  the  central  luminary  in 
elliptic  orbits,  the  motion  being  so  beautifully 
adjusted  that  when  the  planet  is  nearest  the 
sun  and  apparently  in  danger  of  becoming  too 
powerfully  under  his  attraction,  the  increased 
velocity  thus  acquired  carries  the  body  past 
the  danger.  Not  merely  does  the  sun  attract 
the  planets,  but  the  planets  attract  the  sun. 
Properly  speaking,  they  do  not  revolve  around 
him,  but  he  and  they  mutually  revolve  round 
the  common  centre  of  gravity  of  them  all, 
which  is  a  point  (not  the  centre)  within  t\\i 

fate,  fatf  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pSt, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son  :  mute,  cub,  ciire,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,    se,  ce  -  6 :    ey  =  a.    au  =  uw, 

gravitative— grayling 


body  of  the  sun.  The  same  laws  operate  in 
the  case  of  the  planets  with  each  other,  the 
primary  bodies  with  their  satellites,  Ac.,— i.e., 
they  attract  each  other  directly  as  their  re- 
spective masses,  and  inversely  as  the  square 
of  their  distances. 

2.  Terrestrial  gravitation:  The  law  of  gravi- 
tation as  operating  on  the  earth,  as,  for  in- 
stance, on  the  fall  of  a  stone  to  the  ground. 


1  Law  of  gravitation :  [Gravitation,  II.]. 

gravitation-measure,  •■■ . 

Physics :  (For  def.  see  example). 
"  Force  in  said  to  l>e  expressed  in  gra <>>-"" ion  mea  ■ 
sure,  when  it  Is  expressed  ait  equal  to  the  weight  of 
a  given  mass,"— Everett ;  The  C.  Q.  3.  Hystem  of  Units, 
ch.  ill,,  p.  ia 

grav'-I-ta-tfve,  a.     [Eng.  gravitate) ;  -ive.] 
Causing  to  gravitate,  or  tend  towards  a  centre, 

graV-i-ty,  *  grav  i  tee,  *  grav-i-tle,  s. 

[Ft.  gravitk, ;  from  Lat,  gravitas  =  weight, 
gravity;  gravis  =  heavy  ;  Ital.  gravita;  8p. 

L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  heavy; 
weight,  heaviness. 

"A  thing  of  that  walght  and  gravUee,  thatftwalcth 
some  soules  downe  vnto  the  deepe  pyt  of  hell." — Sir  T. 
More  :  Workes,  p.  1,085. 

2.  Weight  or  importance  ;  seriousness. 

"  Length  therefore  la  a  thing  which  the  gravitle  and 
'  weight  of  8Uch  actions  [prayer]  doth  require."— Hooker  ; 
Ecclesiastical  Polity,  bk.  v. 

3.  Seriousness,  enormity,  flagrancy,  atro- 
ciousness ;  as,  the  gravity  of  the  offence. 

i,  Graveness,  soberness,  seriousness,  or 
dignity  of  demeanour. 

"  Bnch  Ill-timed  gravity,  such  serious  folly, 
Might  well  befit  the  solitary  student" 

Johnson :  Irene,  ill.  1. 

II,  Teclmically : 

1,  Mus. :  Lowness  or  depth  of  tone  or  note. 

2.  Physics :  Terrestrial  gravitation,  the 
operation  of  the  law  of  gravitation  on  the 
earth,  specially  in  making  heavy  bodies  fall  in 
all  parts  of  the  planet  in  the  direction  of  its 
centre.  Newton  and  Bessel  have  shown  that 
in  a  vacuum  a  sovereign  and  a  feather  will  fall 
with  equal  speed,  though  the  rate  will  be  very 
different  in  the  atmospheric  air.  The  attrac- 
tionof  the  wholeearth,  considered  as  a  sphere, 
on  a  body  at  its  surface,  is  the  same  as  if  the 
whole  matter  of  the  earth  were  collected  at 
its  centre.  The  attraction  of  the  earth  on  a 
body  within  its  surface  is  the  same  as  if  the 
spherical  shell  situated  between  the  body  and 
the  earth's  surface  was  removed;  or  is  the 
same  as  if  all  the  matter  Bituated  nearer  to 
the  earth's  surface  than  the  body  was  collected 
at  the  centre,  and  all  the  matter  situated  at  a 
greater  distance  was  removed.  The  weight 
of  a  body  is  proportioned  to  the  attraction 
which  it  exerts,  hence  gravity  in  many  cases 
means  simply  weight.    [Specific  gravity.] 

If  (1)  Centre  of  gravity:  [Centre,  III.  (21)J. 

(2)  Specific  gravity  : 

Physics,  Mhi.t  otc. :  The  relative  density  of 
a  substance  ;  the  weight  of  a  body  compared 
with  that  of  another  body  having  the  same 
magnitude.  To  obtain  this,  it  in  first  weighed 
in  air,  which  shows  its  absolute  weight.  Next 
it  is  weighed  in  water,  to  show  how  much  it 
loses  in  this  element.  There  have  now  been 
ascertained  the  absolute  weights  of  two  bodies 
of  equal  bulk,-— viz.,  the  one  experimented  on, 
and  water,  and  the  ratio  of  these  weights  is 
that  also  of  their  specific  gravities.  Let  1  be 
the  weight  of  water,  and  first  let  the  body  be 
heavier  than  that  liquid,  then  the  weight 
which  it  loses  in  water  is  to  the  absolute 
weight  as  1  to  the  specific  gravity  required. 
If  lighter  than  water,  then  as  the  weight  of 
the  body  in  air,  plus  the  weight  needful  to 
make  it  sink  in  water,  is  to  its  weight  in  air, 
ho  is  1  to  the  specific  gravity.  On  this  prin- 
ciple are  constructed  such  instruments  an 
Nicholson's  portable  balance.  In  solids  and 
liquids  the  standard  is  generally  distilled 
water ;  for  the  gases,  atmospheric  air.  Spe- 
cific gravity  is  proportionate  to  density, 
and  the  words  may  be  used  almost  inter- 
changeably,   [Density.] 

gravity  battery.  »•  A  form  of  double- 
fluid  battery,  in  which  the  fluids  range  them- 
selves at  different  heights  in  a  single  jar  by 
virtue  of  their  different  specific  gravities.  The 
copper  or  —  element  is  in  the  bottom,  and  the 
zinc  or  -+-  in  the  upper  part  of  the  cell. 

*  graV-otis,  a.     [Lat.  gravis  ~  heavy,  grave.] 
1.  Grave,  serious,  sage,  thoughtful,  weighty. 

cytie,  porte,  and  borough."— Hall :  Henry  VII.  (an,  1}. 

2.  Grave,  important,  serious,  momentous. 
"  Orauous  matters  concernyng  the  welths  of  bothe 
the realmea."— Hall :  Edward  JV.  (an.  22.) 

*  grav'-OU8-l$r,  adv.  [Eng.  gravous;  -ly.]  In 
a.  grave,  serious,  or  thoughtful  manner ; 

"  The  erle  arriued  there,  and  wisely  entreated  the 
lioi.ltiiMn.  gruuously  perswaded  the  magistrates  of  the 
citees  and  tounes,  and  gently  and  familiarly  vsed  and 
tracted  the  vulgare  people.'—  Hall :  Henry  IV.  (an.  1), 

*  grav-owre,  a.    [Graver.] 

gra'-vy,  *  grea-vy,  *  grea-vle,  5.  [Etym. 
doubtful ;  probably  formed  from  graves(q.v.).] 
The  juice  which  drops  from  meat  while  roast- 
ing, made  into  a  dressing  for  the  meat  when 
served  up. 

"I  have  been  Invited  to  a  pawnbroker's  table,  by 
pretending  to  bate  gravy." — Goldsmith ;  Citizen  of  the 
World,  let.  26. 

gra-wa'-tha,  s.     [A  Brazilian  word.] 

Bot. :  A  kind  of  Bromelia  used  in  South 
America-  for  the  manufacture  of  ropes.  Called 
also  Curra-tow. 

gray,  *  gra,  *  grai,  *  graye,  *  grei,  *  grey, 

*  greye,  a.  &  s.  [A.S.  gr&g ;  cogn.  with 
Dut.  graauw ;  Icel.  grdr ;  Dan.  graa;  Sw. 
grl ;  Ger.  gran ;  Lat.  ravus ;  O.  H .  Ger. 

A.  As  adjective : 
I.  Literally : 

1.  Of  a  colour  between  white  and  black  ; 
hoary  ;  of  the  colour  of  hair  whitened  by  age  ; 

"  These  gray  and  dun  colours  may  also  he  produced 
by  mixing  whites  and  blacks."— Newton :  Optics. 

2.  Having  hair  whitened  by  age  ;  gray- 

"Living  creatures  generally  do  change  their  hair 
with  age,  turning  to  be  gray."— Bacon :, Natural  Hist. 

3.  Whitened  or  made  hoary  by  age. 

"  My  hair  Is  gray,  but  not  with  years." 

Byron :  Prisoner  of  Chtllon. 

4.  Dusky,  dark. 

"  Gray  dawn  appears,  the  sportsman  and  his  train 
Speckle  the  bosom  of  the  distant  plain." 

C'owper  :  Progress  of  Error,  82. 

*  II.  Fig. :  Old,  mature  ;  as,  gray  experience. 

B.  As  substantive : 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 
1.  A  gray  colour ;  a  colour  between  white 
and  black  ;  a  neutral  tint. 

*  2.  A  gray-beard ;  an  old,  gray-headed  man, 

"Telling  his  tale  alway  this  old  grey." 

Oliaucer:  iv. 

*  3.  A  kind  of  fur. 

"Geld  ne  soluer.Evouh  ne  gray." 

0.  Eng.  MisceU.,  p   m. 

*  i.  A  badger. 

"  The  grayes,  polcats,  or  brocks,  have  a  cast  by  them- 
selves,  when  they  be  aftrafd  of  hunters." — P.  Holland ; 
Plinio,  bk.  vllL,  ch.  xxxvlli. 

5.  A  kind  of  salmon  (Salmo  erox). 

U  The  gray  of  the  morning:  The  dawn. 
IL  Technically : 

1.  Bot. :  A  genus  of  colours  ;  the  species 
are  ash-gray,  ash-grayish,  pearl  gray,  slate 
gray,  lead-coloured,  smoky,  mouse-coloured, 
hoary,  and  rather  hoary.     (Lindley.) 

2.  Entom.  :  A  moth,  Dianthcecia  cassia. 

TT  Obvious  compounds  :  Gray-eyed,  gray- 
headed,  gray-haired,  &c. 

gray-antimony,  s. 

Min. :  The  same  as  Stibnite  (q.v.). 

gray-beard,  s.  &  a. 

A.  As  substantive : 

1,  A  man  with  a  gray-beard ;  an  old  man 
(frequently  iu  contempt). 

"  Then  said  the  Lord :  This  glass  to  praise 
Fill  with  red  wine  from  Portugal  I 
The  gray-beard  with  trembling  hand  obeys." 

Longfellow :  Luck  of  Ederihall. 

2.  The  name  given  to  a  large  earthen  jar, 
or  bottle,  for  holding  wine  or  spirituous  liquor. 
Originally  applied  to  a  kind  of  stoneware 
drinking  jugs,  with  bearded  faces  on  them  in 
relief,  introduced  in  the  early  part  of  the  six- 
teenth centuiy. 

"There's  plenty  o'  brandy  in  the  grey-beard  that 
Luckio  Macleario  sent  down."— Scott:  Waverley,  ch 

B.  As  adj. :  Having  u,  gray  beard ;  gray- 
bearded  ;  old. 

gray-bird,  s.    A  species  of  thrash, 

gray-bread,  s.  Bread  made  of  rye  or 

gray-carpet,  a. 

Entom.  :  Aleucis  pidaria,  a  British  moth  of 
the  group  Geometrina  and  the  family  Caberidse. 

gray  cast-iron,  s. 

Metall.  :  Gray  cast-iron  contains  carbon 
chemically  combined,  and  also  graphite  in  a 
free  state.  When  gray  cast-iron  is  treated  with 
an  acid,  the  graphite  separates  out  in  black 

gray-cobalt,  s. 

Min. :  The  same  as  Smaltite  (q.v.). 

gray  copper-ore,  s. 

Min. :  The  same  as  Tetrahedrite  (q.v.). 

gray-cotton,  s. 

Comm.  :  Unbleached  and  undyed  cotton 

gray-fibres,  s.  pi. 

Anat. :  Pale  gray  fibres  found  with  or  with- 
out white  ones  in  the  sympathetic  or  other 
nerves.  They  were  first  discovered  by  Remak, 
and  are  often  called  after  his  name.    (Quain.) 

gray-fly, ».    [Grayfly.] 

gray  -  friars,  grey  -  friars,  s.     The 

Franciscans  (q.v.). 

gray-geese,  s.  pi.  A  name  vulgarly  given 
to  large  field  stones,  lying  on  the  surface  of 
the  ground. 

"  Biggin  a  dry-stane  dyke,  I  think,  wi'  the  j 
jeese.asfhey  ca'thae  great  lc~~~  ...      - 

Dwarf,  ch.  Iv. 

j7<?cse,asthey  ca'thae  great  loose  Btones." — Bcott:  Black 

gray-goods,  a.    [Gray-cotton.] 

gray-heads,  s.  pi.  Heads  of  gray-coloured 
oats,  growing  among  others  that  are  not. 
(Gall :  Encyc.) 

gray-hen,  s.  The  female  of  the  black- 

*  gray-hooded,  a.    Gray ;  dusky. 

"  They  left  me,  then,  when  the  gray-hooded  even. 
Rose  from  the  MndmoBt  wheels  of  Phoebus'  wain." 
Milton  :  Oomus,  18fl. 

gray-malkin,  s.    [Grimalkin.] 

gray-mare,   grey  mare,  s.      A  cant       | 
term  for  a  wife  ;  from  the  proverb  "  The  gray-        j 
mare  is  the  better  horse,"  that  is  the  wife  is 

"The  vulgar  proverb,  that  the  grey-mare  la  the  better 
horse,  originated,  I  suspect,  in  the  preference  generally 
given  to  the  grey-mares  of  Flanders  over  the  finest 
coach  horses  of  England." — Macaulay;  Hist,  of  Eng., 
ch.  ill. 

gray-owl,  grey-owl,  s. 

Ornith. :  The  same  as  the  tawny  owl,  Syrnium 

gray-pease,  s.  pi.  Common  pease  in  a 
dried  state. 

*  gray,  v.i.  &  t.     [Gray,  3.] 

A.  Intrans. :  To  become  gray  or  white. 

"  All  grays  the  gres,  that  grene  watz  ere." 

Qawaine,  526. 

B.  Trans.  :  To 'make  gray. 

"  Thou  hast  gray'd  a  thousand." 

Shirley  :  Bird  in  a  Cage,  v. 

gray'-fly,  a.    [Eng.  gray,  mdjly.] 

Entom.  :  A  species  of  GSstrus,  called  also 
the  trumpet  fly  (q.v.). 

"  What  time  the  grayfiy  winds  her  sultry  horn." 

M ilton ,'  Lycidas,  28    \ 

gray'  hound,  s.    [Greyhound.] 

gray'-Ish,  *  gra-ish,  grey'-feh,  a.    [Eng. 
gray;  -ish.]    Somewhat  gray  in  colour. 
"A  globe-like  head,  a  gold-lfke  haixe, 
A  forehead  smooth  and  hie, 
On  either  side  did  shine  agraish  ele." 

Warner  :  AlbUms  England,  bk.  iv„  ch.  20. 

gray'- lag,  grav'-lagg,  5.  [Eng.  gray, 
second  element  doubtful ;  prob.  lag  =  the 
last-comer.]    [Lag,  s.,  I.  2.] 

Ornith. :  Anser  ferus,  believed  to  be  the 
origin  of  the  domestic  goose. 

grayle,  s.    [Grail.] 

gray'- -ling,  a.  &  s.  [Eng.  gray;  dimin.  suff. 

A.  As  adj. :  Of  a  dull  brown  or  gray  colour. 
(See  the  compound.) 

boll,  boy;  pout,  j6wl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xcnophon,   exist,     ph  =  f. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,    aion  =  shun ;    lion,    sion  =  zhun.    -cious,    tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


grayly— great 

B.  As  substantive : 

1,  Ichthy. ;  A  British  fresh- water  fish,  Thymol- 
lus  vulgaris,  one  of  the  Salmonidae.  It  is 
common  in  some  British  streams. 

"  Wholesale  deatruotion  of  trout,  smelt,  and  grayling 
intheTevlot."—  Weekly  Scotsman,  July  "12,  1873. 

"2;  Entom.  :  [Grayling-butterfly/]. 
grayling-butterfly,  s. 

Entom. :  A  British  butterfly,  Hipparchia  or 
Satyrus  Semele.  Its  general  colour  is  dull 
brown  above,  fulvous  beneath,  with  dark  spots. 

gray'-l&  gr6y'-l&  odv.     [Eng.  gray,  grey; 

-ly.]     In  a  grey  colour;  with  a  gray  tinge. 
(Keats:  Endymion,  i.  231.) 

gray -mill,  gray'-mil-l6t,  s.  [Gromwell.] 

*  grayne,  s.    [Grain.] 

gray'-nfiss,  grey -ness,  s.  [Eng.  gray,  grey; 
-ness.]    The  quality  or  state  of  being  gray. 

gray-stone,;  s.    [Greystone.] 

gray'-wack-JS, ».    [Greywacke.] 

gray'-weth-er,  *.    [Greywether.] 

graze  (1),  * gTase,  v.t.  &  i.  [Etyni.  doubt- 
ful. According  to  Skeat  coined  from  rase  — 
to  scrape  slightly,  with  some  confusion  with 
grate,  v.  ;  according  to  others  connected  with 
graze  (-2).     Cf.  graze  (2),  A.  II.] 

A.  Trans.  :  To  touch  or  rub  slightly  in 
passing ;  to  brush  the  surface  lightly. 

"  It  merely  toro  hiB  coat,  grazed  his  shoulder,  and 
drew  two  or  three  ounces  of  blood."— Jlacaulay :  Hist. 
Eng.,  chi  xvL 

B.  Intrans. :  To  touch  lightly  in  passing ; 
to  brush. 

"  Mark  then  a  bounding  valour  in  our  English, 
That  being  dead,  like  to  the  bullets  grazing. 
Breaks  out."  Sliahvsp.  :  Henry  V.,  iv.  3. 

graze  (2),  *gras-en,  *gres-yn,  v.i,  &  t. 

[From  grass    (q.v.).     O.   H.  Ger.    gagrasdn; 
M.  H.  Ger.  grasen  ;  Dut.  grazen;  Ger.  grasen.] 

A.  Intransitive: 

I,  Literally  ; 

1.  To  eat  grass  ;  to  feed  on  grass  or  growing 

"  The  greatest  of  my  pride  is  to  see  my  ewes  graze, 
and  uiy  lambs  suck."—  Shakcsp,  .'  As  You  Like  It,  iii.  2. 

2;  To  supply  or  furnish  grass  for  grazing. 
"The  ground  coutinueth  the  wet,  whereby  it  will 
never  graze  to  purpose  that  year." — Bacon, 

*3.  To  feed  in  any  w.iy  ;  to  browse. 

"  Qrasiny  at  large  in  meadows  submarine." 

Oowpcr  :  To  tlie  Memory  of  the  HalHttt. 

*  II.  Fig. :    To  move  along  devouring,  as 
spreading  fire. 

As  every  state  lay  next  to  the  other  that  was  op- 

---J.,  so  thr  "-       -■    '■■    " " 

the  fire  perpetually  grazed.  "—Bacon, 

B.  Transitive  : 

1.  To  supply  with  grass  or  pasture ;  to  find 
pasture  for. 

"They  feede  and  graze  theyr  cattele  wandering 
through  the  deserts  and  wylde  forests. " — Qoldyng  : 
Justine,  bk  i. 

*  2.  To  tend  while  grazing. 

"  Jacob  grazed  his  uncle  Laban's  sheep." 

Shakes/).  :  Merchant  of  Venice,  i.  3. 

*  3.  To  feed  on  ;  to  eat,  as  growing  herbage  ; 
to  browse. 

"  He  gave  my  kine  to  graze  the  flowery  plain." 
Dryden :  Virgil ;  Eel.  i.  II. 

graze  (1),  s.    [Graze  (l),  v.] 

1.  The  act  of  grazing  or  touching  lightly; 
a  light  or  slight  touch  or  rub  in  passing. 

2.  A  slight  mark  or  cut  made  by  an  object 
touching  in  passing. 

graze   (2),  s.     [Graze  (2),  v.]     The   act   of 
grazing  or  feeding  upon  grass. 

graz'-er,  s.     [Eng.  graze  (2) ;  -er.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang. ;  An  animal  that  grazes  or 
feeds  ou  graBs.    (Philips :  Cider,  i.) 

2.  Ch.  Hist. :  The  rendering  of  the  Greek 
word  BotTKot  (Boskoi)  =  herdsmen,  given  by 
Sozomen  as  the  name  of  an  order  of  monks 
which  arose  in  the  fifth  century  in  Mesopo- 
tamia, and  spread  to  Palestine.  They  are  said 
to  have  fed  on  herbs,  and  gone  about  almost 
in  astate  of  nudity.    (Townsend.) 

gra'-zier  (zier  as  zhur),  *gras-ier,  s. 

("Eng.  graze  (2) ;  -er.]  One  who  grazes  or  pas- 
tures cattle ;  one  who  raises  and  deals  in  cattle. 
'•The  inhabitants  be  rather  for  the  most  parte 
grasiers  then  ploughmen,"— Stow;  Description  of  Eng- 
land, p,  2. 

t  gra'-zier-ly   (zier  as  zhur),   a.     [Eng. 

grazier  ;  -ly.]    Relating  to  or  like  a  grazier. 

graz'-Ing  (1).  *gras-ing,  pr.  par.,  «.,  &  s. 
[Grazh;(1),  v.] 

A-  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst.  :  The  act  of  touching  or  rub- 
bing lightly  in  passing  ;  a  graze. 

"  With  the  grasing  of  a  bullet  upon  the  face  of  one." 
— Ludlow  :  Memoirs,  i.  51. 

grazing-angle,  s. 

Fort. :  The  angle,  of  10°  or  less,  of  a  glacis,  at 
which  a  shot  will  not  penetrate,  but  will  glance 
from  the  surface. 

grazing-fire,  s. 

Fort.  :  A  fire  when  the  trajectory  is  low,  and 
the  projectile  strikes  the  object,  whether  ver- 
tical or  horizontal,  at  a  grazing  angle.  Used 
in  howitzer  batteries  in  the  third  parallel,  to 
enfilade  the  covered  way ;  ricochet  fire. 

graz'-iixg  (2),  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.  [Graze  (2),  v.) 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  partidp. .adj.  :  (See 
the  verb). 
C.  As  substantive: 

1.  The  act  of  feeding  on  grass  or  growing 

2.  A  pasture,  a  grazing-ground. 

gra-zi-6'~sd  (z  as  ts),  adv.     [ItaL] 

Mus.  :  A  sign  or  direction  that  the  notes  or 
passage  to  which  it  is  prefixed  must  be  played 
with  grace  and  elegance. 

*  gre  (1),  *  gree  (1),  «.  [0.  Fr.  gret,  gre;  Fr. 
gre,  from  Lat.  gratum,  ueut.  sing,  of  gratus  = 
pleasing ;  Ital.  grato.)  That  which  is  pleas- 
ing;  will,  pleasure,  satisfaction. 

"  Irene  me  thy  grace,  for  to  go  at  thi  gre." 

E.  Eng.  Allil.  Poems;  Patience,  347. 

gre  (2),  *  gree,  s.    [Gree  (2),  s.] 

-  gre'-a-ble,  a.  [Mid.  Eng.  gre ;  -able.]  Agree- 
able, willing,  ready. 

"  The  parti  be  greable  &  convenient."  —  Acts  James 

III.,  1485  (ed    1814),  p.  170. 

grease,  *  grece,  *  grese,  *  gr  ees, 

*  gresse,  s.  10.  Fr.  gresae}  graisse ;  Fr. 
gralsse,  from  0.  Fr.  jrasy  eras  ;  Lat.  crassus  = 
thick,  fat ;  Sp.  grasa ;  Port,  graxa ;  Ital. 
grasso.  ] 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  Animal  fat  in  a  soft  state  ; 
the  oily  or  unctuous  part  of  animal  matter  of 
any  kind,  as  tallow,  lard,  &c.  ;  especially  the 
fatty  matter  of  land  animals,  as  distinguished 
from  the  oily  matter  of  marine  animals. 

"  Especially  swines  grease,  which  in  old  time  they 
used  with  great  ceremonie  in  religion."— P.  Holland  : 
Plinie,  bk.  xxviii.,  ch.  ix. 

2.  Min.  :  A  term  used  in  relation  to  lustre ; 
fat  quartz  has  a  greasy  lustre.    (Phillips.) 

3.  Farriery  :  A  swelling  and  inflammation 
of  the  legs  of  a  hurse,  attended  with  the 
secretion  of  oily  matter  and  cracks  in  the  skin. 

grease-box,  s. 

Mail.  Eng.  :  The  receptacle  over  an  axle 
arm,  which  contains  the  lubricating  material. 

grease-cock,  s. 

Mach. :  A  faucet  by  which  oil  is  admitted 
to  a  journal-box,  or  other  part  requiring  lubri- 
cating. It  is  used  on  the  cylinder  cover  for 
lubricating  the  piston  without  permitting  the 
escape  of  steam  or  the  entrance  of  air. 

grease-cup,  s. 

Mach. :  A  cup  attached  to  a  part  requiring 
lubrication,  aud  from  which  it  is  supplied 
with  oil. 

grease-pot,  s.  An  iron  pot,  the  third  in 
the  series  in  which  iron  plates  are  tinned. 


grease,  *  gres-yn,  v.t.    [Grease,  s.] 

I.  Ordinary  Language  : 

I.  Lit.  :  To  smear  or  anoint  with  grease  or 
fatty  matter. 

"They  rub  soot  over  the  greased  parts,  especially 
their  faces,  which  adds  to  their  natural  beauty  as 
painting  does  iu  Europe."— Dampier :  Voyage  (au. 

*  2.  Fig. :  To  bribe  ;  to  corrupt  or  influence 
with  presents.    (Still  in  use  in  America.) 

"  Every  Raping  heir 
Would  gladly  grease  the  noh  old  bachelor." 

Dryden  :  Juvenal,  sat.  VI. 

II.  .Farr. ;  To  affect  with  the  disease  called 


*  H  To  grease  in  the  hand  or  fist :  To  bribe. 

"  He  betrayed  Scythopolis,  having  been  well  greased 
inthefistiov  his  paines."—  Usher:  Annals  (an.  8895). 

greaser,  s.    [Eng.  greas(e);  -er.] 

1  One  who  or  that  which  greases  ; ■  SP®0^ 
a  man  whose  business  it  is  to  see  that  tne 
wheels  of  locomotives,  carriages,  waggons, 
&c,  are  properly  supplied  with  lubricants. 

2.    A  contemptuous  name  for  a  Mexican 
Creole.     (American.) 
greas'-i-l^,  adv.    [Eng.  greasy ;  -ly.] 
1.  Lit. ;  In  a  greasy  manner  or  state. 
"He  hath  followed  your  Court  ...  as  faithfully  as 
your  spits  and  dripping-pans  have  done,  and  almost  as 
greasily,"— Sea um.  &  Flet.  .'   Woman-Hater,  l.  1. 

*  2.  Fig. :  Nastily,  foully,  indelicately,  ob- 

"  You  talk  greasily ;  your  life's  gTown  foul." 

Slutkesp. :  Love's  Labour's  Lost,  ivyl. 

greas  i-ness,  s.     [Eng.  greasy ;  -ness.] 

1,  Lit. :  The  quality  or  state  of  being  greasy ; 
oiliness,  unctuousness. 

"  Upon  the  most  of  these  stonea,  after  they  are  cut, 
there  appears  always,  as  it  were,  a  kind  of  greasinest 
or  unctuosity."— Boyle  :  Works,  i.  453. 

*  2.  Fig.  :  Grossness,  obscenity,  indelicacy. 

greas'-y>  * gries-ie,  a.    [Eng.  grease;  -y.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language: 
1.  Literally  : 

(1)  Composed  or  consisting  of  grease  ;  oily, 
fat,  unctuous.  • 

(2)  Smeared  or  daubed  with  grease. 
"His griesie  lockes  long  growen  and  uubound." 

Spenser  :  /'.  Q.,  L  ix.  35. 

(3)  Like  grease  or  oil ;  smooth,  oily. 

"  By  this  means  contract  a  rancid  offensive  smell, 
and  agreasy  uastiness."— Cook:  Third  Voyage,  bk,  iv., 
ch.  ii. 

*  2.  Figuratively : 

I.  Fat,  corpulent,  bulky. 

"  Let's  consult  together  about  this  greasy  knight." — 
Sliakesp. :  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,  IL  L 

*  2.  Gross,  indelicate,  indecent,  obscene. 

"  Chaste  cells,  when  greasy  Aretine 
For  his  rank  fico,  is  sumamed  sublime/' 

Marston :  Scourge  of  Villainy. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Farr.  :  Affected  with  the  disease  called 
grease  :  as  The  legs  of  a  horse  are  greasy. 

2.  Bot. :  Having  a  surface  which  feels  as  if 
it  was  greasy,  though  not  so  in  reality. 

great,  *greate,    *gret,  *grete,  *grat, 
*grit,  a.  &  s.     [A.S.  great;  O.S.  grot;  cogn. 
with  Dut.  groot ;  Ger.  gross;  0.  H.  Ger.  groz.] 
A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Large  in  bulk  or  size  ;  big. 

"The  man  to  whom  the  great  dog  belonged."— 
Bunyan:  Pilgrim's  Progress,  pt.  ii. 

2.  Large  in  number  ;  numerous. 

"  Judas,  one  of  the  twelve,  came,  and  with  him  a 
great  multitude  with  swords  and  staves,"  —  Matt, 

xx  vi.  47. 

3.  Large  in  amount,  extent,  or  value. 

"  By  money  and  by  having  grete  possessions."— 
Cfiaucer :  Tale  of  Mclibeus. 

L  Large  in  extent  or  surface;  wide,  ex- 
tended, extensive. 

"  He  could  make  a  small  town  t^great  city." — Bacon: 
Essays ;  Of  tlie  True  Greatness  of  Kingdoms. 

5.  Large,  extensive,  or  considerable  in  de- 
gree ;  beyond  the  common. 

"  But,  after  all,  it  is  with  great  parts,  as  with  great 
virtues  :  they  naturally  border  on  some  imperfection." 
—Pope  :  Homer;  Iliad.    (Pref.) 

6.  Considerable  or  extended  in  length  or 
duration  ;  of  long  duration  ;  long-continued. 

"  Thou  hast  spoken  of  thy  servants  house  for  a  great 
while  to  come,'— 2  5am.  viL  19. 

7.  Marvellous,  wonderful,  extraordinary, 
surprising,  remarkable. 

"  The  works  of  the  Lord  are  great." — Psalm  cxi.  12. 

8.  Venerable,  adorable,  awful. 

"Great  is  the  Lord,  and  greatly  to  be  praised."— 
1  Ohron.  kvI.  25. 

9.  High  in  rank  or  position ;  distinguished ; 
holding  an  eminent  position  in  respect  of 
rank,  position,  mental  endowments  or  require- 
ments ;  eminent ;  illustrious. 

"  He  had  been  too  great  to  sink  into  littleness  with- 
out a  struggle.  —Maeaulay,  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xxiv, 

10.  In  a  bad  sense,  notorious  :  as,  a  great 

11.  Important ;  weighty ;  involving  import- 
ant interests  or  consequences  ;  serious. 

12.  Chief,  principal. 

....  ,,  "  Our  great  enemy 

AIL  incorruptible  would  on  his  throne 
Sit  unpolluted,"  MUton :  P.  L.,  ii.  is?. 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  thfire ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  ptft, 
or.  wore,  wolf,  work,  wh6.  son :  mute.  cub.  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try.  Syrian.     Be,  oe  =  e ;   ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

great— grebe 


13.  Of  elevated  sentiments;  generous,  noble, 

"  In  her  every  thing  waa  goodly  and  stately ;  yet  so, 
that  It  might  seem  that  great  iuiudedness  was  but 
the  ancient  bearer  to  the  humbleness."— Sidney. 

14.  Wonderful,  sublime. 

*'  The  addition  of  hla  empire,  how  it  showed 
In  prospect  from  his  throne,  how  good,  bow  fair, 
Answering  his  great  idea."     Milton  :  P.  L.,  vii.  557. 

15.  Opulent,  magnificent,  sumptuous. 

"  Not  Babylon, 
Nor  great  Alcairo,  such  magnificence 
Equalled."  Mitton  :  P.  L.,  i.  718. 

16.  Sumptuous,  expensive,  costly ;  on  an 
extensive  scale :  as,  a  great  feast. 

17.  Swelling,  proud,  haughty ;  exhibiting 
pride  or  haughtiness. 

"  Sol.  v  man  perceived  that  Vienna,  was  not  to  be  won 
with  words,  nor  the  defendants  to  be  discouraged  with 
great  looks."— KnoUes:  Hist,  of  the  Twrkes. 

18.  Pregnant. 

"From  following  the  ewes  great  with  young."— 
Psalm  lxxviiL  71. 

*  19.  Teeming,  swollen,  swelling. 

■**  My  heaxt  is  great,  but  it  must  break  with  Bilence." 
Shakes j i. :  Richard  II.,  ii.  1. 

20.  Familiar,  intimate,  closely  acquainted, 

"  For  those  that  would  not  censure,  or  speak  ill  of  a 
man  immediately,  will  talk  more  boldly  of  those  that 
are  so  great  with  them. "—Bacon:  Essays ;  Of  Followers 
4e  Friends. 

21.  Hard,  difficult. 

"  It  is  no  g%at  matter  to  live  lovingly  with  good- 
natured  and  meek  persons." — Taylor ;  Devotion. 

22.  Burdensome,  grievous,  unfair. 

"  If  we  have  sown  unto  you  spiritual  things,  is  it  a 
great  thing  if  we  Bhall  reap  your  carnal  things?" — 
1  Corinth,  rx.  11. 

23.  Denoting  a  step  of  ascending  or  de- 
scending consanguinity  :  as  greai-grandfather, 
the  father  of  a  grandfather ;  ^reat-grandson, 
the  son  of  a  grandson,  and  so  on. 

"I  dare  not  yet  affirm  for  the  antiquity  of  our  lan- 
guage, that  our  great-great-great  grandfllre's  tongue 
came  out  of  Persia."— Camden  /  Remains. 

*  B.  As  adv. :  Greatly,  very  much. 

"  'Tis  great  like  he  will." 

Shakesp. :  2  Henry  VI.,  lii.  L 
C.  As  substantive: 

1.  The  mass,  the  bulk,  the  gross. 

"  To  let  out  thy  harvest  by  great  or  by  day." 

Tusser :  Husbandry;  August. 

2.  {PI.,  with  the  definite  article) :  Powerful, 
influential,  rich,  and  distinguished. 

"  Beneath  the  good  how  far— but  far  above  the  great." 
Gray  :  Progress  of  Poesy. 

3.  (PI.) :  The  great-go,  or  final  examination 
at  Oxford  for  a  degree.    [Go,  s.,  1".] 

"  Both  Bmalls  and  greats  are  sufficiently  distant  to 
be  altogether  ignored,  if  we  are  that  way  inclined."— 
T.  Hughes :  Tom  Brown  at  Oxford,  ch.  x. 

H  (1)  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between 
great,  large,  and  big :  "  Large  is  properly  ap- 
plied to  space,  extent,  and  quantity  ;  big  de- 
notes great  as  to  expansion  or  capacity.  A 
house,  a  room,  a  heap,  a  pile,  an  army,  &c, 
is  great  or  large ;  an  animal  or  a  mountain  is 
great  or  big.  Great  is  used  generally  in  the 
improper  sense ;  large  and  big  are  used  only 

(2)  He  thus  discriminates  between  great, 
grand,  and  sublime :  "These  terms  are  synony- 
mous only  in  the  moral  application.  Great 
simply  designates  extent;  grand  includes  like- 
wise the  idea  of  excellence  and  superiority. 
.  .  .  Grand  and  sublvme  are  both  superior  to 
great ;  but  the  former  marks  the  dimension  of 
greatness,  the  latter  designates  that  of  height." 
(Crabb :  Eng.  Synon.) 

IT  (1)  By  the  great :  In  the  gross  ;  by  the  bulk. 

(2)  Greatest  common  measure :  [Measure]. 

great-anteater,  s. 

Zool. :  Myrmecophaga  jubata. 

great-armadillo,  s. 

Zool. :  Dasypus  gigas. 

great-burnet,  s, 

Bot. :  The  genus  Sanguisorba. 

*  great-bellied,  a.  Far  advanced  in 

"  Great-bellied  women 
That  had  not  half  a  week  to  go." 

Shakesp. :  Henry  VIII.,  iv.  L 

*  great-born,  «.    Nobly  descended. 

great-cattle,  s.  pi. 

Law :  All  manner  of  cattle  except  sheep  and 
yearlings.     (Wharton.) 

Great  Charter,  *.    [Magna  Charta.] 

great-circle,  «.    [Circle.] 

G'feat-circle  sailing : 

Naut. :  A  system  of  navigation  first  intro- 
duced by  Mr.  John  Towson  of  navigating  a 
ship  upon  the  principle  that  the  nearest  path 
between  any  two  places  upon  a  globe  is  by 
the  great  circle  drawn  upon  it  between  them  ; 
the  nearest  course  between  two  places  on  a 

great-coat,  s.    An  overcoat,  a  top-coat, 

great-coated,  u.  Having  a  great-coat 
or  overcoat  on. 

great-eared,  a.    Having  large  ears. 

Great-eared  leaf-bat :  [Macrotos]. 

Great-eared  tribes : 

Anthrop. :  A  name  sometimes  employed  to 
designate  savage  races  who  disfigure  them- 
selves by  stretching  their  ears  to  an  enormous 
size  with  what  may  be  called  exaggerated  ear- 
rings. In  this  case  the  lobes  are  stretched  into 
pendent  fleshy  loops  ;  but  the  savages  by  no 
means  answer  the  description  of  Pliny's 
Panotii  (N.H.,  iv.  27),  "whose  ears  were  large 
enough  to  be  used  for  covering  their  bodies." 
As  a  matter  of  fact  the  name  Oregon  is  only  a 
corruption  of  the  Spanish  Orejones  (Big-ears), 
a  nickname  jocularly  conferred  on  the  inhabi- 
tants from  their  practice  of  enlarging  the  lobes 
of  their  ears.    (Tylor.) 

great-go,  s. 

Univ. :  The  same  as  Greats.    [Great,  C.  3.] 

great-gun,  s.    [Guy.] 

great-hearted,  «.  High-spirited,  un- 
dejected,  brave. 

"The  earl,  as  great-hearted  aa  he,  declared  that  he 
neither  cared  for  his  friendship,  nor  feared  his  hatred." 
— Clarendon. 

great  macaw-tree,  s. 

Bot. :  Cocos  or  Acrocomia  fusiformis. 

*  great-master,  a.  The  same  as  Grand- 
master (q.v.). 

"  With  reverence 
To  our  Great-master  and  thiB  consistory." 

Beaum.  &  Flet. :  Knight  of  Malta,  L  3. 

*  great-mercy,  «.  Great  thanks.  [Gra- 

great-organ,  s. 

Music :  One  (and  the  most  important)  of  the 
three  organs  which  are  most  usually  associated 
in  large  combined  organs.  They  are  the  great 
organ,  the  choir-organ,  and  the  swell ;  to 
which  may  be  added  the  pedal-organ  or  foot- 
keys  for  acting  on  the  larger  pipes.  The  key- 
board of  the  great-organ  contains  the  principal 
keys,  and  has  the  middle  position,  the  swell 
having  the  next  highest  row  and  the  choir  the 
lowest.    [Organ.] 

great-primer,  s. 

Print. :  A  type  four  sizes  larger  than  long- 
primer  (q.v.).    Fdr  example— 

Great  Primer. 

great-seal,  5.    [Seal.] 

great  sympathetic-nerve,  s.  [Sym- 

great-tithes,  s.  pi.    [Tithe.] 

great  white-owl,  a. 

Ornith.  :  The  genus  Nyctea. 

*  great,  *  grete,  v.i.  &  (.    [Great,  a.] 

A.  Intrans. :  To  become  great  or  big  ;  to 

grow  large,  to  swell. 

"  Hys  wombs  bigan  to  grete. " 

Robert  of  Gloucester,  p.  68. 

B.  Trans. :  To  make  great ;  to  aggrandize. 

"  Plotting  to  great  himself 

Sylvester :  The  Lawe,  637. 

*  greaf-en,  v.t.  &  i.    [A.S.  gredtian ;  O.  H. 
Ger.  grdzen.] 

A,  Trans. :  To  make  great,  to  enlarge,  to 
magnify,  to  aggrandize. 

"That  the  House  of  Austria  .  .  .  should  be 
greatened  by  the  addition  of  England."—  Camden: 
Elizabeth  (an.  1560). 

B.  Intrans. :  To  become  great  or  greater ; 
to  increase. 

"Being  committed  against  an  infinite  majesty,  it 
fsinl  greatens.  and  rises  to  the  height  of  an  infinite 
demerit."— South  :  Sermons,  vol.  x.,  ser.  10. 

great'  -  ly,    *  grat  -  liche,    *  greet  - 11* 

*  grete -ly,  '  gret -liche,  adv.  [EDg. 
great;  -ly.] 

1.  In  or  to  a  great  degree  or  manner;  much. 

"  Madam,  I  know  not,  nor  I  greatly  care  not." 

Shakesp. ;  Richard  II.,  v.  2. 

2.  In  a  noble  or  illustrious  manner ;  nobly, 

3.  In  a  magnanimous  or  high-minded  man- 
ner ;  nobly,  generously. 

"  Where  are  these  bold  intrepid  sons  of  war. 
That  greatly  turn  their  backs  upon  the  foe  I " 

Addison:  Cato,  iii.  2. 

4.  In  a  sublime  or  noble  manner ;  sublimely. 

*'  So  God  has  greatly  purposed." 

Cowper :  Task,  vi.  620. 

great  ness,  *  grete-nesse,  *  gret-nes, 

*  greet  -  nesse,  *  gret  -  nesse,  *  gret- 
nis,  s.  [A.S.  greatness.]  The  quality  or  state 
of  being  great ;  as 

1.  Largeness  in  bulk  or  size  ;  bigness. 
'■  Goodly  rivers  (that  have  made  their  Braves, 

And  buried  both  their  names,  and  all  their  good. 
Within  his  greatness,  to  augment  his  waves)," 

Daniel :  Barons  Wars,  bk.  ii. 

2.  Largeness  in  number. 

3.  Largeness  in  amount,  extent,  or  value. 

4.  Largeness  in  extent  or  surface. 

5.  Largeness  in  degree  ;  high  degree,  extent. 
"  In  the  greatness  of  his  folly  he  shall  go  astray. " — 

Proverbs  v.  23. 

6.  Marvellous  or  wonderful  nature  ;  marvel- 
lous n  ess. 

7.  Awfulness. 

8.  High  rank  or  place ;  elevation,  distinc- 
tion, dignity,  eminence,  power. 

"  Our  greatness  will  appear 
Then  most  conspicuous."      Milton ;  P.  L.,  11.  257. 

9.  Importance,  seriousness. 

10.  "Wonderful  nature  or  character  ;  sub- 
limity, grandeur. 

11.  Swelling  pride  ;  affected  state ;  haughti- 

12.  Nobility  of  mind  or  sentiment ;  magna- 

"  Greatness  of  soul  is  more  necessary  to  make  a 
great  man,  than  the  favour  of  a  monarch." — Knox  : 
Letters  to  a  Young  Nobleman,  Let,  42. 

13.  Force,   intensity,  power  :  as,  the  great- 
ness of  sound,  of  force,  of  passion,  &c. 

*  14.  A  title  of  dignity.     Its  equivalent  is 
still  used  in  France  when  speaking  of  bishops. 
"  Nay,  mighty  Soldan,  did  your  greatness  see 
The  frowning  looks  of  mighty  Tamburlaine  .  .  . 
It  might  amaze  your  royal  majesty." 

Marlowe  :  Tamburlaine,  iv.  L 

*  greave,  *  grafe,  *  greyve,  s.    [A.S.  ge- 

refa;  Dan.  greve;  O.  Fris.  griva;  Icel.  greijl; 
Sw.  gerfve.]    A  steward,  a  reeve,  a  grieve. 

*  greave  (1),  *  grieve,  s.    [Grove.] 
greave  (2),  o.    [Greaves  (1>] 

greave,  v.t.    [Greaves  (2).]    [Grave  (1),  v.] 

greaves  (1),  s.  [Fr.  greves,  from  O.  Fr.  greve 
=  the  shin.]  Armour  for  the  legs  made  of 
metal,  and  lined  with  some  soft  material. 
They  were  fastened  with  straps  and  ankle- 
rings,  and  were  richly  ornamented  and  em- 

"  The  greaves  below  his  knee  that  wound. 
With  silvery  scales  were  sheathed  and  bound." 

Byron  :  Bride  of  Abydos,  ii.  9. 

greaves  (2),  s.  [Of  Scandinavian  origin  :  cf. 
Sw.  dial,  grevar  =  greaves ;  Low  Ger.  greven 
=  greaves  ;  Ger.  griebe  —  the  fibrous  remains 
left  in  the  preparation  of  lard.  (Skeat.y]  The 
sediment  or  insoluble  parts  of  tallow  gathered 
from  the  melting  pots  and  made  up  into  cakes 
for  dogs'  food. 

grebe,  s.  [Fr.  grebe,  from  Bret,  or  Arm.  krib 
~  a  comb  ;  kribel,  kriben  =  a  crest ;  Wei.  crib 
=  a  comb,  a  crest ;  cribell  =  a  cock's  comb. 
So  named  because  one  of  the  species  is 

Ornith :  Podiceps,  a  genus  of  Colynibiaae  ■ 
(Divers).  It  consists  of  tailless  birds  with 
large  fimbriations  on  their  toes,  which  act  as 
webs.  Five  species  are  British  :— (1)  The 
Great  crested  Grebe  (Podiceps  cristatus) ;  (2) 
the  Red-necked  Grebe  (P.  rvbricollis) ;  (3)  the 
Sclavonian  Grebe  (P.  cornutus);  (4)  the  Eared 
Grebe  (P.  auritus) ;  and  (5)  the  Little  Grebe  or 
Dabchick  (P.  minor).  No.  5  is  the  commonest. 
It  is  found  in  lakes  and  fish  ponds.  There 
are  many  foreign  species.  The  fur  of  the 
grebe  is  used  for  making  muffs,  ladies'  col- 
lars, &c. 

boll,  boy ;  pout,  jo%l;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,      ing. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.     -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion.  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious.  -tious.  -sious  =  shus.    -ble.  -die,  &c  =  bel.  del. 


Grecian— Greek 

Gre'-^an,  a.  &  «.  [Lat.  Grcecia  —  Greece ; 
Eng.  suff.  -an.) 

A.  -4s  adj. :  Of  or  pertaining  to  Greece. 

B.  As  substantive : 

1.  A  native  of  Greece. 

2.  One  who  spoke  Greek  ;  one  who  adopted 
Greek  manners  or  habits.     [Hellenist.] 

"  There  arose  a  murmuring  of  tbe  Grecians  against 
the  HebrewB," — Acts  vi.  l. 

3.  One  who  is  versed  in  or  studies  Greek. 

4.  One  of  the  senior  boys  at  Christ's  Hos- 

Grecian  architecture,  s.  The  styles 
of  architecture  which  prevailed  in  Greece  and 
its  colonies  up  to  the  conquest  of  the  country 
"by  the  Romans.  The  oldest  examples  which 
now  remain  belong  to  that  type  which  is 
known  under  the  name  Cyclopean.  [Cyclo- 
pean.] Our  earliest  information  respecting 
the  architecture  of  Greece  is  gained  from  the 
poems  of  Homer.  From  him  we  learn  that 
the  palace  was  surrounded  by  Cyclopean  walls, 
and  had  an  outer  and  an  inner  court,  the  latter 
being  surrounded  by  porticos  and  chambers. 
This  led  to  a  large  columnar  hall  for  festive 
purposes.  The  chambers  for  the  family  and 
women  were  behind.  Treasure-houses  often 
existed  in  connection  with  the  palaces,  for 
the  preservation  of  valuables.  In  plan  these 
treasure-houses  were  circular,  and  the  cover- 
ing was  dome-shaped.  Of  all  that  remain  to 
this  day,  that  of  Atreus,  at  Mycenae,  is  the 
most  remarkable.  The  earliest  style  of  regular 
architecture  was  that  known  as  Doric  [Doric], 
which  is  characterized  by  simplicity  and 
strength.  The  oldest  example  of  it  is  a  temple 
at  Corinth.  The  Ionic  order  of  architecture 
arose  much  about  the  same  time,— i.e.,  abuut 
600  b.c.  [Ionic]  Its  characteristic  features 
are  grace  and  delicacy.  To  it  belonged  the 
temple  of  Diana,  at  Ephesus.  About  the  be- 
ginning of  the  fifth  century  b.c.  the  Corinthian 
order  began  to  come  into  use.  It  differs  little 
from  the  Ionic  except  in  greater  lightness  and 
increased  richness  of  decoration.  In  spite  of 
all  differences  of  form  and  character  of  the 
details,  the  entire  structure  in  their  orders 
rests  on  the  same  principles.  The  use  of  the 
column  is  the  great  characteristic  of  all,  and 
the  differences  between  the  three  orders  is 
most  clearly  perceptible  in  its  treatment.  The 
arch  was  never  used  in  Grecian  architecture. 

Grecian-fire,  «.    [Greek-fire.] 

*  Gre'-cian-ize,  v.i.  [Eng.  Grecian;  -izeJ] 
To  speak  the  Greek  language. 

*  Gre'-Cism,  s.  [Lat.  Groscismus,  from  Grcecus; 
Gr.  Tpaue&s  (Graikos)  =  Greek ;  Fr.  grecisme.] 
An  idiom  or  peculiarity  of  the  Greek  language. 

"  Lofty  thoughts  .  .  .  clothed  with  admirable  Gre- 
cians."—Dryden ;  Origin  &  Progress  of  Satire. 

*  Gre'-cize,  v.t.  &  i.  [Lat.  Grozcisso,  from  Gr. 
yptuKi$tti  (Graikiso),  from  Tpaiteos  (Graikos)  = 
Greek;  Fr.  Greciser;  Sp.  Grecimr.] 

A.  Inirans. :  To  speak  the  Greek  language. 

B.  Transitive: 

1.  To  render  Grecian. 

2.  To  translate  into  Greek. 

grecque   (que  as  k),  s.    [Fr.,  =  fretwork.] 

1.  An  apparatus  placed  in  coffee-pots  for 
holding  the  coffee-grounds.  The  bottom  is 
perforated  with  minute  holes,  and  hot  water 
being  poured  upon  the  coffee  placed  in  it, 
carries  through  with  it  the  strength  and  aroma 
of  the  coffee  without  the  grounds. 

2.  A  coffee-pot  having  provided  such  an 

*gred,  *  grade,  s.  [Grede,  v.]  A  cry,  a 

*'  On  Mo v sen  he  setten  a  gred." 

Genesis  &  Exodus,  3,230. 

gred'-a-lin, ».    [Gridelin.] 

*  grede  (1),  s.    [Greed.] 

*  grede  (2),  s.    [A.S.  gredda.]    A  bosom,  a  lap. 

"  Thi  coppe  he  putte  undur  his  grede." 

Alisaundcr,  4,187. 

*  grede,  *grad-en,  v.i.  &  t.     [A.S.  grcedan.] 

A.  Intransitive: 

1.  To  cry,  to  weep. 

"  Th.'iime  byguime  thay  to  grede  and  houte." 

Sir  Ferumbras,  3,225. 

2.  To  cry  out,  to  shout. 

"  Loude  he  pan  to  grede." 

Robert  of  Gloucester,  p.  460. 

3.  To  cry  or  call  in  prayer. 

"Tberuore  ssolle  we  ofte  grede  to  God."— Agenbitc 

oflnwit,  p.  212. 

B.  Trans.  :  To  cry  or  beg  for ;  to  pray  for. 

"  Grace  be  gradde  and  grace  he  hadde."    Gower,  iii.  16. 

*  gred'-el, 


*  gred-lre,  5.     [A  form  of  gredil  —  griddle,  by 

change  of  I  into  r.]    A  gridiron  (q.v.). 

*gree  (1),  *  gre,  s.     [Fr.  gre"  =  pleasure,  from 
Lat.  gratum,  neut.  sing,  of  gratus  =  pleasing.] 

1.  Pleasure,  satisfaction,  goodwill. 

"My  Bpixit  . 

2.  Satisfaction  for  an  offence  or  injury  done. 

"  To  Josepe  he  made  is  gre."       Kindhert  Jesu,  1,426. 

*gree    (2),    *grece,    * greece,    *grees, 

*  grice,    *  gresse,    *  grie,    *  grize,    s. 

[0.  Fr.  gre ;  Lat.  gradus  =  a  step ;  gradior  = 
to  walk.]    [Grade.] 

1.  A  step. 

"The  lord  archbishop  vpon  the  greece  of  the  quire, 
made  a  long  oration." — Bacon :  Henry  VII.,  p,  179. 

2.  A  degree  or  measurement. 

"  The  last  and  outmaist  ile  is  named  Htrtha,  quhare 
the  eleuation  of  the  pole  is  buii.  greis."—Bellendene  : 
Descr.  Alb.,  ch.  xiii. 

3.  A  degree  or  step  in  consanguinity. 

"  Swahe  and  he 
We3  evynlike  in  the  tothir  gre." 

Wyntovm,  ix.  27,  56. 

4.  A  step  or  gradation  in  an  argument  or 

"The  prophet  in  diacription  of  these  vanities, 
inaketh  these  gries."—Knox :  Ressoning  with  C'rosra- 
guell,  ProL  it  b. 

5.  Pre-eminence,  superiority. 

"  To  James  Lord  of  Dowglas  thay  the  gre  gave, 
To  go  with  the  Kingis  nairt."         Boulate,  ii.  11. 

If  To  hear  or  win  the  gree  :  To  carry  off  the 
prize  ;  to  have  the  victory. 

"  And  eik  wha  best  on  fute  can  ryn  lat  ee, 
To  preif  his  pith,  or  wersill,  and  here  the  gre." 

Douglas :  VirgU,  129,  36. 

gree,  v.i.  &  t.    [Fr.  greer;  Gree  (1),  $.] 

A,  Intransitive : 

1.  To  agree,  to  consent. 

2.  To  live  in  ainity ;  to  agree  together. 
"'And  they're    just  neighbour-like,'  replied   the 

covenanter;  'and  nae  wonder  they^ree  sae  weel.'" — 
Scott :   Waverley,  ch.  xxxvl 

B.  Trans. :  To  reconcile  parties  at  variance. 

'*  gree'- ance,  o.      [Gree,    v.]     Agreement, 

*  greece,  *grees,  *  gryse,  s.    [Gree  (2),  s.] 

greed,   *  grede,  s.      [From  the  adj.   greedy 
(q.v.) ;  cf.  I  eel.  grddhr;  Goth,  gredus— hunger; 
M.  H.  Ger.  grit.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

I.  An  eager  desire  or  longing ;  greediness  ; 
especially  avarice  or  covetousness. 

*  2.  A  greedy  fellow. 

II.  Bot.  (PL):  A  popular  name  for  the  genus 

Agreed,  v.t    [Greed,  s.]    To  covet. 

greed'-i-ly,  *  gred-i-liche,  *gred-e-ly, 

*  gred-liche,  adv.  [A.S.  grddiglice;  Icel. 
gradhigliga.]  In  a  greedy  manner ;  vora- 
ciously, ravenously,  eagerly ;  with  eagerness 
or  greediness. 

"  The  hog  greedily  devours  many  things  rejected  by 
every  other  useful  animal." — Smith  :  Wealth  of  Nations, 
lik.  i.,  ch.  xi. 

greed'-i-ness,  *  gred-i-nesse,  *  greed  i 
nesse,  s.  [A.S.  grcedigness,  from  gr&dig  = 
greedy  (q.v.).J  The  quality  of  being  greedy  ; 
an  eager  longing  or  desire  ;  ravenousness, 
avidity,  greed. 

"  The  greedinesse  of  glorye,  and  the  vnsaciable  deBire 
of  fame. ' — Drvnde :  Quintus  Curtius,  fo.  257. 

greed'-y,  *  gred-i,  *  gred  ie,  *  gred-y, 

a.  [A.S.  grdidig,  gredig ;  cogn.  with  Dut. 
gretig ;  Icel.  grddhugr ;  O.  Sw.  gradig,  gr&dig ; 
Dan.  graadig  ;  Goth,  gredags  ;  O.  H.  Ger.  grd- 
tag ;  O.  S.  grddag ;  Sansc.  gridhnu,  griddhin, 
from  gridh  =  to  be  greedy.] 

1.  Have  a  keen  or  eager  desire  for  food  or 
drink  ;  very  hungry  ;  voracious,  ravenous. 

"Be  not  uiisatiable  in  any  dainty  thing,  nor  too 
greedy  upon  meats."— Ecelus.  xxxvii.  29. 

2.  Having  an  eager  or  ardent  desire  for  any- 
thing ;  eager  to  obtain. 

"He  was  greedy  of  wealth  and  honours,  corrupt 
himself,  and  a  corrupter  of  others."— Macaulay  :  Hist. 
Eng.,  ch.  ii. 

II  Formerly  it  was  followed  by-  to :  as,  Greedy 
to  know,  greedy  to  kill. 
3.  Covetous,  avaricious,  grasping. 

"  A  crowd  of  greedy  informers."— Macaulay  :  ITitt. 
Eng.,  ch.  v. 

greedy-gut,  greedy-guts,  s.  A  greedy 

fellow,  a  glutton. 
gree  -gree,  s.    [A  West  African  word.] 

Bot. :  The  ordeal  tree  of  Guinea— Erythro- 
phyllum  guineense. 

Greek,  Greeke,  a.  &  s.    [Lat.  Grcecus,  from 
Gr.  TpatKos  (Graikos);  Fr.  Gree.] 

A.  As  adj. :  Of  or  pertaining  to  Greece ; 

B.  As  substantive  : 
I,  Literally : 

1.  A  native  or  inhabitant  of  Greece. 

"  I  prithee,  foolish  Greek,  depart  from  me ; 
There  'b  money  for  thee."  ;_ 

Shakesp.  :  Twelfth  Night,  iv.  1. 

2.  The  language  spoken  by  the  inhabitants 
of  Greece. 

II.  Fig. :  A  knave,  a  cheat,  a  low  fellow. 

"  "Without  a  confederate  the  now  fashionable  game 
of  baccarat  does  not  seem  to  offer  many  chances  for 
the  Greek."— Saturday  Review,  Feb.  16,  1884,  p.  202. 

Greek  Church,  &. 

Ecclesiol.  &  Ch.  Hist.  :  The  Eastern  Church, 
that  of  the  old  Eastern  Empire,  which,  prior 
to  the  Turkish  conquest,  had  its  metropolis 
at  Constantinople,  as  distinguished  from  the 
Western  Church,  which  had  its  capital  at 
Rome ;  the  church  of  the  people  speaking  the 
Greek  language  rather  than  that  of  the  Greek 

1.  Ch.  Hist. :  That  the  Eastern  and  Western 
Churches  would  first  disagree,  and  then  sepa- 
rate, was  ensured  from  the  first  by  the  differ- 
ence in  their  mental  constitution.  The  Greeks 
were  notable  for  intense  intellectual  acute- 
ness,  which  they  used  to  frame  hair-split- 
ting subtleties  of  doctrine.  The  Romans,  on 
the  contrary,  who  had  the  imperial  instinct, 
employed  the  new  faith  as  a  means  of  building: 
up  again  a  world-embracing  dominion,  with 
the  "eternal  city"  as  its  capital.  The  first 
variance  between  the  East  and  the  West  arose 
in  the  second  century  regarding  the  time  of 
keeping  Easter.  The  disputes  which  suc- 
ceeded were'  chiefly  as  to  personal  dignity. 
As  long  as  Rome  was  the  metropolis  of  the 
empire,  the  Bishop  of  Rome  had  indisputably 
tlie  most  important  see  in  the  Church  ;  but 
when,  on  May  11,  330,  Constantine  removed 
the  seat  of  government  to  Byzantium  (Con- 
stantinople), the  bishop  of  the  new  metropolis 
became  a  formidable  rival  to  his  ecclesiastical 
brother  at  Rome.  In  the  second  General 
Council,  that  of  Constantinople,  a.d.  381,  the 
Bishop  of  Constantinople  was  allowed  to  sit 
next  to  the  Bishop  of  Rome ;  by  the  2Sth 
canon  of  the  Synod  of  Chalcedon,  a.d.  403, 
he  was  permitted  to  enjoy  an  equal  rank.  In 
588,  John,  Patriarch  of  Constantinople,  as- 
sumed the  title  of  oecumenical  or  universal 
bishop,  for  which  he  was  denounced  by  Pope 
Gregory  the  Great.  Disputes  in  the  eighth 
century  about  image-worship  widened  the 
breach,  as  did  the  continued  rejection  by  the 
Greek  Church  of  the  words  Filioque,  asserting: 
the  procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost  from  the 
Son  as  well  as  from  the  Father,  introduced  by 
the  second  Council  of  Constantinople,  a.d.  381. 
The  last  General  Council  in  which  the 
Churches  of  the  East  and  the  West  were  united 
was  the  Seventh,  or  Second  Council  of  Nice, 
a.d.  787.  The  feud  continued  through  the 
ninth  and  on  to  the  eleventh  century.  In  the 
thirteenth  an  effort  was  made  by  Michael 
Palasologus  to  promote  a  reunion  of  the  two 
great  churches  at  the  Council  of  Florence, 
but  all  was  in  vain.  They  have  remained 
separate  till  now. 

2.  Doctrine  <£  discipline :  The  Bible  as  now- 
interpreted  by  tradition  is  the  rule  of  faith. 
Regarding  the  Trinity,  the  Divinity  of  Christ, 
the  Atonement,  and  the  work  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  the  Greek  Church  holds  the  ordinary 
faith  of  Christendom.  Regarding  what  is 
termed  the  procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  the 
East  holds  that  lie  proceeded  from  the  Father 
only,  while  the  churches  of  the  West  believe 
that  he  did  so  from  the  Father  and  the  Son 
(Fifth  of  the  Thirty-nine  Articles).  With  re- 
gard to  the  decrees  of  God,  the  Greek  tenets 
are  what  would  now  be  called  strongly  Ar- 
minian.      Worship  of  a  superior  or  of  an  in- 

late,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;  go,    pot, 
or.  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,     se,  ce  =  e.     cy  =  a.    qu  -  kw. 

greek— green 


f'erior  kind  is  rendered  to  the  Virgin  Mary,  to 
saints  and  angels.  The  secular  clergy  are 
enjoined  to  marry  once,  and  with  a  virgin. 
Images  are  in  use.  The  Communion  is  ad- 
ministered even  to  the  laity  in  both  kinds. 
The  doctrine  of  purgatory  is  not  accepted. 
Baptism  is  by  immersion,  and  is  followed  by 
chrism  or  anointing.  The  government  is 
episcopal.  Excepting  the  Church  of  Rome, 
the  Greek  Church  is  the  largest  Christian  or- 
ganization, though  it  would  be  only  the  third 
jif  the  several  Protestant  Churches  were  united 
into  one.  Its  political  importance  arises 
mainly  from  the  fact  that  the  Emperor  of 
Russia  is  regarded  as  its  earthly  head.  It  is 
the  most  numerous  Christian  body  in  the 
Turkish  empire,  and  has  a  patriarch  at  Con- 
stantinople. It  has  many  adherents  also  in 
the  heterogeneous  Austrian  empire.  The 
Russian  emperor  Nicholas  delighted  to  call  it 
"  the  orthodox  faith."    [Orthodox.] 

Greek-fire,  s.  An  incendiary  composi- 
tion used  in  the  early  times  by  the  Tartars, 
and  afterwards  by  the  Greeks,  but  little  used 
in  more  modern  times. 

Greek-kalends,    [Calends.] 

Greek-nuts,  s.  pi.  Amygdalus  communis. 

Greek-valerian,  s. 

Bot. ;  The  genjis  Polemonium. 

greek,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  The  grain,  the 
texture,  or  particular  quality  of  one  stone  as 
distinguished  from  another. 

"  They  [the  stone  quarries]  consist  of  three  different 
kinds  of  stone,  one  of  a  blunih-black  colour,  with  a 
fine  greek,  capable  of  receiving  a  polish  like  marble." — 
P.  Carnock :  Fife  Statist.  Acc.xi.  493. 

*  Greek-ess,  4.  [Eng.  Greek;  -ess.]  A  female 

*  Greek  -ish,  a.  [Eng.  Greek;  -ish.]  Of  or 
pertaining  to  Greece ;  Greek. 

"  Thou  should  'st  not  hearefrom  me  a  Greekith  member 
Wherein  my  aword  had  not  iiu pressure  made." 

Shaketp. :  Troilus  &  C  rami  da,  iv.  5. 

*  Greek- ism,  s.  [Eng.  Greek;  -ism.]  A 
Grecism  (q.v.). 

,  *  Greek-  ling,  *  Greeke'-ling,  s.  [Eng. 
Greek,  and  dimin.  suflf.  -ling.]  A  little  or  un- 
important Greek. 

"Which  of  the  Oreekelings  durat  ever  give  precepts 
to  Demosthenes  ¥  " — Ben  Jonson :  Discoveries. 

*  gree'-ment,  *gre'-ment,  s.  [Fr.  greer  = 
to  agree.]    Agreement,  consent. 

"  Agamynon  by  grement  of  all  meuyt  unto  miosam." 
Destruction  of  Troy,  9,884. 

green,  grene,  (7.  &  s.  [A.S.  grine;  O.  S. 
grdni;  cogn.  with  Dut.  groen;  Icel.  grcenn; 
Dan.  &  Sw.  gron;  Ger.  griin;  M.  H.  Ger. 
ffru*.ne;  O.  H.  Ger.  kruoni;  O.  Fris.  grene  = 
green  ;  Russ.  zelene  —  greenness ;  Gr.  x*wP°s 
(chloros);  Sansc.  harl  =  green,  yellow.] 
A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Lit. :  Having  a  colour  resembling  that  of 
growing  herbage  ;  of  a  colour  formed  by  com- 
pounding blue  and  yellow ;  verdant. 

"  On  the  green  bank  I  sat  and  listened  long  " 

Dryden  :  Flower  &  Leaf,  132. 

2.  Figuratively: 

(1)  Flourishing,  fresh  ;  full  of  life  and  vigour 
like  a  growing  plant :  as,  a  green  old  age. 

(2)  New,  fresh,  recent :  as,  a  green  wound. 

"Though  of  Hamlet's  death  the  memory  be  green." 
Shakesp.  :  Hamlet,  i.  2. 

*(3)  Fresh,  unhealed. 

"A  man  that  atudieth  revenge  keepeth  his  own 
■wounds  green." — Bacon  :  Essays ;  Of  Revenge. 

(4)  Not  dry  ;  containing  the  sap. 
'  One  of  you  will  prove  a  shrunk  panel,  and,  like 
green  timber,  warp." — Shakesp.  :  As  you  Like  It,  iii.  3. 

*  (5)  Not  roasted,  half  raw. 

*'  We  say  tbe  meat  is  green  when  it  is  half  roasted." 
— Watts:  Logic. 

(6)  Unripe,  immature  ;  not  arrived  at 
maturity  :  as,  green  fruit. 

"  If  you  would  fat  green  geese,  shut  them  up  when 
they  are  about  a  month  old. — Mortimer :  Husbandry. 

(7)  Immature  in  age  or  judgment ;  inexpe- 
rienced, young. 

"  The  text  is  old,  the  orator  too  green.' 

Shakesp. :  Venus  A  Adonis,  806. 

(8)  Simple,  raw ;  easily  imposed  upon. 

"'He  is  so  Jolly  green,'  said  Charley." — Dickens: 
Oliver  TwUt,  eh.  ix. 

(9)  Of  a  greenish,  pale  colour  ;  pale,  sickly, 

"  Hath  it  slept  since  ? 
And  wakes  it  now  to  look  so  green  and  pale 
At  what  it  did  f "  Shakesp.  :  Macbeth,  L  7. 

(10)  Fresh,  not  salted  :  as,  green  fish. 
B.  -4s  substantive : 
L  Ordinary  Language  : 

1.  The  colour  of  growing  herbage ;  the 
colour  of  the  solar  spectrum  between  blue 
and  yellow;  a  secondary  colour  composed 
of  the  primaries  blue  and  yellow  in  different 

"  The  thick  young  grass  arose  in  fresher  green.'' 
Dryden  :  Flower  4  Leaf,  67. 

2.  A  grassy  plot  or  plain  ;  a  piece  of  ground 
covered  with  verdant  herbage  :  as,  a  village 

"Lordea,  beholdeth  than  amerel  younderout  on  the 
grene"  8ir Ferumbras,  3.361. 

3.  Used  elliptically  for  green  clothes. 

"  They  were  clothide  alle  in  grene."       Perceval,  277. 
*£.  (PL):  Fresh  leaves  or  branches  of  trees, 
shrubs,  &c.  ;  wreathes. 

"It  was  finely  wrought  above  head,  beautified  with 
greens,  furnished  with  benches  and  settles."— Bunyan  : 
Pilgrim's  Progress,  pt.  ii. 

5.  (PL):  The  young  leaves  and  stems  of 
plants  of  the  cabbage  kind,  used  in  cookery 
and  dressed  for  food. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Paint.  :  Green  pigments  are  derived 
chiefly  from  the  mineral  world,  and  owe  their 
colour  to  the  presence  of  copper.  Among  the 
most  valuable  to  the  painter  are  malachite  or 
mountain  green,  terra  verte,  Veronese  green, 
native  carbonate  of  copper,  cobalt  green,  and 
chrome  green. 

2.  Bot. :  A  genus  of  colours,  in  Latin  viridis, 
in  words  of  Greek  composition,  chhro-.  The 
typical  species  called  simply  green  is  a  clear 
green,  less  bright  than  grass  green ;  virens, 
virescens,  viridulus,  and  viridescens  are  shades 
of  it.  The  other  species  are  grass-green,  ver- 
digris-green, sea-green,  deep-green,  yellowish- 
green,  and  olive-green.    (Lindley.) 

3.  Her. :  [Sinople,  Vert]. 

T  Obvious  compounds  :  Green-coated,  green- 
garbed,  green-growing,  green-grown,  green-man- 
tled, &c. 

green-bird,  s.    The  greenfinch. 


Hort. :  The  Aphidae  (Plant-lice). 

green-bone,  s. 

1.  The  viviparous  blenny  (Zoarces  viviparns). 
"The  viviparous  blenny,  from  the  colour  of  the 

back-bone,  has  here  got  the  name  of  green-bone." — 
Barry :  Orkney,  p.  39L 

2.  The  garfish  (Belone  vulgaris). 

green-brier,  s. 

Bot. :  A  name  given  in  America  to  the  genus 

green  -  cow,  s.  A  cow  just  calved. 

green-crab,  s. 

Zool.  :  Carcinus  mosnas. 

green-crop,  s.  A  crop  used  for  food 
while  in  a  green  or  growing  state  ;  in  contra- 
distinction to  grain-crop,  root-crop,  or  grass- 

green-dlallage,  s. 

Min. :  (1)  Diallage,  a  variety  of  Pyroxene  ; 
(2)  Smaragdite. 

green-dragon,  s. 

Bot. :  Arisama  Dracontium.  A  plant  grow- 
ing in  the  United  States. 

"  green-earth,  s. 

1.  Min.  &  Path. ;  A  variety  of  Glauconite, 
often  filling  cavities  in  amygdaloid  and  other 
eruptive  rocks. 

2.  Painting :  A  pigment,  mountain  green. 
green-ebony,  s. 

Bot. :  Two  trees— (1)  Excajcaria  glandulosa, 
(2)  Jacaranda  ovalifolia. 

green-eyed,  a. 

1.  Lit :  Having  green  eyes. 

"  Green-eyed  Neptune  raves." 

Milton :  College  Exercise. 

2.  Fig. :  Seeing  things  distorted  or  dis- 
coloured, green  being  the  colour  symbolical 
of  jealousy. 

And  shuddering  fear,  and  green-eyed  jealousy." 
Shakesp.  :  Merchant  of  Venice,  iii.  2. 

green-fly,  $. 

Entom. .  A  bright-green  fly— Musca  chloris. 

green-grocer,  s.    [Greengrocer.] 

green-grosbeak,  5. 

Ornith. :  The  same  as  Greenfinch  (q.v.). 

green-hand,  s.  An  inexperienced  per- 
son ;  a  novice. 

green-headed,  «.  Of  immature  }udg- 

"  With  green-headed  Ignorance,  I  would  presume  t» 
go  on  to  the  gate."— Bunyan:  Pilgrim's  Progress,  pt  ll 

green  iron-ore,  s. 

Min. :  The  same  as  Dufrenite 

green-laver,  s. 

Bot.  .    Ulva  tatissima,  an  algal. 

green  lead-ore,  s. 

ML11. :  The  same  as  Pyromorphite  (q.v.>. 

green-linnet,  a.    [Greenfinch.] 

green-lizard,  s. 

Zool. :  Lacerta  viridis — a  small  lizard  oc- 
curring in  Jersey. 

green-malachite,  s. 

Min. :  The  typical  variety  of  Malachite  (q.V.)_ 

green-man,  s.    A  savage,  a  wild  man. 

Green-man  orchis : 

Bot. :  Aceras  anthropophora. 

green-marble,  s. 

Stone-cutting :  Serpentine. 

green-mineral,  s. 

Painting :  A  carbonate  of  copper,  used  as  an. 

green-osier,  5. 

Bot.  :  Salix  rubra. 

green-room,  s. 

1.  A  room  close  to  the  stage  in  a  theatre,  inr 
which  the  actors  wait  until  it  is  time  for  them 
to  go  on  to  the  stage,  or  during  the  intervals 
of  their  parts.  Called  from  having  been 
originally  painted  in  green. 

2.  A  room  in  a  warehouse  where  new  or  green 
cloth  is  received  from  the  weaving  factory. 

Green  Salt  of  Magnus,  s. 

Chem. :  Pt(NH3)4C]2  +  PtCl2.  A  double 
salt  of  platinous  chloride  with  platinous  tetra- 
mine  chloride.  Obtained  by  pouring  a  boiling 
solution  of  platinous  chloride  in  hydrochloric 
acid  into  excess  of  aqueous  ammonia.  It  is 
green  crystalline  powder,  insoluble  in  water. 

green-sand,  s.    [Greensand.] 

green  -  sickness,  s.  The  same  as 
Chlorosis  (q.v.). 

"I  was  almost  eaten  up  by  the  greensickness."— 
Steele:  Spectator,  No.  431. 

green-sloke,  a.  The  same  as  Green- 
laver  (q.v.). 

green-Stall,  s.  A  stall  on  which  greens- 
and other  vegetables  are  exposed  for  sale. 

green-tea,  s.  A  tea  having  a  greenish? 
colour,  due  to  the  mode  in  which  the  leaves 
are  treated  in  the  process  of  drying.  The- 
chief  varieties  of  it  are  Hyson-skin,  Twankay,. 
Hyson,  Young  Hyson,  Imperial,  and  Gun- 
powder.    [Tea.] 

green  tortrix,  s. 

Entom. :  A  moth  (Tortrix  viridana),  com- 
mon in  England. 

green-turtle,  s. 

Zool.  :  Chelone  Midas.     [Chelone,  Turtle.  > 

*  green-vitriol,  s. 

1.  Chem.  :  Crystallized  ferrous  sulphate,. 
FeSo4-FH20.  j 

2.  Min. :  The  same  as  Melanterite,  Cop- 
peras, and  Sulphate  of  Iron. 

green-weed,  s.    [Greenweed.] 

green,  v.i.  &  (.    [AS.  grenian;  O.  H.  Ger. 
gruonen;  Dut.  groenen.] 

A.  Intrans. :  To  become  or  grow  green. 

"  The  newe  spryng 
Whanne  it  greneth  in  the  gynnyng." 

Jlomaunt  of  the  Rote,  4,829.- 

B.  Trans. :  To  make  green. 
1.  Absolutely. 

"  Great  Spring  before 
Greened  all  the  year.       Thomson .  Spring,  321 

boil,  bo^;  pout,  Jtfwl;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  «i«iy  this,  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    pii  =  f. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun:  tion,  sion  =  zhun.   -tious.  -clous,  -sious  =  3b us.    -hie,  -die.  &c.  =  bel.  deL 


greenback— greenstone 

2.  Completed  by  preposition. 

"  Have  not  rainB 
Greened  over  April's  lap  ? "  , 

Keats :  Endymion,  L  217. 

green -back,  s.  [Eng.  green,  and  lack.]  A 
popular  name  for  the  paper  money  first  issued 
by  the  Treasury  of  the  United  States  in  1862. 

"This  was  accomplished  by  the  issue  of  Legal 
Teuder  Dotes  (popularly  known  as  '  Greenbacks,  from 
the  colour  of  the  ink  with  which  the  reverse  of  the 
uote  was  printed).'—  £c)to.  May  8, 1873. 

t  green'-bro6m,  s.  [Eng.  green,  and  broom.] 

green  -cloth,  s.  [Eng.  green,  and  cloth.]  A 
board  or  court  of  justice,  formerly  held  in  the 
counting-house  of  the  king's  household.  It 
was  composed  of  the  lord-steward  and  the 
officers  under  him,  and  had  cognizance  of  all 
matters  of  government  and  justice  in  the 
household,  and  also  power  to  keep  the  peace, 
and  to  punish  offenders  against  it  within  the 
verge  of  the  palace,  and  two  hundred  yards 
beyond  the  gates. 

green'-er-y\  s.     [Eng.  green;  -ery.] 

1.  A  place  where  green  plants  are  reared. 

2.  A  bunch  or  mass  of  green  plants  or 
foliage ;  a  wreath. 

"The  greenery  should  he  either  growing  "naturally 
upward  or  twining."  — Harper's  Monthly  Magazine 
(Dec,  1880).  p.  28. 

green'-f  inch,  s.     [Eng.  green,  and  finch.  ] 

Ornith. :  Coccothraustes  chloris,  an  insessorial 
bird  of  the  family  Fringillidse.  In  the  male 
the  upper  parts  and  breast  are  yellowish- 
green  ;  the  head  tinged  with  grey ;  the  edges 
of  the  wings,  the  outer  webs  of  the  primary 
quills,  and  the  base  of  the  tail-feathers  yellow. 
In  the  female  the  upper  parts  are  greenish- 
brown,  and  the  breast  greyish-brown.  It  is  a 
permanent  resident  in  Britain,  frequenting 
gardens,  orchards,  small  woods,  &c.  It  lays 
from  four  to  six  eggs,  which  are  white,  tinged 
with  blue.  Called  also  Green-Grosbeak  and 

green  -fish,  s.    [Eng.  green,  and  fish.  J 

Ichthy. :  An  American  name  for  Temnodon 
saltator,  one  of  the  Scomberidae  (Mackerels); 
widely  diffused  in  the  warmer  oceans  and  seas 
of  both  hemispheres. 

green'-gage,  s. '  [Eng.  green,  and  gage,  named 
after  the  Rev.  M.  Gage,  who  first  brought  it 
to  England.] 

Hort. :  A  delicious  variety  of  plum,  Prunus 
dotnestica.  Its  skin  and  juicy  pulp  are  of  a 
green  colour ;  it  has  a  delicious  flavour. 

green'-grd-cer,  s.  [Eng.  green,  and  grocer.] 
A  retailer  of  vegetables  and  fruit. 

green-heart  (heart  as  hart),   s.    [Eng. 

green,  and  heart.} 

Bot.  :  The  name  given  in  Demerara  to  Nec- 
tandra  Bodicei,  a  tree  of  the  Laurel  order, 
which  furnishes  hard  timber,  and  yields  the 
febrifuge  called  Bibiri,  or  Bebeera. 

*  green-hood,  * grene-hed,  *  gr en-hed, 
*  gren  necle,  s.    [Eng.  green  ;  -hood.] 

1.  Greenness,  verdure. 

"Ane  uayre  gardyne  uol  of  grenhede."  —  Ayenbite 
of  Inurit,  p.  94. 

2.  Folly,  foolishness,  ignorance. 

green' -horn,  s.  [Eng.  green,  and  horn.]  A 
simpleton ;  a  silly  fellow ;  a  raw,  inexperienced 
person ;  one  easily  imposed  upon. 

green'-hoiise,  s.     [Eng.  green,  and  house.] 

1.  Hortic. :  A  house  or  structure,  the  roofs 
and  sides  of  which  are  composed  of  glass, 
constructed  for  the  purpose  of  cultivating  and 
preserving  tender  or  exotic  plants.  It  is 
furnished  with  apparatus  for  maintaining  an 
artificial  temperature,  and  the  necessary  ven- 

"  Who  loves  a  garden,  lovea  a  green-house  too." 
Cowper :  Task,  iii.  566. 

2.  Pottery :  A  house  moderately  warmed, 
where  some  kinds  of  green-ware  are  placed  to 
become  partially  dried  before  taking  to  the 
hot-house,  where  the  drying  is  completed  by 
strong  heat.  The  ware  is  then  arranged  in 
seggars  and  fired  in  the  kiln. 

green'-ing,  *gren-ing,s.  [Eng.  green;  -ing.] 
*  1.  The  act  or  state  of  becoming  green. 

2.  Greenness,  verdure. 

"  The  tender  greening 
Of  April  meadows."  Keats  :  Sleep  &  Poetry. 

3.  A  name  given  to  certain  varieties  of 
apples  which  preserve  their  green  colour  even 
when  ripe. 

green'-ish,  a.  [Eng.  green;  -ish.]  Somewhat 
or  rather  green  ;  tending  to  green. 

"  Resembling  the  fore- mentioned  sally,  with  reddish 
twigs,  and  more  greenish."  —  Evelyn  :  Discourse  of 
Forest  Trees,  ch.  xfx. 

greenish-glaucous,  s. 

Bot. :  Between  a  green  and  glaucous  colour. 

green'-ish-ness,  s.  [Eng.  greenish;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  greenish. 

Green  -land,  s.  &  a.  [Eng.  green,  and  kind. 
So  called"  from  the  bright  green  appearance  of 
the  mosses  which  grow  there.] 

A.  As  substantive : 

Geog. :  A  country  or  large  island  constituting 
the  north-east  part  of  America,  from  59°  49' 

B.  As  adj. :  Of  or  belonging  to  the  country 
described  under  A. 

Greenland- whale,  s.  Bakenamysticetus. 
Called    also    the    Right    Whale.       [Bal^na, 


Green' -land-er,  s.  [Eng.  Greenland;  suff. 
-er.]    A  native  of  Greenland. 

green' -land-Ite,  s.    [From  Greenland  =  the 

country';  suff.  -ite  (Min.)  (q.v.*).] 
Min.  :  The  same  as  Columbite  (q.v.). 

green'-less,  a.  [Eng.  green;  -less.]  Destitute 
of  any  greenness  or  verdure. 

green'-let,  s.  [Eng.  green;  dimin.  suff.  -let.] 
Ornith.  :  Vireoninas,  a  sub-family  of  Mus- 
cicapidaj  (Flycatchers).  They  are  so  called 
from  having  much  green  or  olive  in  the  colours 
of  their  plumage.  They  are  small  American 
birds,  arriving  in  the  United  States  from  South 
America  and  the  West  Indies  about  the  month 
of  May,  and  departing  again  in  August.  Some 
of  them  sing  sweetly.     [Vireo.] 

*  green' -ljr,  adv.     [Eng.  green;  -ly.] 

1.  In  a  green  manner  or  state. 

"  Gray  bat  leafy  walls,  where  Ruin  greenly  dwells." 
Byron  :  Childe  Harold,  iii.  46. 

2.  Freshly. 

"  Sprouting  youth  did  now  but  greenly  bud." 

P.  Fletcher ;  Purple  Island,  L 

3.  Like  a  novice  or  a  green  person  ;  fool- 

"  We  nave  done  but  greenly 
In  hugger  mugger  to  Inter  him." 

Shakesp.:  Hamlet,  iv.  5. 

green  -ness,  *  gren-es,  *  grene-nesse, 
s.     [A.S.  grenness.] 

I.  Lit.  ;  The  quality  or  state  of  being  green, 
or  of  a  green  colour ;  a  green  colour. 

"  The  ground  without  greenness  in  those  months  of 
June  and  July."— Sir  F.  Drake:  The  World  Encom- 

II.  Figuratively : 

1.  Freshness,  vigour. 

"  It  is  this  alone  that  for  a  while  gives  growth  and 
greenness  to  his  comforts."—  South:  Sermons,  voL  x., 
ser.  2. 

2.  Newness. 

3.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  unripe ; 

"It  cannot  be  wondered  at,  considering  the  green- 
ness of  his  years."— Murphy  :  Life  of  Fielding. 

1.  Immaturity  of  judgment ;  simplicity, 
rawness,  inexperience. 

green'  -  ock  -  ite,  s.  [Named  after  Lord 
Greenock,  afterwards  Earl  Cathcart ;  suff.  -ite 

Min. ;  An  hexagonal,  nearly  transparent 
mineral,  of  yellow  colour,  adamantine  lustre, 
and  strong  double  refraction.  Compos.  :  CdS 
or  Cd2Sn  =  sulphur  22'3  to  2256,  and  cad- 
mium 77-30  to  77'70.  Found  in  amygdaloid  at 
Bishoptown  in  Renfrewshire,  in  Bohemia, 
&c.  ;  also  as  a  furnace  product. 

green'-6-Vlte,  s.  [Named  by  Dufrenoy  after 
Mr.  G.  B.  Greenough,  a  celebrated  geologist.] 
Min. :  Manganesian  Titanite,  a  red  or  rose- 
coloured  variety  of  Titanite,  the  hue  produced 
by  the  presence  of  a  little  manganese  (Dana). 
The  Brit.  Mus.  Cat.  makes  it  a  variety  of 
Sphene,  which  Dana  makes  a  sub-variety  of 
Ordinary  Titanite. 

green'-sand,  -.  &  a.     [Eng.  green,  and  s<md.] 

A.  As  substantive: 

Geol. :  The  name  given  to  two  series  of  beds 
in  the  cretaceous  formations,  the  one  called 
the  Upper,  the  other  the  Lower  Greensand  :- 

1  The  Upper  Greensand:  This  m  a  sub- 
division of  the  Upper  Cretaceous  Rocks  and  is 
situated  immediately  below  the  Chalk-marl 
and  just  above  the  Gault.  The  beds  of  which 
it  is  composed  have  in  them  green  particles  of 
a  mineral  called  Glauconite  (q.v.).  In  parts  of 
Surrey  calcareous  matter  is  intermixed  in 
quantities  sufficient  to  convert  the  beds  into 
what  is  there  termed  firestone.  In  the  southern 
part  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  the  Upper  Green- 
sand  is  100  feet  thick,  and  contains  bands  of 
siliceous  limestone  and  calcareous  sandstone, 
with  nodules  of  chert.  Mr.  A-  J.  Jukes  Brown 
shows  that  there  are  two  faunas  in  the  Upper 
Greensand  of  Cambridge,  the  one  derivative, 
whilst  the  other,  which  belongs  to  the  Sandy 
marl,  is  in  position.  Among  the  fossils  pecu- 
liar to  it  are  various  ammonites,  two  ptero- 
dontas,  two  species  of  Fusus,  &c.  Of  the 
derivative  fauna,  which  is  probably  from  the 
Gault,  Mr.  Sollas  described  coprolites  consti- 
tuting phosphatic  nodules,  and  Prof.  Seeley 
an  Ichthyosaurian,  Cetarthrosaurus  Walkeri, 
from  the  railway  bridge  at  Ditton,  north-east 
of  Cambridge,  and  other  reptiles.  Some  are  of 
opinion  that  the  so-called  Upper  Greensand 
from  which  these  fossils  came,  is  itself  Gault. 
(Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  xxviii.  397,  xxix.  505, 
xxxi.  256,  xxxiii.  433,  437,  440,  xxxiv.  730,  917, 
xxxv.  89,  591,  xxxvii.  370.) 

2.  The  Lower  Greensand:  A  series  of  beds 
constituting  the  Lower  Cretaceous  Rocks,  and 
the  lowest  member  of  the  Cretaceous  group. 
It  is  called  on  the  continent  Neocomian,  a 
name  adopted  by  Lyell  in  his  Students'  Ele- 
ments of  Geology,  he  considering  the  term 
greensand  peculiarly  inapplicable,  as  in  the 
district  where  these  stratas  were  first  observed 
sand  of  a  green  colour  was  the  exception  in- 
stead of  the  rule.  [Neocomian.]  Dr.  Fitton 
enumerated  as  fossils  in  various  beds,  Gruphosa 
sinuata,  Perna  MulUti,  the  genera  Scaphites, 
Ammonites,  &c.  (Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc,  iii., 
plate  12.) 

B.  As  adj. :  Of,  belonging  to,  or  found  in 
the  Greensand  :  as,  Greensand  fossils. 

green  -shank,  a.     [Eng.  green,  and  shank.'] 
Ornith. :  Totanus  glottis;  a  sandpiper,  of  the 
family  Scolopacidse,  found  in  Britain. 

green   snake,  s.    [Eng.  green,  and  snake.] 
Zool. ;  The  popular  name  of  more  than  one 
Coluber  in  the  United  States. 

green  -stick,  s.    [Eng.  green,  and  stick.]   (See 
the  compound.) 

gr e  e  nst I  ck- fracture,  s. 

Surg.  :  This  term  is  used  when  a  bone  is 
partially  broken  or  cracked.  This  especially 
occurs  in  the  bending  of  bone  in  young  chil- 
dren, where  the  fracture  is  frequently  incom- 
plete or  partial,  simply  extending  across  the 
convexity  of  the  curve  made  by  the  bending 
instead  of  the  breaking  of  the  bone. 

green'  stone,  s.  &  a.     [Eng.  green,  and  stone.] 

A.  As  substantive : 

1.  Petrology: 

*  (1)  Formerly:  A  granular  rock  consisting 
of  hornblende  and  imperfectly  crystallized  fel- 
spar, the  felspar  being  more  abundant  than  in 
basalt,  and  the  grains  or  crystals  of  the  two 
minerals  more  distinct  from  each  other.  It 
was  called  also  Dolerite.  Sir  Charles  Lyell 
also  included  under  the  term  greenstone  those 
rocks  in  which  augifce  was  substituted  for 
hornhlende,  the  "dolorite"of  some  writers, 
and  those  in  which  albite  replaced  common 
felspar.  This  was  sometimes  termed 

(2)  Now :  The  same  as  diorite,  which  is  an 
essentially  crystalline  granular  admixture  of 
triclinic  felspar  and  hornblende.  Rutley  pro- 
poses a  partial  return  to  the  earlier  significa- 
tion, and  would  use  greenstone  as  an  ambigu- 
ous and  comprehensive  term  useful  in  held 
geology,  but  expressive  of  ignorance  with  re- 
gard to  the  exact  composition  of  volcanic 
rocks,  either  decomposed  or  otherwise  inca- 
pable of  exact  identification.  It  is  not  now 
held  to  be  the  equivalent  of  dolerite  (q.v.). 

2.  Geol. :  Greenstone  is  a  volcanic  rock,  oc- 
curring in  dykes,  tabular  masses,  &c. 

Tit e,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here    camel,  her,  there ;  pihe,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;  go,  pot, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,    se,  oe  =  e;   ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

greensward— grenade 


B.  As  adj.r  Containing  more  or  less  of 
greenstone,  or  akin  to  it  in  composition  or 
other  characters. 

T[  Syenitic  greenstone :  [Syenitic]. 

greenstone-trachytes,  5.  pi. 

Petrol  &  Geol.  :  Eruptive  rocks,  usually  con- 
sisting of  a  more  or  less  felspathic  base,  in 
which  large  crystals  of  plagroclase  felspar, 
with  others  of  hornblende  and  mica,  are  im- 
bedded so  as  to  give  them  a  more  or  less 
strikingly  porphyritie  character.  They  are 
found  in  Hungary.  (Quar.  Jour.  Geol.  Soc, 
xxvii.  298.) 

greenstone-tuffs,  s.  pi. 

Petrol,  &  Geol. :  Tuffs  associated  with  green- 
stone. Rutley  places  them  in  the  diabase 
group  of  crystalline  eruptive  rocks. 

green-sward,  s.    Turf  covered  with  grass. 

"  A  long  straight  path 
Traced  faintly  in  the  greensward." 

Wordsworth :  Excursion,  bk.  vil. 

grcenth,  s.  [Formed  on  the  analogy  of  warmth, 
&c]    Greenness  ;  the  quality  of  being  green. 
"  Amidst  the  gleams  and  greenth  of  summer."— 
G.  Eliot :  Daniel  Deronda,  bk.  iv.,  ch.  xxx. 

green'-weed,  s.      [Eng.  green,  and  weed.] 
Bot. :  Two  species  of  Genista,  G.   tinctoria 
and  G.  pilosa. 

green'-Wlthe,  s.     [Eng.  green,  and  witJie.] 
Bot.  ;  An  orchid,  Vanilla  claviculata. 

green-wood,  *  greene-wood, s.  &  a,  [Eng. 
green,  and  wood.] 

A.  As  substantive : 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  A  wood  in  summer  when  the  trees,  &c, 
are  green. 

2.  Wood  which  has  become  green  in  tint 
under  the  influence  of  the  fungus  Peziza. 

II.  Bot.  :  The  same  as  Greenweed  (q.v.). 

B.  As  adj.  :  Pertaining  to  a  greenwood. 
"  In  the  brown  shades  and  greenwood  forest  lost." 

Thomson :  Castle  of  Indolence,  ii.  17. 

"*green'-$r,  a.     [Eng.  green ;  -y.]    Of  a  greenish 

or  somewhat  green  tint ;  inclined  to  a  green 

green   yard,  s.     [Eng.  green,  and  yard.]    A 

pound  ;  an  inclosure  in  which  stray  cattle  are 


*  grees,  grese,  s.    [Gree  (2),  s.]  ► 

greo-shoch,  «.    [Grieshoch.] 

greet  (1),  *grete,  *gret-en,   *gret-yn, 

v.t.  &  i.  [A.8.  grUan  ~  to  approach,  to  ad- 
dress ;  cogn.  with  Dut.  groeten ;  0.  H.  Ger. 
gruozan ;  M.  H.  Ger.  gruezen;  O.  Pris.  grUa; 
Ger.  griissen.] 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  address  at  meeting  with  salutations 
or  expressions  of  kind  wishes ;  to  salute 
kindly  ;  to  pay  respects  to  ;  to  hail. 

"The  square  was  thronged  by  a  multitude  which 
greeted  him  with  loud  acclamations."— Macaulay  : 
Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  iv. 

2.  To  meet,  to  welcome :  as,  The  cries 
which  greeted  his  ears. 

*  3.  To  congratulate,  to  felicitate. 

"  Why  so  sadly  greet  you  our  victory?" 

Shakesp.  :  Vytnbeline,  v.  6. 

*  i.  To  address  in  any  way. 

*'  Let  him  greet  England  with  our  sharp  defiance. " 
Shakesp.  ■'  Henry  V.,  ill.  5. 

*  5.  To  look  upon  or  regard  kindly. 

"  A  merrier  day  did  never  yet  greet  Rome." 

Shakesp.  :  Coriolanus,  v.  4. 

*  6.  To  meet  as  one  who  goes  to  offer  con- 
\  gratulations. 

"  We  will  greet  the  time." 

Shakesp. :  Lear,  v.  1. 

*  7.'  To  assign  or  bestow  with  praises  or 
congratulations . 

"  And  thether  also  came  in  open  sight 
Payre  Florimell,  into  the  common  hall, 
To  greet  his  guerdon  unto  every  knight." 

Spenser:  F.  Q.,  v.  iii.  14. 

B.  Intrants. :  To  meet  and  salute. 

"  There  greet  in  silence  as  the  dead  are  wont." 
Shakesp.  :  Titus  Andronicus,  \. 

greet  (2),  *greit,  *greetef  *grete  (2), 
*greten  (2),  *gretyn  (2),  *greyt,  y.i. 
[A.S.  gr&tan,  gretan;  cogn.  with  Icel.  grata; 
Dan.  groede;  Sw.  grata;  Goth,  gretan,  all  = 
to  weep.]    To  weep,  to  cry. 

"  Freyndes  I  had  f  ulle  foyn, 
That  gars  me  grete  and  grone. 

Tovmeley  Mysteries,  p.  227. 

*  greet,  *greete,  s.  &  a.    [Greet  (2),  v.] 

A.  As  subst.  :  Weeping. 

B.  -4s  adj. :  Mournful. 

"  Decked  In  a  pocke  of  gray  ; 

Hey,  ho  I  gray  ia  greete." 
Spenser:  Shepheards  Calender;  August. 

greef-er  (1),  s.  [Eng.  greet  (1),  v.  ;  -er.]  One 
who  greets  or  salutes  another. 

greet'-er  (2),  s.  [Eng.  greet  (2),  v.  ;  -er.]  One 
who  cries  or  weeps. 

greet'-ing,  pr.  par.,  «..,  &  s.    [Greet  (1),  v.] 
A.  &  B.    As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. ;  (See 
the  verb). 

Ct  As  subst,  :  The  act  of  saluting  or  welcom- 
ing ;  a  salutation ;  a  welcome. 

"  What  horrid  greetings  these  unclean  wretches  will 
give  each  other." — Hopkins :  Exposition  upon  the 
Seventh  Commandment. 

*  greeve,  s.    [Grieve,  s.] 

*  greeze,  «.  pi.    [Gree  (2),  s.  ] 

*  gref '-fi-er,  s.  [Fr.,  from  Low  Lat.  gre/arius, 
graffarius,  greffarius,  from  Lat.  graphium,  =  a 
style  for  writing ;  Gr.  ypdufm  (graphn)  =  to 
write.]  £Graffer,  Graft.]  A  registrar ;  a 
clerk ;  a  notary. 

"  The  Duke  of  Orleans,  Monsieur  the  Prince,  and  the 
Superintendents  deliver  them  to  the  Qreffier  or  clerk." 
— Evelyn:  State  of  France. 

*  gre'-gal,  a.     [Lat.  gregalis,  from  grex  (genit. 

gregis)  =  a  flock  ;  Ital.  gregale.]     Of  or  per- 
taining to  a  flock  ;  like  a  flock  or  herd. 

"  For  this  gregal  conformity  there  is  a  cause  and  an 
excuse." — \V.  S.  Mayo:  Never  Again,  ch.  vii. 

*  gre-gar'-l-an,  «.  [Lat.  gregarius  =  be- 
longing to  a  flock  ;  grex  (genit.  gregis)  =  a 
flock.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  flock  or  herd ; 
gregarious  ;  herding  together  ;  common. 

"  The  gregarian  soldiers  and  gross  of  the  army  is 
well  affected  to  him."— Sowoll,  bk.  iii.,  let.  L 

*  gre-gar'-i-an-isin,  s.  [Eng.  gregarian ; 
-ism.]  The  habit  of  flocking  or  herding  to- 
gether ;  gregariousness. 

"This  tendency  to  gregarlanism  is  nowhere  more 
manifest."— Truth,  Out.  18,  1681. 

greg-ar-I'-na,  s.  [Lat.  gregarius  =  of  or  be- 
longing to  a"  flock,  from  grex  =  a  flock ;  so 
named  because  numbers  of  individuals  are 
found  together.] 

Zool. ;  The  typical  genus  of  tha  class  Greg- 
arinida  (q.v.). 

greg'-ar-ine,  s.    [Greoarina.] 

Zool, :  A  gregarina,  or  at  least  one  of  the 
Gregarinida.  Minute  organisms  of  this  cha- 
racter were  found  in  the  chignons  of  imported 
hair  once  fashionable  among  ladies. 

greg-ar-i'-ni-da,  greg-ar-i'-na,  s,  [Mod. 
Lat.  gregarina,  and  Lat.  neut.  pi.  adj.  suff. 

Zool, :  The  lowest  of  the  eight  classes  into 
which  Professor  Huxley  divides  Cuvier's  sub- 
kingdom  Radiata.  He  places  them  in  the 
sub-kingdom  Protozoa.  The  species  are  all 
microscopic,  and  consist  of  a  not  very  well 
defined  membrane,  more  or  less  without  struc- 
ture, except  that  it  contains  a  soft  semi-fluid 
substance, ,  having  in  the  middle,  or  at  one 
end  of  it,  a  delicate  vesicle,  inside  of  which  is 
a  more  solid  particle,  Such  a  structure  recalls 
that  of  an  ovum,  the  outer  membrane  of  the 
Gregarinida  recalling  the  vitelline  membrane 
of  an  ovum,  the  semi-fluid  contents  its  yolk, 
the  vesicle  its  germinal  vesicle,  and  the  more 
solid  particle  its  germinal  spot.  There  is  no 
division  of  the  body  into  parts.  No  mouth  or 
digestive  apparatus  has  been  traced  ;  there 
is,  however,  an  expansion  and  contraction  of 
the  animal.  The  Gregarinida  are  found  para- 
sitic within  the  bodies  of  animals,  specially 
the  larvse  of  insects,  in  annelids,  crustaceans, 
mollusca,  &c, and  even  in  vertebrated animals. 
They  are  specially  abundant  in  the  alimentary 
canal  of  the  common  cockroach,  in  earth- 
worms, &c.  "Various  genera  are  known,  and 
the  species  are  numerous. 

gre-gar'-i-ous,  a.  [Lat.  gregarius,  from 
grex  (genit.  gregis)  —  a  flock.]  Flocking  or 
herding  together ;  living  or  going  in  flocks  or 
herds  ;  not  living  solitarily. 

"Of  wild  fowl,  thoas  which  are  the  most  useful  fly 
not  singly  as  other  birds,  but  are  commonly  gre- 
garious. ' — Grew :  Cosmologia  Sacra,  bk.  iii.,  ch.  ii. 

gre-gar'-l-OUB-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  gregarious; 
-ly.]  In  a  gregarious  manner;  in  flocks  or 

gre-gar-i  ous  ness,  s.  [Eng.  gregarious ; 
-ness.  ]  The  quality  or  state  of  being  gregarious ; 
the  habit  of  living  or  going  in  flocks  or  herds ; 
a  disposition  to  associate. 

*  greg'-ar-y,  a.  [Lat.  greguri'  s.\  Ordinary, 
common,  gregarious. 

greg'-goe,   gre'-go,   grle'-go,   s.     L—  rt. 

grego ;  Ital.  greco  ;  Sp.  griego  =  Greek.]  A 
short  jacket  or  cloak,  with  a  hood  attached, 
made  of  thick  coarse  cloth,  and  worn  by  the 
Greeks  and  others  in  the  Levant. 

"  The  three  latter,  with  their  gregos,  or  night  great- 
coats, with  hoods.  — Marryatt :  Mr.  Midship?nau 
Easy,  ch.  xix. 

Gre-gbr'-i-an,  u.  [Low  Lat.  Gregorianus, 
from  Gregorius ;  Gr.  TpijYopos  (Gregoros)  = 
Gregory,  from  Gr.  yp-nyopea)  (gregoreo)  —  to  be 
awake,  from  kypr\yopa{egregora),  perf.  of  ryeiptu 
(egeiro)  =  to  awake ;  Ital.  &  8p.  Gregoriano ; 
Fr.  Grtgorien.]  Pertaining  to,  established  or 
produced  by  any  one  bearing  the  name  of 

Gregorian-calendar,  s.     [Calendar*, 

II.  3.] 

Gregorian  chant,  s. 

Music:  [Plain-song]. 

Gregorian  telescope,  s.  The  flrst  and 
most  ordinary  form  of  reflecting  telescope,  in- 
vented by  James  Gregory,  Professor  of  Mathe- 
matics at  St.  Andrews,  and  afterwards  in  Edin- 
burgh, and  described  by  him  1663.  The  image 
is  viewed  through  an  eye-piece  in  the  aperture 
of  the  object-speculum.     [Telescope.] 

Greg'-or-y,  s.  [Named  after  Dr.  Gregory 
(1758-1822),  who  first  compounded  it.] 

Gregfcry's-powder,  s.  A  name  given 
to  Pulvis  Rhei  Compositus,  compound  rhubarb 
powder.  It  consists  of  powdered  rhubarb, 
two  ounces ;  light  carbonate  of  magnesia, 
six  ounces  ;  and  powdered  ginger,  one  ounce. 

greis'-en,  s.  [Ger.  =  to  grasp,  to  lay  hold  of, 
to  seize.] 

Petrol.  &  Geol. ;  Agranular,  crystalline  rock, 
consisting  of  quartz  and  mica,  the  former  pre- 
dominating, the  latter  usually  of  the  variety 
containing  lithia.  If  orthoclase  be  super- 
added, the  rock  becomes  granite.  (Rutley: 
Study  of  Rocks.) 

greit,  v.i.    [Greet  (2),  v.] 

*  greith,  v.t.    [Graith,  v.] 
greith,  s.    [Graith,  s.] 

*  gre'-ment,  s.    [Greement.] 

gre'-mi-al,  a.  &  s.  [Eccles,  Lat.  gremiale, 
from  Lat"  grcmium  =  the  bosom.] 

*  A.  As  adj. :  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  lap  or 

B.  As  substantive : 

*  1.  Ord.  Lang.  ;  A  bosom  friend. 

"Amongst  those  fourteen,  two  were  gremiali."  — 
Fuller.    { Webster.) 

2.  Eccles. :  An  episcopal  ornament  for  the 
breast,  lap,  and  shoulders,  originally  a  towel 
of  fine  linen,  used  in  ordination  to  protect  the 
sacred  vestments  from  any  drops  of  unction 
that  might  fall  in  the  act  of  anointing  the  can- 
didates for  the  priesthood.  In  later  times  it 
was  made  of  silk  or  damask  to  match  the  epis- 
copal vestments. 

*  3.  Univ.  :  One  who  resides  in  the  bosom 
of  the  University. 

"Which  the  governors  and  the  rest  of  the  gremialt 
very  well  knew. "— Strype :  Cranmer,  bk.  ii  c.  6. 

*gre-mi-en,  v.t.  &  i.  [A.S.  gremian;  IceL 
gremja.]    [Grame.] 

A.  Trans. :  To  annoy,  to  grieve. 

"State  nu  .  .  .  to  gremien  mi  mare." — St.  Mar- 
herete,  p.  12. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  grieve. 

"  The  grettest  of  Grise  gremyt  therat." 

Destruction  of  Troy,  1,004. 

*  gremthe,  s.    [Icel.  grimmdh.]    [Gremien.] 

Annoyance,  anger,  grief. 

"  The  gremthe  of  the  grim  folke  glod  to  his  hert." 
Alisaunder,  279. 

gre-na'de,  *  gra-na'-do,  s.  [Fr.  grenade, 
from  Sp.  granada'=  a  pomegranate,  a  grenade ; 
granado  =  full  of  seeds,  from  Lat.  granatua, 
fromgranum  =  a  seed,  a  grain  ;  Ital.  granata.} 
A  hollow  ball  or  shell  of  metal  or  of  annealed 
glass,  filled  with  powder  and  fired  by  a  fuse. 

"boll,  b6^;  poTit,  jorW;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenuphon,  exist,    -ing. 
-cian,    tian  =  shan.      tion,  -sion=shun;  -tion,    sion  =  zhuu.    -tious,  -sious,  -cious  =  shus.    -hie,  -die,  &c.  =  Del,  del- 


grenadier— gridiron 

After  the  fuse  is  lighted  the  hall  is  thrown 
among  the  enemy,  when  it  bursts  and  causes 
great  injury  or  loss. 

"  Whole  streets  had  been  burned  down  by  the  mortars 

Midgrenaaes  of  the  Cavaliers,"— Macaulay :  Hist.  Eng., 

eh.  v. 

*ff  (1)  Hand-grenade:  A  small  grenade,  usu- 
ally about  2£  inches  in  diameter,  intended  to 
be  thrown  by  hand  into  trenches  or  saps,  or 
upon  besiegers  scaling  a  breach. 

*(2)  Rampart-grenade :  A  grenade  of  various 
sizes  used  for  rolling  over  the  parapet  in  a 

gren-a-dier',  s.      [Fr.,    from   grenade  =  a 
grena'de  (q.v.).] 

Milit. :  Originally  a  foot-soldier  armed  with 
grenades.  The  grenadiers  were  men  of  long 
service  and  approved  courage,  and  only  a  few 
were  attached  to  each  regiment.  Afterwards 
every  regiment  had  one  company  of  grena- 
diers, and  they  retained  their  name  even 
after  the  disuse  of  grenades,  and  were  distin- 
guished by  a  particular  dress,  as  in  England 
by  the  tall  bearskin  cap.  The  title  now  only 
remains  in  one  regiment  of  the  British  army — 
viz. ,  the  Grenadier  Guards. 

"  Five  hundred  grenadiers  rushed  from  the  English 
trenches  to  the  counterscarp,  fired  their  pieces,  and 
threw  their gieuiules."—AIacaulay  :  Hist.  Eng  ,  ch.  xvi. 

gren-a-dil  -16,  gra-niT-16,  «.  [Sp.  (?).] 
Bot. :  A  cabinet  wood  from  the  West  Indies. 
It  resembles  the  common  cocoa,  having,  how- 
ever, at  first  a  lighter  colour  than  it,  though 
becoming  darker  on  exposure.  Called  also 
Grenada  cocos  or  cocus,  and  Red  Ebony. 

grenadine,  s.    [Fr.] 

Fabric:  A  thin,  gauzy  silk  or  woollen  fabric, 
used  for  ladies'  dresses,  shawls,  &c. 

*  gre-na'-do,  s.    [Grenade.] 

*  gren' -at,  s.     [Fr.]    A  garnet  (q.  v.). 

"  Of  grenaz,  and  of  alabraimdynes." 

Maundeville,  p.  210. 

gre-nat'-l-form,  a.     [Eng.  grmati(te),  and 
form.]    Being  in  the  form  of  greuatite  (q.v.). 

gren'-a-tite,  gran'-a-tite,  s.    [Lat.  grana- 
tum  =  a  pomegranate  :*  granum  —  a  grain,  and 
-ite  (Min.)  (q.v.)  ;  Fr.  grenat.     Named  from  its 
Min. :  The  same  as  Staurolite  (q.v.). 

*  grene-hede,  s.    [Greenhood.] 

greng'-e-site,  grans'- e -site,  s.    [From 
Grangesberg,  in  Dalecarlia,  Sweden ;  suff.  -ite 
(Min.)  (q.v.).] 
Min. :  A  dark  green  variety  of  Pyrochlorite. 

*  greot,  a.    [Grit.] 

*  gres  (1),  s.    [Grass.] 
*gres  (2),  s.  pi.    [Gree  (2),  s.] 
*grese  (1),  s.  &  v.    [Grease,  s.  &  v.] 
'  grese  (2),  s.  pi.    [Ghee  (2),  s.] 

*gres-hop,     gres-hoppe,     gres  sop,  a. 


*  gres-som,  s.    [Garsum.] 

tgres-sor'-i-al,  a.      [Mod.  Lat.  gressorius, 
from  Lat.  gresius  =  a  stepping.] 

Ornitk, :  Adapted  for  stepping  or  for  walk- 
ing. Used  of  birds  which  have  three  toes  for- 
ward, two  of  them  connected,  and  one  behind. 

*gret,  *grete,  <*.    [Great.] 

*grete-ly,  *gret-ly,  adv.    [Greatly.] 

*grette,  pret.  of  v.    [Greet.] 

greut,  s.    [Grit.] 

*greve,  v.t.  &  i.    [Grieve.] 

*greve,  «.    [Grove.] 

*greve,  s.  pi.    [Greaves.] 

gre-vil'-le-a,  s.    [Named  after  C.  F.  Greville, 
a  patron  of  botany.  ] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  proteaceous 
family  Grevillidte  (q.v.)  It  consists  of  hand- 
some Australian  plants,  more  than  fifty  of 
which  have-  been  introduced  into  British 

gre-Vll'-li-dfle,  s.  pi.    [Mod.  Lat.  grevill(ea); 
Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -idas.] 

Bot.  :  A  family  of  Proteacese,  sub-order  Fol- 

grew'  (ew  as  6),  pret.  of  v.    [Grow.] 

grew  (ew  as  6),  grue,  v.i.  [Dut,  gruwen; 
Ger.  grauen;  Dan.  grue  —  to  shudder  ;  from 
grue  =  horror.]  [Gruesome.]  To  shudder, 
to  feel  horror,  to  shiver. 

"  I  downa  look  at  them— I  never  see  them  but  they 
gar  me  grew."— Scott :  Rob  Roy,  ch.  xxvii. 

grew  (ew  as  6),  .>.  [Icel.  grey  =  a  dog.]  A 
greyhound  (q.v.). 

"  I  have  six  terriers  at  name,  fovby  two  couple  of 
slow-huncls,  live  grews,  and  a  wheeu  other  dogs." — 
Scott ;  Guy  Manncring,  ch.  xxii. 

*  grew,  *  greu,  *  gru,  a.  &  s.  [O.  Fr.  greu.] 

"  This  written  in  grew." — Maundeville,  p,  76. 

grew'-l-a  (ew  as  6),  s.  [Named  after  Nehe- 
miahGre"w,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  a  celebrated  English 
physiologist,  who  died  in  1711.] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  Grewidse,  sepals 
5,  petals  5  ;  stamens  numerous ;  style,  1 ;  stigma 
4-lobed,  drupe  with  one  to  four  small  nuts, 
one  or  two-seeded.  About  eighty  species  are 
known.  They  occur  in  the  warmer  regions 
of  the  Old  World.  Grewia  sapida  and  G.  asia- 
iicahave  pleasantacid  berries,  used  for  making 
sherbet.  The  wood  of  G.  ektstica,  called  in 
India  dhamnoo,  is  strong  and  elastic ;  it  is 
used  for  bows,  the  shafts  of  carriages,  &c. 

grew'-i-dse  (ew  as  6),  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat. 
grew(ia);  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  stiff,  -idee.] 

Bot.  :  A  family  of  plants,  order  TiliaceEe, 
tribe  Tileas. 

grew'-some  (ew  6),  a.  [Grew,  v.]  Hor- 
rible, gruesome. 

"  And  sic  gruesome  wishes,  that  men  should  be 
slaughtered  like  sheep."— Scott :  Rob  Roy,  ch.  xxx. 

*  grewt,  *  greut,  s.    [Grit.] 

*  grewte,  v.i.    [Greet.] 

grey,  a.  &  s.    [Gray.] 

II  Compounds  not  inserted  here  will  be 
found  under  Gray. 

grey-falcon,  5. 

Ornith.  :  A  name  for  the  Peregrine  Falcon 
(Falco  peregrinus).     [Falcon,  Peregrine.] 

grey-wether,  s. 

Petrol. :  A  boulder  or  slate  of  siliceous  sand- 
stone. Some  of  the  so-called  Druidic  standing 
stones  are  grey-wethers. 

"  From  their  long  exposure  to  the  atmosphere  they 
are  encrusted   with  various  lichens,  which   at  times 

Sves  them  a  darkish  hue,  from  the  decay  of  the  vege- 
ble  matter;  whence,  and  from  the  circurnetaucc  of 
their  resembling  at  a  distance  a  flock  of  sheep,  they 
have  received  tlie  name  uf  drey-wethers." — J.  Britton : 
Beauties  of  England  &  Wales,  xv.  716. 

grey-hound,  *  grai-hond,  *  grai  hound, 
*gray-hund,*  grea-hund,-  gre-hound, 
*  gre-hownde,  *  grei  hound,  *  grey- 
hownd,  *  grew-hounde,  s.  [Icel.  grey- 
hundr,  from  grey  =.  a  dog,  and  hundr  =  a 

Zool.,  £c.  ;  A  variety  of  the  Canis  familiaris, 
or  Common  Dog,  characterized  by  its  slender 
and  symmetric  form,  its  strength,  its  keen 
sight,  and  its  swiftness.  A  dog,  apparently 
of  this  type,  is  figured  on  the  Egyptian  monu- 
ments. It  is  used  in  the  chase,  and  domesti- 
cation has  led  to  its  separation  into  various 
breeds,  as  the  Irish,  the  Highland,  and  the 
Arabian  Greyhounds.  An  old  rhyme  describes 
the  characters  deemed  the  best : 

"  Headed  like  a  snake,  neckyed  like  a  drake. 
Potted  like  a  catte,  tayled  like  a  ratte, 
Syded  like  a  breme,  and  chyned  like  a  heme." 
Youatt  suggests  that  the  greyhound  may  be 
identical  with  the  gazehound  of  old  English 
writers.    Against  this  view  must  be  set  the 
fact  that  Tickell  distinguishes  them. 

"See'stthou  the  gazehound?  h«w  with  glance  severe 
From  the  close  herd  he  marks  the  destined  deer? 
How  every  nerve  the  greyhound's  stretch  displays 
The  hare  preventing  in  her  airy  maze." 

Fragment  of  a  Poem  on  Bunting. 

grey'-beard,  s.  &  a.    [Graybeard.] 
grey'-ish,  a.    [Grayish.] 
Greys,  s.  pi.    [Grey,  a.] 

Mil  :  A  regiment  of  cavalry  in  the  British 
army,  originally  Scottish,  and  so  called  from 
the  horses  being  all  of  a  gray  colour.  They 
are  also  called  the  Scots  Greys. 

grey'-stone,  gray '-stone,  s.    [Eng.  gray  or 

grey,  and  stone ;  Ger.  graustein,  with  the  same 

Petrol.  :  A  volcanic  lead-gray  or  greenish 
rock  composed  of  felspar  and  augite,  the  fel- 
spar'being  more  than  seventy-five  per  cent. 
(Scrape  )  Greystone  lavas  are  intermediate  in 
composition  between  basaltic  and  trachytic 
lavas.  (Lyell.) 
*  grey-wac'-ke,  gray-wac'-ke,  grau- 
W&C'-ke,  s.     [Ger.  grauwacke.] 

1.  Petrol. :  The  popular  name  used  by  Ger- 
man miners  to  designate  a  particular  kind  of 
sandstone,  usually  an  aggregate  of  smajl  frag- 
ments of  quartz,  flinty  slate,  or  Lydian  stone 
and  clay-slate  cemented  by  argillaceous  mat- 
ter.    (Lyell.) 

2.  Geol. :  The  older  palaeozoic  strata.  As, 
however,  rocks  of  the  petrological  aspect 
called  Grauwacke  occur  in  the  Old  Red  Sand- 
stone, in  the  millstone  grit  of  Carboniferous 
age,  in  the  Cretaceous  Rocks,  and  in  the 
Eocene,  the  term  is  not  a  good  one  to  dis- 
tinguish any  single  geological  period  ;  it  has, 
therefore,  been  exchanged  for  Silurian  (q.v.). 

grey'-weath-er,  s.    [Grey-wether.] 

gri'-as,  s.  [From  Gr.  ypdui  (grao)  =  to  gnaw, 
to  eat.] 

Bot.  :  A  genus  of  Barringtoniaceae.  Grias 
caulifiora  is  the  Anchovy  Pear  (q.v.). 

grib'-ble,  s.     [Etym.  doubtful.] 

Zool.  :  Limnoria  terebrans,  an  isopod  crusta- 
cean, section  Cymothoada.  It  is  above  two  lines 
in  length  ;  it  rolls  itself  up  like  a  woodlouse; 
it  inhabits  the  seas  of  Europe  ;  it  attacks  the 
timber  of  ships,  to  which  it  is  most  destructive. 

*  grije  (1),  s.    [Gree  (2),  s.] 

grice  (2),  *gris,  *grise,  *gryce,  *grys, 
*  gryse,  s.    [IceL  griss;  Sw.  gri&;  Dan.  griiss.] 

1.  A  young  or  sucking-pig. 

"  I'se  e'en  lay  the  head  o'  the  sow  to  the  tail  of  the 
grice." —Scott ;  Bob  Boy,  ch.  xxiv. 

2.  A  young  badger. 

"  I  am  a  lord  of  other  geere  !  this  fine 
Smooth  bowson's  cub,  the  young  grice  of  a  gray ; 
Twa  tynie  urchins,  and  this  ferret  gay." 

Be7t  Joiison  :  The  Sad  Shepherd,  ii.  2. 

grid'-dle,  gird'-dle,  *  gred-el,  *  gred-U, 
*grid-ele,  s.  [Wei.  gredyll,  greidell,  gra- 
dell  =  a  griddle,  from  greidio  =  to  scorch  ;  Ir. 
greideal,  greideil,  from  greadairn  =  to  parch,  to 

,  bum  (Skeat).  Or  from  Low  Lat.  graticula, 
craticula,  dimin.  of  Lat.  crates  =  a  hurdle.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  A  broad  circular  plate  of  iron 
used  for  baking  cakes. 

"Rost  hit  afterwarde  apone  a  gredel." — Liber  Cure 
Cocorum,  p.  13. 

2.  Mining :  A  sieve  with  a  wire  bottom. 

griddle-bread,  griddle  cake,  *,    A 

cake  baked  on  a  griddle. 

*  gride,  v.t.  &  i.  [A  metathesis  of  gird  (q.v.). 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  To  pierce,  to  cut  through. 

"  With  brandisht  tongue  the  emptie  aire  did  gride. 

2.  To  .jar,  to  grate. 

tenser  ;  Virgil's  Gnat.  254. 

"  The  wood  which  grides  and  clangs 
Its  leafless  ribs." 

.  Tennyson:  In  Memoriam,  cvi  11. 

B.  Intransitive: 

1.  To  cut,  to  pierce. 

"  The  griding  sword,  with  discontinuous  wound 
Passed  through  him."  Milton :  P.  L.,  vi.'329. 

2.  To  wound  or  cut  mentally. 

"  Griding  anguish  pierced  hiB  fluttering  breast" 
Sir  W.  Jones:  Pindar;  First  Nemean  Ode. 

*  gride,  s.    '[Gride,  v.]    A  harsh  or  grating 

sound,  as  of  scraping  or  cutting.    (WHttier.) 

grid'-e  lin,  gred'-a-  -line,  s.  [Fr.  gris  de  lin 
=  the  gray  of  flax.]  A  colour  mixed,  or  white 
and  red,  or  a  gray  violet.  (Dryden:  Flower  & 
Leaf  343.) 

*  grid'-il,  s.    [Griddle.] 

grid-iron  (iron  as  i-ern),  *  gyrd-iron- 
*gred-irne,  *gred-eyrne,  *gred-lre. 
*gred-yre,  *  grid-ire,  *gryd-yrne,  2 

[A  corrupt,  of  Mid.  Eng.  gredire  =  a  griddle 
(q.v.).]     [Gredire.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  A  grated  iron  utensil  on 
which  fish,  flesh,  and  fowl  are  exposed  for 

2.  Hydraul.  Engin. :  A  grated  frame  on  which 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine-  go  pfit, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     as,  ce=  e;  ey=a.    qu  =  kW. 

griece— grifiinism 


ships  are  hauled  out  of  the  water  for  exami- 
nation, cleaning,  and  repairs.  Or  a  framing 
of  cross-timbers  which  receives  a  ship  with 
the  falling  tide. 

gridiron-pendulum,  s. 

IIoroL  :  A  compensation  pendulum  in  which 
the  hob  is  supported  by  parallel  bars  of  two 
metals  which  are  unequally  expanded  by  heat. 
These  are  so  disposed  that,  while  one  tends  to 
lengthen  it,  the  other  tends  to  shorten  it. 
The  ratio  of  lengths  is  determined  by  the  rela- 
tive expansibility.     [Pendulum.] 

gridiron-valve,  s. 

Stcam-engin.  :  A  valve  whose  opening  is 
divided  into  a  number  of  narrow  parts  by 
which  the  travel  may  be  abridged,  and  the 
more  rapid  opening  or  closing  of  the  valve 

griece,  s.    [Gree  (2),  s.] 

Her.  :  A  step  or  degree,  as  one  of  the  steps 
upon  which  crosses  are  sometimes  placed. 

grief,  *  greef,  *  greif,  *  grefe,  *  greefe, 

*greffe,   *grevef  *greeve,  s.     [O.  Fr. 

grcf,  grief ;  Fr.  grief,  from  Lat.  gravis  = 

1.  Pain  of  mind,  sorrow,  or  trouble  for 
something  past,  as  the  loss  of  a  friend  or  rela- 
tion, misconduct,  or  ungratefulness  on  the 
part  of  others,  &c. ;  sadness. 

"  Grief  is  sometlmes'considereil  as  synonymous  with 
sorrow;  and  in  this  case  we  speak  of  the  transports  of 
grief.  At  other  times  it  expresses  more  silent,  deep, 
and  painful  affections,  such  as  are  inspired  by  do- 
mestic calamities." — Cogan :  On  the  Pomona,  vol.  i., 
pt.  i.,  ch.  ii. 

2.  That  which  causes  sorrow,  sadness,  or 
pain  of  mind ;  a  trial,  a  grievance,  a  misfor- 

"I  here  forget  all  former  griefs." 

Shakesp. :  Two  Gentlemen  of  Verona,  v.  4. 

*3.  Bodily  pain  or  suffering  ;  disease. 

"  My  limbs  weakened  with  grief." 

Shakesp. :  2  Henry  IV.,  i.  1. 

*  4.  A  fault,  an  offence. 

"To  implore  forgifnes  of  all  greif." 

Douglas :  Virgil,  453,  43. 

If  To  corns  to  grief:  To  come  to  ruin  ;  to 
fail  utterly ;  to  come  to  a  bad  end. 

grief-worn,  a.    "Worn  out  by  grief. 

"  A  gray  and  grief-worn  aspect  of  old  days." 

Byron :  i'liilde  Harold,  iii.  65. 

*  grief'-ful,  a.     [Eng.  grief;  -fiUQ).']     Full  of 
grief  or  sorrow  ;  very  sad. 

"  Which  when  she  see3  with  ghastly  griefful  eyes 
Her  heart  does  quake." 

Spenser :  F.  Q.,  VI.  viii.  40. 

*  grief-hood,  *  gref-hed,  s.    [Eng.  grief; 
-Itood.]    That  which  causes  grief. 

"  Yowth  withoutc  grefhed  or  folye." 

Chaucer:  C.  T.,  4,532. 

■*  grief-less,    a.      [Eng.   grief;   -less.)     Free 
from  or  without  grief. 

*  grief -iy,  *  greef-li,  *  greef-ly,  a.  &  adv. 

[Eng.  grief;  -ly.] 

A.  As  adj. :  Grievous,  sad. 

"  With  dayly  diligence  and  gricfty  groans." 

Sidney :  Arcadia,  p.  154. 

B.  As  adv. :  Grievously. 

"  Whan  I  was  greejly  bigo  with  a  grim  peeple." 

Alisaunder :  Frag.,  994. 

*  grief  -shot,    a.      [Eng.    grief,   and    shot] 
Pierced  or  stricken  with  grief;  sorrow-stricken. 

"  Griefshot  with  his  un kindness." 

Shakesp. ;  Coriolnnus,  v.  1. 

grie-go,  s.    [Gregqoe.] 
*gries,  s.    [Ger.]    Gravel. 

*  grie'-shoch,  gree'-shoch  (ch  guttural),  s. 
{Gael,  griosach.] 

1.  Lit.  :  Hot  embers  ;  properly  those  of 
peat  or  moss-peat. 

"  By  the  same  token  there  twas  a  pit  greeshoch  burn- 
ing yet." — Scott:  Heart  of  Mid- Lothian,  ch.  Ii. 

2.  Fig. :  A  glowing  affection. 

*  gries'-ing,   s.     [Gree   (2),  s.]     A  stair,  a 

*gries-ly,  a.     [Grisly.] 

*griev'-a-ble,  *grev-a-ble,  a.     [Eng. 
griev(e);  '-able.]    Causing  grief;  lamentable. 
"  There  is  a  vice  ful  greuable 
To  hyin,  whiche  is  therof  culpable." 

Gower:  C.  A.,  bk.  v. 

grieV-  ance,  *  grev-ance,  *  grev-aunce, 

s.  [O.  Fr.  grevance,  from  gref,  grief;  Ital. 

*  1.  Hurt,  harm,  annoyance. 

*  2.  A  state  of  grief,  sorrow,  or  pain  of 
mind ;  affliction,  uneasiness. 

"  If  y  do  so  y  potte  meselue  ...  to  grot  greuaunce." 
Sir  Ferumbras,  4,161. 

3.  Anything  which  causes  grief,  sorrow,  or 
pain  of  mind ;  especially  anything  which  gives 
grounds  for  complaint,  remonstrance,  or  re- 
sistance ;  a  hardship,  an  injury,  an  injustice. 

"It  bears  no  sounding  name,  nor  ever  bore ; 
A  standing  grievance." 

Wordsworth  :  Excursion,  bk.  ix. 

IT  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  griev- 
ance and  hardship:  "The  grievance  implies 
that  which  lies  heavy  at  heart.  Hardship  im- 
plies that  which  presses  or  bears  violently  on 
the  person.  The  grievance  is  in  general  taken 
for  that  which  is  done  by  another  to  grieve  or 
distress  :  the  hardship  is  a  particular  kind  of 
grievance  that  presses  upon  individuals.  Them 
are  national  grievances,  though  not  national 
liardships.  An  infraction  of  one's  rights,  an 
art  of  violence  or  oppression,  are  grievances  to 
those  who  are  exposed  to  them,  whether  as 
individuals  or  bodies  of  men  :  an  unequal  dis- 
tribution of  labour,  a  partial  indulgence  of  one 
to  the  detriment  of  another,  constitutes  the 
hardship."    (CrabJ) :  Eng.  Synon.) 

grievance  -  monger,  s.     One  who   is 

always  raking  up  or  talking  about  his  own  or 
his  party's  grievances  or  supposed  grievances, 
public  or  private. 

* grieV-ance-er,  ».  [Eng.  grievance);  -er.] 
One  who  causes  or  commits  a  grievance  ;  one 
who  gives  grounds  for  complaint. 

"Some  petition  against  the  bishops  as  grieoancers." 
—Fuller.    ( Webster) 

grieve,     *  greve,    *  greven,    *  grev-y, 

*grev-yn,  v.t  &  i.  [O.  Fr.  grever;  Prov. 
grevar,  greviar,  from  Lat.  gravo  —  to  burden  ; 
gravis  =  heavy  ;  Ital.  gravare;  Sp.  &  Port. 

A.  Transitive : 

*  1.  To  annoy,  to  harass. 

"  Hil  nadde  non  recet  vorto  grevy  ys  lond." 

Robert  of  Gloucester,  p.  275. 

2.  To  cause  grief,  sorrow,  or  pain  of  mind 
to ;  to  make  sorrowful ;  to  wound  the  feelings 
of;  to  affect. 

"  The  prycke  of  conscyence  grevyth  me  sore." 

Penitential  Psalms,  p.  8, 

3.  To  offend  against. 

"  Grieve  not  the  holy  spirit  of  God."— Ephes.  iv.  30. 

*  L  To  lament,  to  mourn,  to  deplore,  to 
sorrow  over. 

"  The  nothing  that  I  grieve." 

Shakesp.  :  Jiidiard  II.,  ii.  2, 

B.  Intrans.  :  To  feel  grief,  sorrow,  or  pain  ; 
to  mourn,  to  lament,  to  sorrow.  (Generally 
followed  by  at,  for,  or  over.) 

"  Grieve,  and  they  grieve."  Drydcn :  Juvenal,  sat.  iii. 

%  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  to 
grieve,  to  mourn,  and  to  lament :  "  To  grieve  is 
the  general  term  ;  mourn  the  particular  term. 
To  grieve,  in  its  limited  sense,  is  an  inward 
act ;  to  mourn  is  an  outward  act :  the  grief  lies 
altogether  in  the  mind.  A  man  grieves  for  his 
sins  ;  he  mourns  for  the  loss  of  his  friends. 
Grieve  is  the  act  of  an  individual ;  mourn  may 
be  the  common  act  of  many :  a  nation  mourns, 
though  not  grieves,  for  a  public  calamity. 
Grieve  and  mourn  are  permanent  sentiments  ; 
lament  is  a  transitory  feeling ;  the  former  are 
produced  by  substantial  causes,  which  come 
home  to  the  feelings.  Mourn  and  lament  are 
both  expressed  by  some  outward  sign;  but 
the  former  is  composed  and  free  from  all 
noise  ;  the  latter  displays  itself  either  in  cries 
or  simple  words."    (Crabb:  Eng.  Synon.) 

■  grieve,  greeve  s.  [A.S.  gerefa;  Icel.  greifi; 
tiw.  grefve;  Dan.  greve.]  An  overseer,  a  stew- 
ard, a  reeve,  a  bailiff. 

"And  sicklike  dung  as  the  grieve  has  ei'en  me."— 
Scott :  Rob  Roy,  ch.  xfv. 

*  grieve  '-ment,  s.  [Eng.  grieve ;  -ment]  An 
injury  ;  a  cause  or  source  of  grief. 

"WoundB,  bruises,  bangs,  and  other  grievements. "— 
Ward ;  England's  Reformation,  i.  90. 

griev'-er,  s.  [Eng.  griev(e) ;  -er.]  One  who 
or  that  which  grieves,  or  causes  grief  or  pain. 

"ffWewrand  quencher  of  the  spirit."— Hammond  ; 
Works,  iv.  514. 

grieV-ing,  pr.  par.,  «.,  &  s.    [Grieve,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst.  :  The  act  of  causing  grief  or 
pain  to  ;  the  state  of  being  grieved. 

*  griev'-ing-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  grieving;  -ly.] 
In  a  grieving  or  sorrowful  manner ;  sorrow- 
fully, sadly  ;  with  grief  or  regret. 

"  Grievingly,  I  think. 
The  peace  between  the  French  and  us  not  value* 
The  cost,"  Shakesp. :  Henry  VIII.,  i.  \. 

grlev'-ous,  *grev-OUS,  a.  [O.  Fr.  grcvos, 
grevus,  grevous,  from  gref,  grief  =  grief;  Sp.  & 
Ital.  gravoso.] 

1.  Causing  grief,* sorrow,  or  pain  of  mind; 
lamentable,  afflictive,  painful  ;  hard  to  be 

"Grievous  and  corroding  to  the  mind  of  man."— 

South:  Sermons,  vol.  ix.,  ser.  1. 

2.  Causing  physical  or  bodily  pain  ;  painfuL 

"  He  hadde  a  greuous  wounde."        Ferumbras,  490. 

3.  Expressive  of  grief,  sorrow,  or  anguish ; 
piteous,  pitiable,  full  of  grief ;  as,  a  grievous 

4.  Atrocious ;  exceeding  bad  ;  heinous,  fla- 

"  Grevous  outrnge,  which  he  red 
A  knight  had  wrought  ngainst  a  lady  gent." 

Spenser:  F.  <}.,  II.  i.  30. 

griev'-oiis-ly,  *  grev-os-ly,  *  grev-ous- 

ly*  *  grev-US-ly,  adv.     [Eng.  grievous  ;  -ly.] 
*  1.  With  grief,  pain,  or  sorrow  ;  painfully  ; 

"  The  common  Bort  are  wont  to  take  the  deathe  of 
yong  folks  much  grievoitslyer  then  of  old."—  Udal: 
Mark  v. 

2.  So  as  to  cause  grief,  sorrow,  or  annoy- 
ance ;  vexatiously. 

"  Houses  built  in  plains  are  apt  to  be  grievously  an- 
noyed with  mire  and  dirt."— Ray  :  On  the  Creation. 

3.  With  bodily  or  physical  pain  or  suffering ; 

*  i.  Heavily  ;  hardly. 

"  It  was  a  grievous  fault ; 
And  grievously  hath  Ccesar  answered  it." 

Shakesp. :  Julius  Caisar,  iii.  2. 

5.  To  a  great  degree  ;  very  much  ;  exceed- 

"Grievously  disturbed  with  odd,  unreasonable,  nay, 
and  sometimes  impious,  blasphemous  phantasies."— 
Sliarpe :  Sermons,  vol.  iii,,  ser.  5. 

6.  Atrociously ;  heinously. 

"  Jerusalem  hath  grievously  sinned."— Lam.  i.  8. 

+  7.  Criminally  ;  with  or  of  a  serious  crime  ; 

"  He  was  accused  greuously  to  the  emperour."— Gesta 
Romanorum,  p.  65. 

grieV-ous--ness,  *  grev-ous-nesse,  s. 

[Eng.  grievous;  -ness.)    The  quality  or  state 
of  being  grievous. 

"  The  griev ousness  of  the  offence  is  to  be  opened. "— 
Strype:  Life  of  Qrindal,  bk.  ii.,  ch.  xi. 

griflf  (1),  ».     [Etym,  doubtful.] 

Weav.  :  A  series  of  horizontal  parallel-edged 
bars,  also  known  as  knives  or  blades,  arranged 
in  a  reciprocating  frame  to  raise  and  lower  the 
vertical  hooked  rods  connected  to  the  shedding 
mechanism,  when  the  hooked  ends  of  the  rods 
are  brought  by  a  pattern  device  within  the 
path  of  the  knives. 

*  griflf  (2),  s.  [A  variant  of  Grip.]  Reach, 
grasp,  grip. 

"  A  vein  of  gold  within  our  spade's  griff.  '—Holland. 

grif -fin  (1),  s.    [Griffon.] 

grif  '-fin  (2),  s.  [Etym.  doubtful,  but  perhaps 
the  same  word  as  Griffin  (1),  (q.v.),  the  new- 
comer being  looked  upon  as  a  strange  animal 
neither  English  nor  Indian,  as  a  griffon  is 
neither  lion  nor  eagle.]  An  Anglo-Indian 
sportive  term  for  a  new-comer  who  has  arrived 
from  Europe.  He  makes  ludicrous  mistakes, 
not  however  like  the  sclwlastikos  of  the  Greeks 
from  deficiency  of  intellect,  but  from  want  of 
Indian  experience.  Taking  advantage  of  this, 
if  he  be  a  young  cadet,  his  companions  in  arms 
sometimes  wilfully  cause  him  to  fall  into 
blunders,  which  left  to  himself  he  might  avoid. 

"  All  the  griffins  ought  to  hunt  together."— H.  Kings- 
ley  :  Geoffry  Hamlyn,  ch.  xxviii. 

grif  '-ftn-age,  *.  [Eng.  griffin ;  -age.]  The 
state  of  a*  griffin— i.e.,  of  a  newcomer  from 
Europe.  It  is  generally  held  to  continue  a 
year.    (Anglo-Indian.) 

*  grif  '-fin-Ish,  w.  [Eng.  griffin ;  -ish.]  Like 
a  griffin  ;  fierce.  , 

"  That  griffirash  excess  of  zeal." 

Hood :  Ode  to  Rae  Wilson. 

gr3tf '-fin-ism,  s.  [Eng.  griffin;  -ism.]  The 
same  as  Griffinage  (q.v.).    (Anglo-Indian.) 

boll,  btSy;  pout,  j6*M;  eat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph  -  i. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.  -tien,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -hie,  -die,  &c.  =  beL  del. 


Griffith — Grimm 

Grlf'-flth,  s.    [From  Griffith,  who  first  com- 
pounded it.]    (See  the  compound.) 

Griffith's-mixture,  s. 

Phar. :  Mistura  Ferri  Gomposita,  compound 
mixture  of  iron.  It  consists  of  carbonate  of 
iron,  and  is  prepared  by  rubbing  sixty  grains 
of  powdered  myrrh  with  four  fluid  drachms  of 
spirit  of  nutmeg  and  thirty  grains  of  potas- 
sium carbonate,  then  adding  while  rubbing 
nine  and  a  half  fluid  ounces  of  rose-water, 
then  sixty  grains  of  sugar,  and  lastly  twenty- 
five  gTains  of  ferrous  sulphate.  It  must  be 
kept  in  a  stoppered  bottle.  It  possesses  the 
blood-restoring  properties  of  iron  and  is  not 

grif ' -fon,  grif -f  in,  *  grif-foun,  *  grif- 
fyn,  *  gryf-fon,   *  gryf-fown,  s.      [Fr. 

griffon,  from  Low  Lat.  4  griffus,  from  Lat. 
grypkvs,  an  extension  of  gryps ;  Gr.  ypv\{/  (grups) 
=  a  griffin,  from  Gr.  ypwos  (grupos)  =  hooked, 
curved :  from  the  beak  being  hooked ;  Ital. 
grifone;  Sp.  gri/o ;  Port,  grlpho.] 

1.  Myth.  :  A   fabulous    animal,  usually  re- 
presented with  the  body 
and  legs  of  a  lion,  and 
the  head  and  wings  of 
an  eagle,  signifying  the 
union  of  strength  and 
agility.    Figures  of  grif- 
fons are  frequently  used 
as  ornaments  in  works 
of  art.   It  is  employed  as 
an  emblem  of  \igilance, 
the  animals  being  sup- 
posed to  be  the  guar- 
dians    of    mines     and  griffon. 
hidden  treasures.     Fig- 
ures of  it  are  met  with  in  tombs  and  sepul- 
chral lamps,  as  guarding  the  remains  of  the 

,-*  "They  quelled  gigantic  foe, 

Braved  the  tierce  griffon  in  his  ire." 

Scott :  Bridal  of  Triermaln,  iii.  19. 

2,  Ornith. :  The  Bearded  "Vulture,  Gypaettts 
barbatus,  a  predatory  bird,  gray  or  blackish- 
brown  above,  the  tips  of  the  shafts  white,  the 
lower  parts  orange  yellow,  the  head  and  neck 
whitish.  Length  four  and  a  half  feet,  the  ex- 
pansion of  the  wings  between  nine  and  ten  feet. 
It  is  found  in  the  Alps,  where  it  feeds  chiefly  on 
young  chamois,  and  in  some  parts  of  Southern 
and  Central  Europe,  as  well  as  in  Asia  and 
Africa.  It  feeds  on  birds,  small  mammals, 
lambs,  &c,  and  children  also  have, been  carried 
off  by  it.  When  pressed  by  hunger  it  will 
devour  putrescent  meat.  It  is  said  to  pursue 
animals  till  it  makes  them  fall  over  precipices. 
Called  also  the  Lammergeyer  (q.v.). 

griffon-like,  a.  Resembling  a  griffon  in 
shape  or  qualities ;  rapacious. 

"A  corporality  of  griffon-tike  promoters  and  ap- 
paritors."—Milton :  Of  Reformation  in  England,  ok.  i. 

griflbn-male,  s. 

Her. :  A  griffon  represented  without  wings, 
and  having  large  ears. 

*grif-fon(2),  *grif-fdun<2),  *gryf-fon,s. 

[O.  Ft.  grifon,  griffon.]    A  Greek. 

"  Chase  these  gryffons  if  th^u  might-" 

Richard  Carnr  de  Lion,  1,767. 

grig,  *grigge,  s.  [Representing  an  older 
*  crick,  of  which  cricket  is  the  derivative.  Cf. 
Dut.  krick  =  krekel  —  a  cricket.]    [Cricket.] 

1.  A  cricket;  a  grasshopper. 

"  High-elbowed  grigs  that  leap  in  summer  grass." 
Tennyson :  Brook,  54. 

2.  A  small  lively  eel ;  a  sand-eel. 

"Known  in  the  Thames  by  the  name  of  grigs."— 
Pennant :  British  Zoology  ;  The  Eel. 

f  The  proverbial  saying,  as  merry  as  a  grig, 
may  either  refer  to  the  liveliness  of  the  grass- 
hopper or  sand-eel,  or  may  be  a  corruption  of 
as  merry  cts  a  Greek,  the  Greeks  being  prover- 
bially spoken  of  by  the  Romans  as  fond  of  good 
living  ana  free  potations.  Cf.  "  She's  a  merry 
Greek,  indeed  "  (Shakesp. :  Troilus,  i.  2). 

grigg,  *.     [Cf.  A.S.  grig,  grceg  =  gray.] 
Bot.  :  Calluna  vulgaris. 

*  grill,  *  grille,  *  grylle, .a.,  adv.,  &  s. 
[M.  H.  Ger.  grel] 

A.  As  adj. :  Horrible,  hideous,  fierce,  cruel. 

"  To  riche  men  was  he  grille."    R.  de  Brunne,  p.  92. 

B.  As  adv. :  Horribly,  dreadfully. 

"  Thai  grate  and  groned  grille."     St.  Alexius,  p.  46. 

C.  As  subst. :  Cruelty,  hardship. 

"  Therefore  y  rede  that  we  hym  sloo, 
He  hath  done  us  grete  grylle" 

Erie  of  Tolous,  278. 

grill  (1),  *  grille,  'grulle,  *  grylle,  v.t. 

&    i.      [A.S.    grilUtn,   greltan  =  to    provoke  ; 
M.  H.  Ger.  grillen;  Dut.  grillen  =  to  shiver.] 
A.  Transitive : 

1,  To  provoke,  to  vex,  to  offend  against. 

"  Never  more  the  greeve  ne  grill."      Chester  Plays. 

2.  To  terrify ;  to  cause  fright  or  horror  ;  to 
cause  to  shake  or  shiver. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  cause  horror  or  fright. 

"  Game  ne'gle  lyked  hym  noght, 
So  gretly  can  ne  grylle."        Erie  of  Tolous,  164. 

grill  (2),  v.t.  &  i.  [Fr.  grilUr,  from  gnl  =  a 
gridiron ;  O.  Fr.  grail,  greil,  from  Lat.  cra- 
ticida,  dimln.  of  crates  =  a  hurdle.]    [Grille.] 

A.  Transitive : 

1.  Lit. :  To  broil  or  roast  on  a  gridiron  or 
similar  apparatus. 

"  Boilyng  of  men  in  caldrons,  grilling  them  on  grid- 
irons."— Marvell:   Works,  448. 

2.  Fig.  :  To  torment,  as  if  by  fire. 

B.  Intrans. :  To  cook  by  broiling  on  a  grid- 

grill,  s.     [Grill  (2),  v.] 

1.  Meat,  fish,  &c,  broiled  on  a  gridiron. 

2.  A  gridiron. 

"  Make  grills  of  it  [wood]  to  broil  their  meat."— 
Cotton:  Montaigne,  eh.-xxiv. 

grill-room,  s.  A  room  where  meat,  &c, 
is  cooked  on  a  grill,   i 

gril-la'de,  s.     [Fr. ,  from  griller  =  to  grill.  J 

1.  The  act  of  grilling. 

2.  Meat,  fish,  &c,  broiled  on  a  grill  or  grid- 

grill -age,  s.  [Fr.  from  grille  =  a  grate,  a 

Hydr.  Sag. :  A  structure  of  sleepers  and 
cross-beams  forming  a  foundation  in  marshy 
soil  for  a  pier  or  wharf. 

grille,  s.  [Fr.]  [Grill  (2),  v.]  An  open  grate 
or  grating ;  lattice- work  of  metal ;  used— 

(1)  As  a  screen  to  Shut  in  and  protect  any 
particular  spot  or  thing,  as  a  tomb,  a  relic,  a 
shrine,  &c. 

(2)  The  gate  or  entrance  to  a  religious  house 
or  sacred  building. 

(3)  A  small  screen  or  open  grating  inserted 
in  the  outer  door  of  a  monastic  or  conventual 

building,  to  enable  the  inmates  to  converse 
with  visitors  or  to  answer  enquiries  without 
the  necessity  of  opening  the  door. 

*  grXT-ly,  v-t-  [Grill  (1),  v.]  To  harass  ;  to 
annoy  ;  to  hurt ;  hence,  fig.,  to  hold  up  to 
ridicule,  to  nipck.. 

grilse,  s.  [Sw.  grd.  =  grey,  and  lax  =  salmon 
(?)  (Jamieson.)  In  the  north  of  Ireland  the 
form  is  grawl.] 

Ickthy. :  A  young  salmon,  when  it  makes  its 
first  return  to  the  fresh  water,  which  is  usually 
in  the  second  year  of  its  life.  (Prof.  John 

"Sea-fish  frae  Hartlepool  and  Sunderland  by  land 
carriage,  forbye  trouts,  grilses,  salmon." — Scott:  Rob 
Roy,  ch.  vL 

grim,  *  grimme,  *  grym,  *  grymme,  a- 

[A.S.  grim  =  fierce,  cruel,  from  gram  =  angry, 
furious;  eogn.  with  <.  Dut.  grimmig  =  angry. 
grimmen  =  to  foam  with  rage ;  I  eel.  grimmr 
grim,  stern,  gramr  =  wrathful ;  Dan.  grim  — 
ugly,  grim,  gram  =  wrathful ;  Sw.  grym  = 
cruel,  grim ;  Goth,  gro,m  =■  angry  ;  Ger.  grim- 

<m,ig  =  furious,   grimmen  =  to  rage,    grimm- 
fury,  gram  =  hostile.] 
l"  Fierce,  stern,  ferocious,  forbidding. 

•'  With  a  grim  and  surly  voicehe  bid  them  awake.  - 
Bunyan  :  Pilgrim's  Progress,  pt  i. 

2    Fierce,  furious,  mercilessly  cruel. 

»  Now  is  the  Kyng  wroth ntfflg^. ^ 
3.  Of  a  forbidding  aspect ;  ghastly,  horrid, 
horrible,  hideous. 

"  Making  death  more  grim."        Addison  :  Cato,  ii.  1. 

i.  Cruel,  furious,  merciless. 

'*  Well  sterne  strokes  and  well  grym, 
Ther  wer  in  eche  a  side. 

Launfal:  Ritson,  vol.  i. 

If  Obvious  compounds  :   Grim-faced,  grwi* 
grinning,  grim-looked,  grim-visaged,  &c. 

*  grim,  *  grym,  s.  [M.  H.  Ger.  grim;  O.  H. 
Ger.  grimme;  Dut.  grim;  Ger.  grimm.]  Fury, 

• '  To  him  h  e  stirt  with  brif  ul  grim. 

Owainc  &  Gawnine,  1,661. 

*  grim,  v.t.  [Grim,  a  ]  To  make  grim  or 

'*  Grimmed  by  the  ahadow  of  the  Red  Flag."— Car- 
lyle :  French  Revolution,  pt.  ii.,  bk.  t„  ch.  viii. 

gri-ma'ce,  s.  [Fr.,  from  Icel.  grirna  =  a  mask, 
a  hood  ;  A.S.  grima  =  a  mask.]  A  distortion 
of  the  face,  expressive  of  some  feeling,  as 
pain,  disgust,  contempt,  satisfaction,  &c. ;  a 

"  With  hollow  form,  and  gesture,  and  grimace." 

Cowper :  Expostulation,  122. 

*gri-ma'§e,  v.i.  [Grimace,  s.]  To  make 
grimaces ;  to  distort  the  countenance  ;  to 

*  gri--maced',  a.  [Bng.  gHmac(ey;  -ed.]  Dis- 
torted ;  having  a  crabbed  look. 

gri-mal'-kin,  s.  [For  gray-Tnalkin,  from  gray, 
and  mfilkin  =  moll-kin  =  little  Mary  ;  cf.  tom- 
cat] An  old  cat,  especially  a  female  cat. 
(Contemptuously  applied  to  a  jealous  or  ill- 
natured  woman.) 

grime,  s.  [Dan.  grim,  grum  =  soot,  grime  ; 
lcel.  grima  =  a  mask,  a  covering  ;  O.  Dut. 
grijmsel,  grimsel  =  soot,  smut ;  grimmelen  =to 
soil,  to  begrime.]  Dirt  or  foul  matter ;  dirt 
deeply  insinuated  or  ingrained ;  sullying 
blackness  not  easily  cleansed  ;  smut. 

"  She  sweats  ;  a  man  may  go  over  shoes  in  the  grhne 
of  it."— Shakesp.  :  Comedy  of  Errors,  iii.  2. 

grIme,V£.  [Grime,  s.)  To  dirt,  to  foul,  to 

"  Masks  and  disguises  grimed  with  mud." 

Scott :  Rokeby,  vi.  4. 

grim'-I-rjf,  adv.  [Eng.  grimy;  -ly.]  In  a 
grimy  manner  or  cor4ition ;  foully. 

grim  i-ness,  s.  [Bng.  grimy;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  grimy;  foulness, 

grim'-lyf  *  grym-ly,  a.  &  adv.  [Eng.  grim  ; 

A.  As  adj. :  Grim,  hideous,  ghastly,  ster** 

"  In  came  Margaret's  grimly  ghost.' 
Beaum.  &  Flet. :  Knight  of  the  Burning  PetOe,  ii.  L 

B.  As  adverb : 

1.  Horridly,  hideously,  ferociously,  cruelly, 

"  The  uncircumcised  smiled  grimly  with  disdain." 
Cowley  :  DavideU,  bk.  iii. 

2.  Sternly,  sullenly,  forbiddingly. 

"  From  its  tall  rock  lookgrimly  down." 

Scott :  Marmion,  ii.  8. 

Grimm,  s.    [See  compound.] 

Grimm's  law,  ». 

Philol.  :  A  law  formulated  by  Jacob  Grimm, 
the  eminent  German  philologist,  relative  to 
the  changes  undergone  by  mute  consonants 
in  the  most  important  of  the  Aryan  languages. 
According  to  this  law,  if  the  same  roots  or  th€ 
same  words  exist  in  Sanscrit,  Greek,  Latin, 
Celtic,  Slavonic,  Lithuanian,  Gothic  (witli 
which  are  included  English  and  other  Low 
German  dialects),  and  Old  High  German 
then,  whenever  the  Sanscrit  or  Greek  has  ai 
aspirate,  the  Gothic  has  the  corresponding 
fiat  mute.  If  in  Sanscrit,  Greek,  &c,  we  fine 
a  fiat  mute,  then  we  find  a  corresponding  shar% 
mute  in  Gothic,  and  a  corresponding  aspirat 
in  High  German.  If  in  Sanscrit,  Greek,  &c 
we  find  a  sharp  mute,  the  Gothic  shows  tfr 
corresponding  aspirate,  and  Old  High  Gerrnai 
the  corresponding  flat  mute.  Thus  the  labials 
6,  p,  f,  in  Greek,  Latin,  or  Sanscrit,  becom 

f&te,  fat,  rare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pme,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;  go,  p5l 
or.  wore,  wolf;  work,  whd,  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,    w,  ce  =  e;  ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw. 

grimmei— grint 


ff  b,  p  respectively  in  Gothic;,  and  &  (v),  f,  p  in 
Old  High  German ;  the  dentals  (,  d,  thin  Greek, 
Latin,  or  Sanscrit  become  th,  d,  t  in  Gothic, 
and  d,  z,  t  in  Old  High  German  ;  and  the  gut- 
turals k}  g,  ch  in  Greek,  Latin,  or  Sanscrit 
become  h  (not  quite  regularly),  I;  g  in  Gothic 
and  g,  eh,  k  in  Old  High  German.  Thus  : 
Sanskrit  pitri;  Greek  ircmjp  (pater);  Latin, 
pater  =  Gothffe,  fadrein ;  English,  father;  Old 
High  German,  vatar. 

grim  -  me  -  i,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  grinvrn(w) 
(q.v.),  and  Lat.  masc.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ei.] 

Bot. :  A  sub-order  of  apocarpous  Mosses, 
having  an  equal  often  sessile  capsule,  a  mitre- 
shaped  calyptra,  and  dark-green  leaves,  ter- 
minated by  a  white  hair. 

grim'-mi-a,  s.  [Named  after  J.  F.  Grimm,  a 
German  bo'tanist.] 

Bot.  :  The  typical  genus  of  the  sub-order 
Grimmei  f(c[-v-)-  Grimmia  pulvinatwm  is  the 
Swan's  Neck  Bryum.  It  occurs  in  hoary 
cushion-like  tufts. 

grim  ness,  *  grim  nesse/  grym-nesse, 

s.  [A.S.  grimniss.]  The  quality  or  state  of 
being  grim ;  fierceness,  sternness,  ferocity, 

"  They  were  not  able  to  abyde  the  grimnesse  of  their 

countenances." — Qoldinge  :  Ccetar,  to.  29. 

*  grim'  sir,  *  grim' -sire,  s.  [Etym.  doubt- 
ful ;  probably  a  compound  of  grim  and  sir,  or 
sire ;  but  by  some  derived  from  Fr.  grinceur 
=  an  angry  gnasher  of  the  teeth  (Cotgrave) ; 
from  grineer  =  to  gnash  the  teeth.  ]  A  haughty 
or  arrogant  person  in  office  ;  a  stem,  grim,  or 
severe  person. 

"  Tiberius  Caesar,  who  otherwise  was  known  for  a 

grim'-y  (I),'  a.  [Eng.  grim(e);  -y.]  Full  of 
grime,  foul,  filthy,  grimed,  begrimed. 

"  [They]  with  stern  grimy  look  do  atill  avise 
Upon  their  works." 

More:  On  the  Soul,  pt  i.,  bk.  iii,  s.  6. 

*grim'-$r  (2),  i*.  [Eng.  grim;  -y.]  Grim, 

griii,  *girn,  *  gren,  *  grenn,  "gren-nen, 

*  gren  nyn,  v.i.  &  t.  [A.S.  grennian  ;  cogn. 
with  Dut.  grijrmi  =to  weep,  to  cry,  to  fret; 
Icel.  grenja  =  to  howl ;  Dan.  grine  =  to  grin ; 
Sw.  grina  =  to  grimace,  to  grin;  Ger.  greinen.] 

A*  Intransitive: 

I.  Literally : 

1.  To  snarl  or  show  the  teeth  as  a  dog  ;  to 
gnash  the  teeth. 

"  And  thei  herden  these  thingis  and  weren  dyuerseli 
tunnentid  in  her  hertis,  and  grennyden  with  teeth  on 
hym."—  Wycliffe:  Hedis  ch.  vii. 

2.  To  show  the  teeth  as  in  laughter,  scorn, 
or  pain. 

"[He]ffrinn'dand  fore'd  an  ugly  Binilethat  it  might 
not  seem  to  smart."—  Bp.  Taylor  :  Sermons,  pt  1., 

ser.  20. 

*  3.  To  be  exposed,  as  the  teeth  in  laughter. 
"  Her  heart  for  rage  did  grate,  and  teeth  didgrin." 
Spenser;  F.  Q.,  V.  iv.  37. 

*II.  Fig.  :  To  show  pleasure  or  approbation. 
"  Even  the  most  saintlike  of  his  party  grinned  at  it 
with  a  pious  amile."— Dryden :  Relxgio  Laid.    (Pref.) 
B.  Transitive; 

1.  To  set,  show,  or  gnash  the  teeth,  in 

2.  To  express  by  grinning. 

"  Grinned  horribly  a  ghastly  smile." 

Milton:  P.  L.,il.  946. 

grin  (1),  s.  [Grin,  v.]  The  act  of  closing  the 
teeth  and  showing  them  by  withdrawing  the 
lips  ;  a  forced  smile,  a  smirk. 

"  These  move  the  censure  and  illib'ral  grin 
Of  fools. "  Cowper  :  Mope,  747. 

*grin  (2),  *  grane,  *  gren,  *grene,  *gryn, 

$.     [A.S.  grin,  gryn.]    A  trap,  a  snare  or  gin. 
"  Like  a  bird  that  hasteth  to  his  grin. 
Not  knowing  the  peril  of  his  life  therein." 

Chaucer :  Jlemedie  of  Love. 

*grin„*>.(.  [An  abbreviation  of  grind  (q.v.).] 
To  grind. 

*  grin-comes ,  s.   [Etym.  doubtful.]  Syphilis. 
"  I  am  now  secure  from  the  grincomes." 

Massinger ;  Guardian,  iv. 
grind,  v.t.  &  i.    [A.S.  grindan.] 
A.  Transitive : 
1  Literally : 

1.  To  break  and  reduce  to  powder  or  fine 
particles  by  friction  or  attrition ;  to  com- 

"  Do  we  grind  Inanimate  corn  into  living  and  ra- 
tional meal  r  "—Bentley  ;  Sermons. 

2.  To  wear  down  or  smooth  by  friction  ;  to 
sharpen  or  give  an  edge  to  by  rubbing  against 
some  hard  substance  ;  to  whet. 

"  I  have  ground  the  axe  myself." 

Shakesp . ;  Pericles,  i.  2. 

3.  To  rub  one  thing  against  another ;  to 
grate,  as,  To  grind  one's  teeth. 

II.  Figuratively : 

1.  To  oppress  by  harsh  or  cruel  exactions  ; 
to  harass.     (Generally  with  down.) 

"  To  grind  the  subject  or  defraud  the  prince."- 
Dryden  :  Bind  &  Panther,  iii.  747. 

2.  To  prepare  for  examination.  {University 

t  3.  To  teach,  to  instruct  in  :  as,  To  grind 
Latin  or  Greek.    (Univ.  Slang.) 

1 4.  To  study  ;  to  prepare  oneself  for  exam- 
ination by  studying.     (Univ.  Slang.) 

*  5.  To  whet,  to  sharpen. 

"  Mine  appetites  I  never  more  will  grind. " 

Shakesp.  ;  Sonnet  90. 
B.  Intransitive : 
I.  Literally : 

1.  To  perform  the  act  of  grinding  ;  to  move 
a  mill  or  other  apparatus  for  grinding. 

"  Into  the  common  prison,  there  to  grind 
Among  the  slaves. 

Milton  ;  Samson  Agonistes,  1,162. 

2.  To  be  moved,  rubbed,  or  grated  together ; 
to  grate. 

"Smeary  foam  works  o'er  my  grinding  JawB." 

Howe.    [Johnson.) 

3.  To  be  ground  or  pulverized  as  in  a  mill, 
Ac.  :  as,  Corn  grinds  well  when  dry. 

4.  To  be  reduced  to  a  smooth  or  sharp  con- 
dition ;  as,  Steel  will  grind  sharp. 

5.  To  gnash  or  grate  as  with  the  teeth. 

II.  Figuratively: 

1.  To  study  or  work  up  for  an  examination. 
(Univ.  Slang.) 

2.  To  drudge  ;  to  perform  hard  or  distaste- 
ful work. 

grind,  s.    [Grind,  v.] 

*  I.  Lit.  :  The  act  or  operation  of  grinding 
or  reducing  to  powder  in  a  mill. 

"Hie  .  .  .  binlmeth  tothen  here  grind."  — 0.  Eng. 
Homilies,  ii  181. 
II.  Figuratively: 

1.  The  act  of  studying  or  reading  up  for  an 
examination ;  study. 

" '  Come  along,  boys,'  cries  East ;  alwayB  ready  to 
leave  the  grind,  as  he  called  it."—  T.  Hughes:  Tom 
Brown's  School  Hays,  pt.  ii„  ch.  v. 

2.  Hard  or  distasteful  work. 

*  grin-del,  *gryn-del,  a.     [A.S.  grendil; 
Icel.  graind  -  hurt.]    Cruel,  ferocious. 

*  grin-del-li,  *  gryn-del-ly,  adv.    [Eng. 
grindel;  -ly.]    Fiercely. 
•'  Gawayn  full  gryndelly  aayde."    Sir  Gawaine,  2,299. 

grind -er,  *grynd-er,  «.    [A.S.  grindere.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Literally : 

(1)  One  who  or  that  which  grinds  ;  one  who 
works  in  a  mill. 

(2)  One  who  or  that  which  grinds  or  gives 
an  edge  to  anything ;  the  instrument  of 

"  Harder  than  the  grinder's  nether  stone." 

Sandys  :  Paraphrase  of  the  Psalms. 

(3)  In  the  same  sense  as  II. 

(4)  A  tooth  generally. 

"  Her  grinders  like  two  chalk  stones  in  a  mill." 
Bishop  Hall  :  Satires,  iv.  1. 

(5)  A  grinding-clamp  (q.v.). 

2.  Figuratively  ; 

(1)  One  who  prepares  students  for  an  ex- 
amination ;  a  coach,  a  tutor,  a  crammer. 

"  Put  him  into  the  hands  of  a  clever  grinder  or 
crammer,  and  they  would  soon  cram  the  necessary 
portion  of  Latin  and  Greek  into  him."— Miss  Edge- 
worth ;  Patronage,  ch.  iii. 

(2)  One  who  reads  or  studies  hard. 
II.  Anat. :  [Molar]. 

grind'-er-y,  s.    [Eng.  grind,  v. ;  -ery.] 

1.  Shoemakers  and  other  leather-workers' 

2.  A  shop  or  warehouse  where  materials  for 
shoemakers  and  other  leather-workers  are 
kept  on  sale. 

grind  ing,    -grynd-ynge,    *grint-ing, 

pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Grind,  v.] 

A.  ifc  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. ;  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  substantive : 
I.  Literally : 

1.  The  act  or  operation  of  breaking  and  re- 
ducing to  fine  particles  by  friction  or  attri- 
tion ;  a  crushing  to  powder. 

2.  The  act  or  operation  of  giving  an  edge  to 
or  sharpening  by  rubbing  against  another 

*  3.  The  act  of  rubbing  or  grating  together ; 
a  gnashing. 

"  But  in  helle  her  hering  (slial  be)  ful  of  waimenting 
and  grinting  of  teeth."— Chaucer:  Persones  Tale. 

*  4.  Money  paid  for  the  grinding  of  corn. 
"[He]  hath  ylost  the  grinding  of  the  wheat." 

Chaucer ;  C.  T.,  4.006- 

II.  Figuratively: 

1.  The  act  of  oppressing  or  harassing  by 
harsh  or  severe  exactions. 

2.  The  act  or  occupation  of  preparing  stu- 
dents for  an  examination.    (Univ.  Slang.) 

3.  The  act  of  reading  or  studying  hard. 
(Univ.  Slang.) 

grinding-clamp,  s.  A  grinding-clamp 
for  cylindrical  work  has  two  semi-cylindrical 
leaden  blocks  enclosed  between  the  halves 
of  the  clamp,  which  are  adjusted  by  binding- 
screws.  The  halves  of  the  clamp  are  adjusted 
to  the  desired  distance,  slips  of  wood  being 
placed  in  the  jaws  while  the  melted  lead  is 
run  in  to  form  the  cheeks.  For  internal  work 
the  grinder  consists  of  two  semi-cylindricut 
rods  of  iron,  fitted  to  each  other  by  dowel- 
pins  and  set  screws,  so  as  to  be  expanded  to 
the  required  distance.  The  leaden  cheeks  are 
cast  upon  the  rods,  which  are  placed  in  a. 
mould  for  that  purpose. 

grin  ding- frame,  s.  A  cotton-spinning 

grind  ing-miU,  s. 

1.  A  mill  for  grinding  corn. 

2.  A  lapidary's  wheel  of  lead,  the  disc  sur- 
face of  which  is  touched  with  emery  and 
water.  It  follows  the  slitting  or  roughing; 
mill,  and  like  them  is  mounted  to  rotate  on  a, 
vertical  axis. 

grinding- slip,  s.    [Hone.] 

grinding- vat,  s. 

Porcelain :  A  cylindrical  tank  in  which  cal- 
cined and  stamped  flints  are  ground  into  a. 
fine  paste  with  water.  The  vat  is  paved  with 

grind'-Ing-l$r,  adv.  [Eng.  grinding ;  -ly.]  In 
a  grinding,  harassing,  or  oppressive  manner;, 
oppressively ;  cruelly. 

*  grin'-dle-stone,     *  gryn-del-ston,  s. 

[Eng.  grind,  dimin.  or  frequent,  suff.  -le,  and 
stone.]    A  grindstone. 

"  By  the  lead-men  for  the  nonce 
That  turne  about  like  grindlestones." 

BenJonson:  Entertainment  at  Welbeck. 

*  grin'-dle-tail,  s.  [Etym.  doubtful.]  A  dog: 
with  a  curly  tail. 

"  Like  grindletails  with  their  heels  upward." 

Beaum,  &  Flet.  :  Island  Princess,  v.  L 

grind  -stone,  s.  [Eng.  grind ;  -stone.]  A  flat- 
circular  stone  used  for  grinding  or  sharpening; 

"  The  grindstone  to  unpolished  steel 
Gives  edge  " 

Slierburne  :  Virtue  improved  by  Suffering. 

1"  To  bring,  hold,  or  put  one's  nose  to  the  grind- 
stone :  To  oppress,  harass,  or  punish  one ;  to 
treat  harshly  ;  to  keep  continually  engaged 
in  hard  and  monotonous  labour. 

"They  might  be  ashamed,  for  lack  of  courage  t<> 
suffer  the  Lacedaemonians  to  hold  their  noses  to  th* 
grindstone."— Horth :  Plutarch,  p.  24L 

grin'-ner,  s.    [Eng.grin;  -er,]    Onewhogrins. 
"Grinners  in  the  pantomime,  murderersin  tragedies, 
who  make  ugly  faces  under  black  wigs."— Burke  :  On  ft 
Regicide  Peace,  let.  4. 

grin  ning,  *gren-nyng,  *gren-nynge, 

pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Grin,  v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  partidp.  adj. :  (See- 
the verb). 

C.  As  subst. :  The  act  of  closing  and  show- 
ing the  teeth ;  a  smile  ;  a  smirk. 

grin-ning-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  grinning;  -ly.]  la 
a  grinuing  manner ;  with  a  grin. 

*  grint,  pres.  indie,  of  v.  [Grind,  v.]  For 
grindeth.    (Chaucer:  C.  T.,  5,971.) 

bSb,  b6^;  pout,  joM;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist.    ~ing~ 
ciaiu  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tfon,  -sion  =  zhun.    -tious,  -sious,  -cious  =  shus.    -We,  -die,  &c  =  toel,  del. 


grinte— grisled 

*  grinte,  pret.  of  v.    [Grind.] 

*  grint-ing,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  $.     [Grinding.] 

grip  (1),  gripe,  s.  [AS.  grrep  (Somnpr).} 
[Grope,  s.]  A  small  ditch  ;  a  furrow  or  chan- 
nel to  carry  otf  water. 

"  Or  in  a  grip  or  in  the  fen."        Havelok,  2,101. 

grip  (2),  *  gripe,  *  gryp,  *  grype,  s.    [Ice!, 

gripr ;  Sw.  grip;  Dan.  grib;  Dut.  grijpvogel ; 
O.  H.  Ger.  grif  grife  ;  Ger.  greif;  Lut.  gryps, 
from  Gr.  ypv\fj  (gi-ups).^  A  kind  of  vulture  ;  a 
griffin  or  griffon. 

grip  (3),  *  gripe,  s.  [Cf.  Dut,  greef,  grief; 
M.  H.  Ger.  grif.]    [Grip,  v.] 

1.  The  act  of  seizing  or  holding  in  the  hand  ; 
the  manner  or  mode  of  grasping  ;  specifically, 
a  grasp  peculiar  to  any  secret  society  :  as,  a 
masonic  grip. 

2.  A  gripe,  a  grasp. 

"If  he  can  haud  the  grip  he  has  gotten. "Scott  - 
Rob  Roy,  ch,  iv. 

*  3.  That  by  which  anything  is  grasped  or 
held  :  as,  the  grip  of  a  sword. 

grip,  v.t.  &  t     [Fr.  gripper,  from  Icel.  gripa.] 

A.  Trans.:  To  gripe,  to  seize  hold  of;  to 
grasp  firmly. 

B.  Transitive : 

Naut.  .-  To  take  firm  hold :  as,  The  anchor 

gripe,  *  grip-en  (pa.  t.  *  grap,  *  grasp,  *  grop), 
v.t.  &  i.  [AS.  gripan=io  seize;  cogn.  with 
Dut.  grijpen;  leel.  gripa,;  Dan.  gribe ;  Sw. 
griba;  Goth,  greipan ;  Ger.  greifen ;  O.  H. 
Ger.  grifan  ;  O.  Fris.  gripa;  Eng.  grab.] 

A.  Transitive : 
I.  Literally. 

I.  To  seize  and  hold  firmly  in  the  hand  ;  to 
grasp  firmly  ;  to  hold  with  the  fingers  closed. 

"  Fit  well  his  helm,  gripe  fast  his  orbed  shield." 

Milton  :  P.  £.,  vii.  453. 

*  2.  To  clutch,  to  clench,  to  shut  tightly. 

"  Unlucky  Welsted  I  thy  unfeeling  master. 
The  more  thou  ticklest,  gripes  his  hand  the  faster." 
Pope:  Dunciad,  ii.  210. 

II.  Figuratively : 

*  1.  To  seize  and  hold  fast ;  to  take  posses- 
sion of. 

"  That  present  ereif  now  gripith  me  and  striues  to 
stop  my  breath." 

Gascoigne :  Absent  Dame  thus  complaineth. 

*2.  To  pinch,  to  oppress  ;  to  grind  down  by 

"A  disposition  is  everywhere  exhibited  by  men  in 
office  to  gripe  and  squeeze  all  submitted  to  their  au- 

3.  To  give  a  pain  in  the  bowels  to. 

"  Thus  full  of  counsel  to  the  den  she  went, 
Griped  all  the  way."  Dryden. 

B.  Intransitive : 

I.  Ordinary  Language  : 
1.  Lit.  :  To  lay  fast  hold  of  anything ;  to 
grasp  or  clasp  things  firmly  in  the  hand. 

2.  Figuratively : 

(1)  To  get  money  by  hard  bargains  or  oppres- 
sion ;  to  be  grasping  after  money  ;  to  extort. 

(2)  To  suffer  griping  pains. 

II.  Naut. :  To  lie  too  close  to  the  wind,  as 
a  ship. 

gripe  (1),  s.    [Gripe,  v.] 

I,  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Literally  : 

(1)  A  grasp ;  a  fast  or  firm  hold  with  the 
hands  or  paws  ;  hold. 

"  Out  blooming  girl, 
Caught  in  the  gripe  of  death." 

Wordsworth ;  Excursion,  bk,  iii. 

(2)  A  pressure,  a  squeeze. 

"  Tis  true,  the  hardened  breast  resists  the  gripe" 
Dryden:  Ovid;  Metamorphoses  x. 

(3)  The  part  by  which  anything  is  gripped 
or  grasped,  as  the  hilt  of  a  sword. 

2.  Figuratively : 

*  (1)  A  grasp,  a  seizure,  a  clutch,  a  grip. 

"  To  ease  a  present  load  or  gripe  of  conscience."— Dp. 
Taytor :  Sermons,  vol.  ii.,  aer.  5  , 

*(2)  Oppression ;  cruel  exaction ;  a  grinding 

"  I  take  my  cause 
Out  of  the  gripes  of  cruel  men." 

Shakesp. :  Henry  VIII.,  v.  2. 

*  (3)  Pinching  distress  ;  hardship. 
"Endure  the  bitter  gripes  of  smarting  poverty." 

Otway :  Venice  Preserved,  i.  1. 

*(4)  A  mean,  niggardly  fellow  ;  a  miser. 

"  Let  him  be  a  bawd,  a  gripe,  an  usurer,  a  villain."— 
Burton:  Anat.  of  Melancholy. 

(5)  In  the  same  sense  as  II.  2. 
II.  Technically: 

1.  Mach. :  A  brake  applied  to  the  wheel  of  a 
cnute  or  derrick.  It  generally  consists  of  an 
iron  hoop  under  the  control  of  a  lever,  and  is 
drawn  closely  around  the  wheel  to  check  its 

2.  Med.  (Generally  pi.)  :  A  popular  name  for 
keen  but  more  or  less  intermittent  pains  in  the 
abdomen,  produced  by  colic  or  any  similar 

"Torn  with  the  gripes  as  if  he  should  be  pulled  to 
pieces.-— Bungan  :  Pilgrim's  Progress,  pt.  Ii 

3.  Nautical : 

(1)  The  fore-foot  of  a  ship,  on  to  which  the 
stem  is  planted.  The  forward  end  of  the  keel. 
It  is  scarfed  to  the  stein-piece  and  false-keel, 
and  is  secured  by  a  horseshoe  or  ring  to  the 

(2)  A  broad  plait  of  rope  or  bars  of  iron, 
with  lanyard  rings  and  claws,  passing  over  a 
large  boat,  and  by  which  it  is  secured  to  the 
ring-bolts  of  the  deck. 

(3)  One  of  a  pair  of  bands  passing  round  a 
bo;it  near  the  stem  and  stern  when  suspended 
from  the  davits,  to  prevent  the  boat  from 
swinging  about. 

*  gripe-penny,  s.  A  niggardly  fellow  ;  a 

gripe  (2),  s.  [Grip  (2),  5.]  A  griffon.  (Ferrex 
&  Forrex,  ii.  1.) 

*gripe's-egg,  s. 

1.  Lit. :  The  egg  of  a  griffon  or  vulture. 

2.  Fig.  :  A  technical  name  for  a  vessel  used 
in  alchemy.    {Ben  Jonson :  Alchemist,  ii.  3.) 

*gri'pe-ful,  a.  [Eng.  gripe;  -ful(ty.~\  Dis- 
posed to  gripe. 

*  grip'-er,  s.  [Eng.  grip(e),  v. ;  -er.]  One  who 
gripes  ;  specif.,  a  miserly  fellow,  an  extor- 
tortioner,  an  oppressor. 

"Others  pretend  zeal,  and  yet  are  professed  usurers, 
gripers,  monsters  of  men,  and  harpies.  "—Burton : 
Anat.  0/  Melancholy. 

grip'-ing,  pr.  par.,  u.,  &  s.     [Gripe,  v.] 

A.  a:  B.  Aspr.  par.  &  particip.  adj.  :   (See 
the  verb). 
C.  As  substantive  ; 

1.  The  act  of  seizing  or  grasping  firmly  in 
the  hand  ;  a  grasping  ;  a  clutching. 

2.  A  pain  in  the  bowels  ;  the  gripes. 

"'  Those  gripings  men  feel  when  they  take  phyaick." 
—Digby  :  Of  Bodies,  ch.  xxxiv. 

* grip'-ing-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  griping;  -ly.]  In 
a  griping  manner  ;  with  griping  pains. 

"Clysters  help,  lest  the  medicine  stop  in  the  gut3, 
and  work  gripingly."— Bacon  :  natural  History,  365. 

*  gri-ple, «.    [Gripple.] 

v  gri-ple-ness,  s.    [Grippleness.] 

*  grip'-ol-oiis,  *  grip'-u-loiis,  a.  [Eng. 
grippal,  gripple;  -ous.]      Greedy,  avaricious, 


"  In  the  gripolous  landlord's  hand. "— - A  dams :  Works, 
i.  213. 

*  grip-pal,  a.     [Gripple.] 

grippe,  s.  [Fr.]  A  term  applied  to  various 
epidemic  forms  of  catarrh. 

grip'-per,  s.     [Eng' grip,  v.  ;  -er.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  One  who  seizes  ;  specifically 
in  Ireland,  a  sheriff's  officer  ;  a  bailiff. 

2.  Print.  :  The  fingers  on  an  impression 
which  seize  the  paper  by  one  edge  and  carry 
it  to,  and  sometimes  through,  the  press.  In 
some  cases  tapes  conduct  it  after  it  has  been 
fed  in  by  the  grippers. 

grip'- pie,  grip'-py,  a.  [Eng.  gripe;  -y.] 
Disposed  to  defraud  or  extort ;  rapacious, 

*grlp'-ping,  a.  [Eng.  grip;  -ing.]  Avari- 
ciousc  grasping. 

*  grip'^ping-ness,  s.    [Eng.  gripping ;  -ness.] 

A  varies,  graspingness. 

"With  a  logick-flsted  grippingness."  —  Kennet  : 
Erasmus  :  Praise  of  Folly,  p.  67. 

*  grip'-ple,  "  gri-ple,  «  grip-pal,  a.  &  s. 

[Eng.  gripe;  -le.] 

A.  As  adjective: 

1.  Grasping,  tenacious ;  holding  firmly  or 
fast ;  tight. 

Spenser :  /•'■  'J-- 

2.  Griping,  greedy,  avaricious. 

"  Naebody  wad  be  sae  gripple  as  to  take  his  gear.  - 
Scott  :  Waverley,  ch.  Uvn. 

B.  As  subst. :  A  grasp,  a  hold. 

■'  Ne  even  Artegall  his  griple  strong 
For  anything  wold  alacke. ' 

Spencer :  F.  Q.,  v.  ij.  14. 

*  eripple-minded,  a.  Of  a  rapacious 
or  grasping  disposition;  griping,  greedily, 

grip'-ple-ness,  *  gri-ple-ness,  s.  [Eng. 
gripple;  -ness.]  The  quality  or  state  of  being 
gripple  or  avaricious ;  avarice ;  a  grasping 

"Hia  grippleness,  techlnesse,  loquacity. "— Bishop 
Hall :  Satan's  Fiery  Darts  Quenched  (Dec.  3). 

*  grls,  *  grys,  s.     [Fr.=  grey.]    A  kind  of  fur. 

"  Two  thik  mantels  yfurred  with  grys." 

Allsaunder,  5,502. 

gris-aille,  s.     [Fr.  gris  =  gray.] 

Art :  A  style  of  painting  representing  solid 
bodies  in  relief,  such  as  friezes,  mouldings, 
&t\,  by  means  of  a  mixture  of  black  and 
white  pigments,  producing  gray  tints. 

*  gris-am'-ber,  s.    [See  def.]    Used  by  Milton 

for  Ambergris  (q.v.). 

grisamber-  steamed,  a.  Flavoured 
with  the  steam  of  melted  ambergris. 

"  In  pastry  built,  or  from  the  spit,  or  boiled 
Gruamber-steamed."         Milton:  P.  R.,  ii.  444. 

*grise  (1),  s.     [Gree.]    A  step,  a  stairs. 

"  Which,  as  a  grise  or  step,  may  help  these  lovers 
Into  your  favour."  Shakesp. :  Othello,  i.  3. 

» grise   (2),  *gryce,    "grys,    *gryse,    s. 

[Icel.  griss;  Sw.  gris;  Dan.  griiss.]    A  pig,  a 

"  Wyth  grys,  and  gees,  and  eapouns." 

Mr  Ferumbras,  2,695. 

*  grise,   *  gryse,  a.     [Cf .   A.  S.    agrisan  =  to 

terrify ;    Ger.     graus  =  terrible.]      Terrible. 


"  The  aghtand  pine  it  es  ful  grise." 

Cursor  Mundi,  23,249. 

*  grise,  *gris-en,  *  gryse,  v.i.  &  t.    [A.s. 

grisan  =  to  terrify,] 

A.  Intrans. :  To  be  afraid,  to  tremble,  to 

"Another  kinggaine  the  sal  rise 
That  mil  make  the  to  grise." 

Cursor  Mundi,  21,825. 

B.  Trans. :  To  fear. 

"  The  which  thou  grisedist  for  hateful  werkia."— 
Wycliffe  :   Wisdom  xli.  13. 

*  gris'-e-OUS,  a.     [Low  Lat.  griseus;  Fr.  gris 

=  gray.]    Gray,  grizzled,  grizzly ;  white  mot- 
tled with  black  or  brown. 

gri-set'te,  s.     [Fr.,  from  gris  =  gray.] 

*  1.  A  sort  of  gray  woollen  fabric  used  for 
dresses  by  women  of  the  lower  classes. 

2.  A  French  girl  or  young  woman  of  the 
working  classes  ;  a  seamstress  ;  a  gay  girl. 

*gris-ful,  *grise-flll,  a.  [Mid.  Eng.  grise, 
v. ;  -ful(l).']     Terrible,  tearful,  horrid. 

"Hit  is  so  griqful  forto  loke  and  forto  hir  the  bitter 
dome."  E.  Eng.  Poems,  p.  4. 

*  gris- ful -ly,  *gris-ftil-li,  adv.    [Eng. 

grisful;  -ly.}    Horribly,  fearfulty. 

"Thei  bell  scatered  dredendo  ffrinfuUi." — Wycliffe: 
Wisdom  xvii.  3. 

* gris-il,  *  grs-yl,  a.  [Grise,  v.]  Horrible; 

"  Qrysyl.    Horridus,  terribilu." — Prompt.  Parv. 

gris  i-ness,  *  gris-y-nes,  s.    [Mid.  Eng. 
grise,  v. ;  -ness.]    Fear,  terror,  dread. 
"Gret<7J-is^nejiasBalledenlij-iii."—  H  ycliffe:  Gen.  xv.  12. 

gris  -kin,  s.  [Eng.  grise  =  a  pig,  and  dimin. 
suff.  -kin.]    The  spine  of  a  hog. 

gris'-le-a,  ».  [Named  after  G.  Grisley,  a  Portu- 
guese snrgeon  and  botanical  writer.  ] 

Bot. :  A  genus  of  Lythracese,  tribe  Lythrese, 
now  limited  to  one  species,  Grislea  seemula,  a 
native  of  Venezuela  and  New  Grenada.  What 
used  to  be  called  G.  toinentosa  is  now  denomi- 
nated Woodfordia  tamentosa.  Its  flowers  mixed 
with  those  of  Morinda  are  used  in  India  as  a 
dye  called  dhall. 

*  gris'-led  (led  as  eld),  a.    [Grizzled.] 

&te,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine;   go,  pSt, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  our,  rule,  fuU;  try,  Syrian,    se,  oe  -a;  ey  =  a.     qu  -  kw. 

grisliness— groat 


*  grls'-U  ness,  a.  [Eng.  grisly ;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  grisly  ;  horribleness, 

"That  111-ngreelng  musick  was  beautified  with  the 
grisUneii  of  wounds."  —  (Sidney :  Arcadia,  bk.  iii., 
p.  441. 

gris'-r#  (1),  *  gris-li,  *  gris-lic,  *  gris- 
lien,  *  gris-liche.  *grys  lych,  *grys- 

ly,  a.  &  adv.     [A.S.  gryslic:  el  a{7mcm  =  to 
terrify  ;  Ger.  (/raws,  grausig  =  horrible.] 

A.  As  adj.:  Horrible,  dreadful,  terrible, 
fearful,  grim. 

"  All  the  grisly  legions  that  troop 
is ;  Under  the  Booty  nag  of  Acheron. " 

-/  Stilton  :  Comus,  003. 

B.  A*  adv.  :  Horribly,  terribly,  fearfully, 

"  OrUUche  the  develeii  yulle."— *.  Brandan,  p.  28. 

*  grfg  -ly  (2),  <*,    [Grizzly.] 

gri  -son,  s.    [Fr.  =  gray.] 

Zool.  :  Grissonia,  or  Galictis  vittata,  a  genus 
of  Brazilian  mammals,  placed  by  some  among 
the  Mustelidae  (Weasels),  by  others  among  the 
Melidse  (Badgers).    It  is  called  also  the  Huron. 

grist,  *  great,  *  gryste,  s,    [A.S.,  from  the 
same  root  as  grind  (q.v.).] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Lit. :  Corn  to  be  ground  ;  corn  which  has 
"been  ground. 

"Always  wrought  and  ground  the  neighbour's  grcst." 
,  Browne:  Britannia's  Pastorals,  bk,  i.,  s.  4. 

2.  Fig. :  A  supply,  a  provision. 

"Form,  soy  I  as  well  as  they, 
Must  fall,  if  matter  bring  no  grut: 

Swift :  I'rogretB  of  Beauty. 

IL  Teclmically: 

1.  Mill. :  A  batch  of  grain  to  be  ground  in 
a  custom  mill,  or  the  result  of  the  grinding 
less  the  toll. 

2.  Rope-mahing :  A  given  size  of  rope.  Com- 
mon grist  is  a  rope  three  inches  in  circum- 
ference, with  twenty  yarns  in  each,  of  the 
three  strands. 

IT  To  bring  grist  to  the  mill :  To  bring  pro- 
fitable business  or  gain;  to  be  a  source  of 

"A  sly  old  Pope  created  twenty  new  saints  to  bring 
grist  to  the  mill  of  the  London  clergy."— Bp.  Eorsley  : 
Speech,  July  23,  1804. 

grist  mill,  ».    A  mill  for  grinding  grain. 

gristle  (as  gris'l),  *  gris-tel,  *  grys-tyl, 

*  gryB-tyile,  s.  [A.S.  gristle,  a  dimiu.  of 
grist  (q.v.y,  cogn.  with  O.  Fris.  gristel,  gristl, 

Anat. :  The  popular  name  of  what  is  called 
by  scientific  men  cartilage  (q.v.). 
I       "The  gristle  of  the  earepleco,  beeyng  once  cutte  in 
twoo,  cannot  close  no  growe  together  agayne." —  Udal ; 
Luke  xxlL 

grfe'-tly  it  silent),  a.    [Eng.  gristl(e);  -y.] 
Ord.  Lang.  <&  Anat. :  Composed  or  consisting 
of  gristle  ;  of  the  nature  of  or  like  gristle  ; 

"  "  Those  fishes  which  be  not  soft,  but  gristly,  have  a 
f  kind  of  mnrrow  in  their  ridge  bone."— P.  Holland: 
i    Plinie,  bk.  \L,  ch.  xxxvll. 

grit,  *  greet,  *  greete,  *  greot,  *  greote, 
*grete,  s.  [AS.  gre6t  =  grit,  dusF;  cogn. 
with  O.  Fris.  gret ;  Icel.  grjdt ;  Ger.  gries ; 
O.  S.  griot;  0.  H.  Ger.  grioz;  Eng.  groats  and 
grout  (q.v.).] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Literally : 

*  (1)  Sand,  gravel. 

"  Dust  and  greot . . .  hwon  hit  is  isundred."— Ancren 
Hlwle,  p.  252. 

(2)  Coarse,  rough  particles. 

"  Sllesion  bole,  crackling  n  little  betwixt  the  teeth, 
yet  without  the  least  particle  of  grit,  feels  as  smooth 
as  soap."— Crew. 

(3)  The  coarse  part  of  meal. 

(4)  Oats  husked  or  coarsely  ground.  (Gene- 
rally in  the  plural.)    [Groats.] 

(5)  The  structure  or  character  of  a  stone  as 
regards  fineness,  closeness,  or  their  opposites. 

*  (6)  A  kind  of  crab. 

2.  Fit/. :  Firmness,  determination  or  resolu- 
tion of  mind  ;  pluck. 

"Youth,  and  grit,  and  sober  living  told  more  than 
evev." iieade  :  Cloister  A  ffearth,  ch.  xxi. 

II,  iMrol, :  A  term  vaguely  used  for  any 
coarse-grained  sandstone,  especially  if  the 
grains  in  it  are  angular  or  sub-angular.  Rut  ley 
defines  it  as  a  coarse-grained  and  somewhat 
coherent,  or  at  times  a  line-grained  and  very 

hard  and  compact  sandstone,  frequently  con- 
taining fragments  and  granules  of  other  min- 
erals, besides  quartz,  flint,  or  chert. 

grit-berry,  s. 

Bot.  :  The  genus  Comarostaphylis. 

grit-rock,  s.    [Grit,  *■.,  II.] 

*  grit,  v.i.  h  t.    [Grit,  s.] 

A.  Intrans.  :  To  give  out  a  grating  sound, 
as  sand  under  the  feet ;  to  grate. 

"  The  sauded  floor  that  grits  beneath  the  tread." 
Goldsmith:  Deserted  Village. 

B.  Trans.  ;  To  grate  ;  to  grind  or  rub  toge- 
ther :  as,  To  grit  the  teeth. 

grit,  a.     [Great.]    (Scotch.) 

*  grith,  e.    [A.S.  &  Icel. ;  O.  Sw.  gritli,  gruth, 


1.  Peace,  goodwill. 

"  Qrith  on  eorthe  and  grith  on  hefene,  and  grlth 
bitwenen  awile  crlstene  nionne."— 0.  J2.  Homilies, 
p.  45. 

2.  Mercy,  kindness. 

"  Alle  schulen  gledien  i  Godes  grith."St.  Marherete, 
p.  21. 

*  grith-breach,  *  grith-bruche,  s.  A 
breach  or  breaking  of  the  peace. 

"Yef  ye  doth  grith-bruche  on  his  lond." 

Owl  &  Nightingale,  1,732. 

*  grith'-ful,  a.  [Eng.  grith;  -fuUJ).']  Kind, 
merciful,  forgiving. 

"  Baslan  wea  grithful  king."  Layamon,  ii.  12. 

*  grith'-I-en,  v.i.    [A.S.  grithian.] 

1.  To  protect,  to  keep  in  peace  or  security, 
ipe  eow  given." 
Layamon,  IL  17. 

2.  To  reconcile.    (Layamon,  ii.  496.) 

*  grith- -llche,  a.  &  adv.    [A.S.] 

A.  -4s  adj. ;  Kind,  gracious. 

"  He  grete  tham  king  mid  grithliche  speche." 

Layamon,  i.  19. 

B.  As  adv. :  Kindly,  graciously. 

"  He  grithliche  spffic"  Layamon,  i.  6. 

*  grith  -ser  geant  fer  as  ar),  s.  [Eng.  grith, 
and  sergeant]    An  officer  to  keep  the  peace. 

"  Orithsergeans  wit  longe  steyue3."       Havelok,  266. 

grit  stone,  s.  [Eng.  grit,  and  stone.]  The 
same  as  Grit,  II.  (q.v.). 

grit-tie,  a.    [Eng.  grit;  -ie  -  -y.] 

Her. :  A  term  applied  to  the  field  when  com- 
posed equally  of  metal  and  colour. 

grit  tl-ness,  s.  [Eng.  gritty;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  gritty  or  abounding 
in  grit. 

"  In  fuller's  earth  he  could  And  no  sand  by  the  micro- 
scope, nor  any  grittiness." — Mortimer:  Husbandry. 

grit'-t&  a.     [Eng.  grit;  -y.] 

1.  Lit. :  Consisting  of  or  containing  grit ;  of 
the  nature  of  grit ;  full  of  hard  particles ; 

"I  found  this  powder  .  .  .  somewhat  gritty  between 
the  teeth."— Boyle:  Works. 

2.  Fig. :  Plucky,  resolute.    (American.) 

grlv'-et,  s.  [Said  to  be  formed  from  Fr.  gris 
vert.    See  def.] 

Zool.  :  Cercocebits  or  Cercopithecus  griseo- 
viridis,  an  Old  World  monkey  with  greenish- 
gray  fur,  some  white  hairs  near  the  binder 
extremities,  the  tail  gray.    Found  in  Africa. 

gri-wen'-nick  (w  as  v),  s.  [Russ.]  A  small 
silver  coin  current  in  Russia  of  the  value  of 
ten  kopecks,  or  about  twopence  sterling.  It 
weighs  2*039  grammes,  and  is  '5  fine.  (Bithell) 

*  grize,  *.    [Grise  (1).] 
*griz'-e-Un,  «.    [Grideun.] 

*griz'-zlet  *gris-el,  *gris-ell,  s.  &  a. 

[Fr.  gris  =  gray  ;  sufT.  -el]    [Grizzled.] 

A.  As  substantive ; 

1.  A  gray  colour ;  a  mixture  of  black  and 

"  Time  hath  sowed  a  grizzle  on  thy  face." 

Shakesp. :  Twelfth  Night,  v. 

2.  A  gray-haired  man. 

"  That  olde  grisel  is  no  f  ole."        Oower,  iii.  356. 
*  3.  A  kind  of  wig. 

"  Our  clergy  moult  their  feathered  grizzles:' 

Colman :  The  Spleen,  ii. 

B.  As  adj.  ;  Gray,  grizzled. 

"  Among  the  popular  lenues  in  grisell  gowne." 

Phaer:  Virgin ;  Jtneidos  viil. 

grizzled  (zled  as  zeld),  a.  [Eng.  grizzle; 
-ed.  ]  Gray  ;  of  a  grayish  colour  ;  interspersed 
with  gray. 

' '  His  beard  was  grizzled  .' ' 

Shakesp.  :  Hamlet,  i.  2. 

grizzled-skipper,  s. 

Entom. :  A  small  butterfly — Thymeh  Alveo- 
lus, of  the  family  Hesperidee.  The  wings  are 
blackish,  tinged  with  green  and  with  creamy 
spots.  The  larva  feeds  on  the  raspberry.  (Stai)t- 

griZ'-Zly,  a.  &  s.     [Eng.  grizzle);  -y.] 

A.  As  adj.  :  Of  a  grayish  colour  ;  grayish. 
"  Through  the  realms  where  grizzly  spectres  dwell" 

Cowper  :  To  Charles  Deodati.    (Traus.I 

B.  As  subst. :  [Grizzly-bear]. 

grizzly-bear,  grisly-bear,  t  grizzle- 
bear,  s. 

1.  Zool.  :  Ursus  ferox.  A  huge  bear,  some- 
times nine  feet  from  the  nose  to  the  end  of 
the  very  short  tail,  and  weighing  800  lbs.  The 
hair,  which  varies  between  gray  and  blackish 
brown,  is  more  or  less  grizzled,  whence  the 
animal's  English  name.  It  inhabits  North 
America,  especially  the  plains  east  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  and  those  mountains  them- 
selves. It  feeds  partly  on  fruits  and  roots, 
but  partly  also  on  animal  food,  overcoming 
the  huge  bison. 

2.  Palozont.  :  Ursus  priscus,  of  the  Post- 
Tertiary  caves,  is  supposed  to  be  the  same  as 
the  Grizzly  bear. 

groan,  *  gran  i  en,  *  grane,  "  grone, 

v.i.  &  (.     [A.S.  grdnian ;  allied  to  Grin  (q.v.).] 

A.  Intransitive  : 

I.  Lit.  :  To  breathe  with  a  heavy,  or  deep 
murmuring  noise,  as  in  pain  or  agony ;  to 
utter  a  moaning  sound  ;  to  utter  a  mournful 
voice  ;  to  sigh  deeply. 

"I  have  groaned  under  them,  been  aorry  for  them." 
—Banyan  :  Pilgrim's  Progress,  pt.  1. 

II.  Figuratively  : 

1.  To  grieve ;  to  suffer  hardship  ;  to  be 
burdened  so  as  to  cause  murmuring,  as,  A 
nation  groans  under  excessive  taxation. 

2.  To  long  or  strive  earnestly  after  anything. 

"  Nothing  but  holy,  pure,  and  clear, 
Or  that  which  groaneth  to  bo  bo," 

Herbert :  Superliminare. 

B.  Trans. :  To  silence  or  put  down  by 
groans  ;  as,  The  speaker  was  groaned  down. 

groan,  *  grane,  *  grone,  s.    [Groan,  v.] 

1.  A  low  moaning  sound,  as  of  one  in  pain, 
sorrow,  or  agony  ;  a  deep,  mournful  sound  or 
voice  ;  a  deep  sigh,  a  moan. 

"  Heave  a  pitying  groan."       Cowper  :  Truth,  177. 

*  2.  Any  hoarse  dead  sound ;  a  moan. 

"  Such  groans  of  roaring  wind  and  rain." 

Shakesp.  /  Lear,  iii.  2. 

3.  A  deep,  murmuring  sound,  uttered  in 
derision  or  disapprobation  ;  as,  The  speaker's 
voice  was  drowned  in  groans. 

groan'-er,  s.  [Eng.  groan;  -er.]  Oue  who 

*  groan' -fill,  *; grone  full,  a.  [Eng,  groan  ; 
-ful(l).']  Causing  or  tending  to  cause  groans 
or  sadness  ;  sad,  lamentable. 

"  And  gave  against  his   mother  earth  a  groanful 
sound."  Spenser:  F.  Q.,  II.  xi.  42. 

groan  ing,  *  gran-unge,     *  gron-ing, 

*gron-ynge,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Groan,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst. :  The  act  of  giving  utterance  to 
groans  or  meanings  ;  a  groan. 

"  Ther  is  gronynge  and  grure." 

Old  Lng,  Miscellany,  p.  91. 

groaning  -  malt,  s.  Drink  provided 
against  a  woman's  confinement,  and  drunk  by 
the  women  assembled  on  that  occasion. 
groat,  *  grote,  s.  [O.  Low  Ger.  =  great,  from 
its  being  larger  than  the  small  copper  coins 
formerly  in  use;  O.  Dut.  groote;  Dut.  groot.] 

*  1.  A  small  silver  coin,  formerly  current  in 
England,  of  the  value  of  four  pence  sterling; 
hence  four  pence,  or  a  fourpenny  piece. 

"  But  now  groats  of  four-pence,  and  half  groats  of 
two-pence,  equivalent  to  the  sterling  money,  are 
coined." — Baker  :  Edward  III.  (an.  1876). 

2.  Used  proverbially  for  any  small  or  trifling 

"  His  apparel  Is  not  worth  a  groat."— Fielding :  Jour, 
neyfrom  this  World  to  the  Next,  ch.  xix. 

b6il,  b6y;  pout,  Jo%l;  oat,  9011,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  3fenophon,  exist,     ph  =  f. 
-  clan,  -tlan  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -clous,  -tious,  -sious  =  &hus.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  beL,  dei. 


groats— groom 

groats,  *  grotes,  s.  pi.  [Icel.  grants  =  por- 
ridge ;  Sw.  grot;  Dan.  grbd ;  Dut.  gort] 
Oats  or  wheat  without  the  husks.     [Grouts.] 

"  The  people  of  Rome  for  three  hundred  years  to- 
gether, UBea  no  other  food  than  the  groats  made  of 
common  wheat."  —  P.  Holland:  Plinie,  bk.  xviii., 
ch.  vii. 

grob'-man,  s.    [Etym.  doubtful.] 
Ichthy. :  The  Sea  Bream  (q.v.). 

gro'-cer,  *gr6s'-ser,  s.  [0.  Fr.  grossier  — 
one  who  sells  by  the  gross  or  wholesale  ;  gros, 
fern,  grosse  =  great.]  A  dealer  in  tea,  sugar, 
coffee,  spices,  &c.    [Gross.] 

"  None  of  that  companie,  nor  anie  of  the  vinteners, 
butchers,  grosser*  .  .  .  Bhuuld  he  admitted  maior  of 
the  citie."— tlolinshed:  Chron.  Richard  II.  fan.  1382). 

grocer's-itch,  s. 

Pathol.  :  Ecthyma,  produced  by  handling 
sugar.  It  ia  most  common  in  spring  and 
summer.  Sometimes  the  eruption  is  local,  at 
others  it  almost  covers  the  body. 

*  gro'-cer-ly,  a.  [Eng.  grocer ;  -ly.]  Belong- 
ing to  the  grocery  trade. 

"  Some  grocer  ly  thieves." 

Hood:  Tale  of  a  Trumpet. 

gro'-cer-y,  *  gros'-ser-y,  s.  [O.  Fr.  gros- 

1.  Grocers'  wares,  such  as  tea,  sugar,  coffee, 
&c.    (Usually  in  the  plural.) 

"  Mounted  upon  the  colt,  with  a  deal  box  before  him 
to  carry  groceries  in."~Gol(lsmith :  Vicar  of  Wake- 
Held,  ch.  xii. 

2.  A  grocer's  shop  ;  a  place  where  groceries 
are  sold.    (American.) 

*groche,  v.t.  &  i.    [Grudge,  v.] 

*  groiV,  *  groffe,  *  gruf,  adv.    [Icel.  grufa,  in 

the  phrase,  liggja  &  grufu  =  to  lie  grovelling  : 
grufa  =  to  grovel ;  Sw.  dial,  gruva  =  flat  on 
one's  face  ;  ligga  8,  gruve.  =  to  lie  grovelling  on 
one's  face.]  Grovelling ;  flat  on  one's  face. 

gr6g,  s.  [Named  after  a  nickname  of  Admiral 
Vernon,  who,  from  his  wearing  grogram 
breeches,  was  called  "Old  Grog."  About 
1745  he  ordered  his  sailors  to  dilute  their  rum 
with  water.] 

1.  Spirits  and  water  mixed  but  not  sweet- 
ened ;  strong  drink  generally. 

2.  For  def.  see  extract. 

"Deceased  had  been  accustomed  to  drink  a  vile 
mixture  procured  at  spirit  storeB  known  as  grog,  and 
compounded  of  drippings  from  wine,  spirit,  and  beer 
casks."— Standard,  Feb.  20,  1884. 

3.  [Firebrick.] 

grog-blossom,  $.  A  redness  or  pimple 
on  the  nose  or  face,  arising  from  excessive 
indulgence  in  strong  drink. 

grog-shop,  s.  A  place  where  spirits  or 
strong  drinks  are  sold  ;  a  dram-shop. 

*  grog,  v.  t.  [Grog,  s.]  To  extract  spirit  from. 
(See  extract.) 

"  The  defendants  had  grogged  the  casks  by  putting 
In  hot  water." — Lincoln  Mercury,  March  3,  1878. 

grdg'-ger-y,  s.  [Eng.  grog;  -cry.}  A  place 
where  spirits  or  other  strong  liquors  are  sold  ; 
a  grog-shop.    (American.) 

grog'-gl-ness,  e.    [Eng.  groggy;  -ness.\ 

*  1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  The  state  of  being  under 

the  influence  of  drink  ;  tipsiness. 
2.  Farr. ;  A  tenderness  or  stiffness  in  the 

foot  of  a  horse,  or  weakness  in  the  forelegs. 

"The  peculiar  knuckling  of  the  fetlock -joint,  and 
the  tottering  of  the  whole  of  the  fore-leg,  known  by 
the  name  of  grogginess,  and  which  is  so  often  Been  in 
old  and  overworked  horses,  is  seldom  an  affection 
of  either  the  fetlock  or  the  pastern-joints  simply." — 
Youatt :  On  the.Horse,  ch,  xvi.,  p.  879. 

grog'-gy,  a.     [Eng.  grog;  -y.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Under  the  influence  of  drink  ;  tipsy, 

2.  Staggering  or  stupefied,  as  one  dazed  with 
blows  ;  acting  like  one  stupefied  with  drink. 

II.  Farr. :  Moving  uneasily,  as  with  tender 
feet  or  forelegs. 

"  It  [grogginess]  is  common  among  all  kinds  of  fast 
workers,  and  long  journeys  at  a  fast  pace  will  make 
almost  any  hone  groggy."— Youatt :  On  the  Horse,  ch. 
xvi.,  p.  380. 

grog'-ram,   *  grog'-er-an,   *  grog'-ran, 

s.  &  a.     [O.  Fr.  grosgrain,' from  gros  =  gross, 
thick,  coarse,  and  grain  =  grain.] 

A.  As  substantive  : 

Fab.  :  A  coarse  stuff  of  silk  or  silk  and 

"  He  shall  have  the  grograns  at  the  rate  I  told  him  " 
— Ben  Jonson :  Every  Man  in  His  Humour,  it  2. 

B.  As  adj.  :  Made  of  the  fabric  described 
in  A. 

"  Plain  goody  would  no  longer  down 
Twaa  madam  in  the  grogram  gown."* 

Swift :  Bauds  &  Philemon. 

groin  (1),  *  grain,  s.  [Icel.  grein  =  a  branch, 
arm;   gre>na  =  to  branch  or  fork  off;  Dan. 

green.  =  a  branch ;   Sw.   gren  =  a  branch,  a 

1.  Anat.  :  The  hollow  in  the  human  body 
where  the  thigh  and  the  trunk  unite. 

"  The  little  dart  arrives  .  .  , 
Passed  through  and  pierced  his  groin." 

Dryden  :  Virgil ;  ^Eneid  X.  828. 

2.  Arch. ;  The  angle  or  angular  curve  formed 
by  an  intersection  of  vaults ;  most  of  the 
vaulted  ceilings  of  the  middle  ages  were 
groined,  and  therefore  called  groined  ceilings. 
During  the  early  part  of  the  Norman  style  the 
groins  were  left  purposely  plain,  but  after- 
wards they  were  invariably  covered  with  ribs. 

3.  Civil  Eng. :  A  frame  of  wood-work,  con- 
structed across  a  beach,  between  high  and 
low  water,  perpendicular  to  the  general  line 
of  it,  either  to  retain  the  shingle  already  accu- 
mulated, to  recover  it  when  lost,  or  to  accu- 
mulate more  at  any  particular  point ;  also  to 
break  and  check  the  action  of  the  waves.  The 
component  parts  of  a  groin  are  piles,  plank- 
ing, land-ties,  land  tie-bars,  blocks,  tail-piles, 
and  keys  and  screw-bolts. 

groin-rib,  s. 

Arch. :  A  rib  or  projecting  member  follow- 
ing the  line  of  junction  of  the  two  arches 
forming  a  groin. 

*  groin  (2),  *  grolne,  *  groyn,  *  groyne,  s. 

[O.  Fr.  groing ;  Fr.  groin ;  Pro  v.  groing,  grong; 
Ital.  grugno  ;  0.  Port,  gruin.] 

1.  The  snout  of  a  swine. 

"A  ring  of  gold  that  is  worne  in  the  grolne  of  a 
aowe."— Chaucer  ;  Persones  Tale. 

2.  A  hanging  lip. 

"  Be  wroth,  than  schalt  thow  have  a  groyn." 

Chaucer :  Troilus,  i.  848. 
groin  (1),  v.t.     [Groin  (1),  s.] 

Arch. :  To  form  into  groins ;  to  ornament 
or  furnish  with  groins. 

*  groin  (2),  *groigne,  *  groyne,  v.i.  [Fr. 
grogner ;  O.  Fr.  groigner ;  Prov.  gronhir, 
gronir ;  Sp.  gnMir ;  Port,  grunhir ;  Ital. 
grugnire,  grugnare,  from  Lat.  grunnio.]  To 
groan  or  grunt ;  to  hang  the  lip  in  discontent ; 
to  pout. 

' '  Whether  so  that  he  loure  or  groyne." 

Romaunt  of  the  Rose,  7,051. 
groined,  a.     [Eng.  groin  (1),  s.  ;  -er.J 

Arch. :  Having  an  angular  curve  formed  by 
the  intersection  of  two  arches. 

groined-arch,  s. 

Arch. :  An  arch  intersected  by  another  cut- 
ting it  transversely. 

groined-ceiling,  groined  roof,  s. 

Arch. :  A  ceiling  formed  by  three  or  more 
intersecting  arches,  every  two  of  which  form 
a  groin  at  the  intersection,  all  the    groins 


Fan  Tracery  Vaulting. 

meeting  at  a  point  called  the  apex  or  summit. 
Groined  arches  are  found  both  in  classic  and 
mediaeval  architecture,  but  were  brought  to 
the  greatest  perfection  in  the  latter.  Fan 
tracery  vaulting  is  groined  roofing  in  its  most 
complex  form. 

*  grdln'-er,  *  groyn-ere,  s.  [Eng.  grou 
(2),  v.  ;  -er.]  One  who  tells  tales ;  a  tale 

"  The groy nere  with  drawen  striues  to  gidere reflten. 
—  Wyclife :  Prov.  xxvi.  20. 

groin'-ing  (1),  *.    [Groin  (3),  v.} 

Arch.  :  The  same  as  Groin  (1),  o  ,  I. 

*  groin'-ing  (2),  *  groyn  -ing,  *  groyn 

ynge,  s.    [Groin  (2),  v.] 

1.  Grunting. 

"  Oroynynge  of  swyne.     Grunnitus."— Prompt.  Pan 

2.  A  grumbling  ;  tale-bearing.  (Chaucer 
C.  T.t  2,462.) 

grom-el,  grom-mel,  ».    [Gromwell.J 

grom'-et,  grom'-met,  s.  [Fr.  gourmette^ 
a  curb  ;  gourmer  =  to  curb.] 

1.  Naut. :  A  ring  formed  of  a  strand  of  rop< 
laid  round  and  spliced.  Used  as  a  hank,  j 
thimble,  or  with  large  oars,  in  connectioi 
with  a  pin,  as  a  substitute  for  a  rowlock 
Metallic  grommets,  i—ring  eyelets,  are  some 
times  substituted.  An  iron  flange  is  cast  tc 
the  wrought-metal  thimble  ;  after  insertion 
the  edge  is  spun  over  upon  the  other  cast 
metal  ring. 

2.  Ord. :  A  wad  made  of  rope,  rammec 
down  between  the  ball  and  the  charge.  Made 
of  oakum  and  bound  with  spun-yarn,  it  is 
called  a  junk-wad. 

gromet-wad,  & 

Ord. :  A  wad  used  in  firing  from  smooth, 
bore  guns,  when  the  elevation  is  less  than  3°. 
TT  Shot-gromet : 
Ord. :  The  same  as  Gromet,  2. 

grd'-mi-a,  s.  [Lat.  groma  =  a  surveyor's  pofc 
or  measuring- rod, 

Zool.  :  The  typical  genus  of  the  familj 
Gromidse  (q.v.). 

gro'-mi-da,  gro'-mi-dse,  s.  [Mod.  Lat, 
gromia,  and  Lat.  neut.  adj.  surf,  -ida,  or  fern, 


Zool. :  A  family,  of  Foraminifera,  with  an 
imperforate  test.  It  is  brownish-yellow, 
membranous,  soft,  and  globular,  with  long, 
filiform  processes  protruding. 

grom-well,  grom'-il,  gro-mel,  gray- 
melL,  gray-millet,  s.  [Fr.  gremilj  Wei. 

Bot.  ■  Lithospermvm  officinale,  anciently  ad- 
ministered for  the  cure  of  gravel. 

%  False  Gromwell :  The  genus  Onosmodium, 

*grone,  v.i.    [Groan,  v.] 

Gron'  in-gen-ists,   Gron-in-gen'-sl- 

ans  (o  as  e),  s.  pi.  [From  the  town  oi 
Grbningen  in  the  Netherlands,  at  which  the 
early  adherents  of  the  sect  held  their  conven- 

Ch.  Hist. ;  A  division  of  Mennonites,  who 
flourished  in  the  seventeenth  century. 

gro-no'-vi-a,  s.  [Named  after  J.  F.  Grono- 
vius,  a  botanist  of  Leyden.] 

Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  tribe  Grono- 
vieae  (q.v.). 

gro-nd'-vi-e-sa,      [Mod.  Lat.  gronovia, 
and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ece.] 
Bot.  .-  A  tribe  of  Loasacese. 

groom,  *  grom,  *  grome,  s.  [Etym.  doubt- 
ful ;  prob.  from  A.S.  guma  =  a  man,  the  t 
being  inserted  as  in  cartridge,  partridge, 
corporal,  &c.  ;  Dut.  gom  (in  bruidegom  = 
bridegroom);  O.  H.  Ger.  gumo;  Icel.  gumi; 
Goth,  guma;  Lat.  homo  =  a,  man;  O.  Dut. 
grom;  Icel.  gromr  =  a  boy.]    [Bridegroom.] 

*  1.  A  young  man,  a  lad. 

"  Ich  am  nou  no  grom  ich  am  wel  waxen." 
„  „  .   ,  Haveloh,  790. 

*  2.  A  menial,  a  servant. 

"  A1b  wel  thi  maister  as  thi  grome."       Qower,  i.  274. 

3.  Specifically  a  man  or  boy  who  has  the 
charge  of  horses  or  of  the  stable.  ■* 

"  Unmissed  but  by  hU  dogs  and  by  his  groom." 
Cowper  :  Progress  of  Error,  95. 

4.  A  man  newly-married  or  about  to  be 
married  ;  a  bridegroom. 

"By  this  the   brides  are  waked,  their  grooms  are 
dressed.  Dryden:  Cymon  &  Iphigenia,  540. 

5.  One  of  several  officers  in  the  royal  house- 
hold ;  as,  Groom  of  the  Stole,  &c. 

1  Groom  of  the  Stole :  [Stole]. 

Site,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  thero ;   pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine  ;  go    pSt, 
or.  wore,  wolf,  work,  who,  son;   mute.  cub.  cure,  unite,  cur.  rule,  full;   try,  Syrian,    »,  oa  =  e;  ey  =  a,     qu  =  kw. 

groom — gross 


*  groom-porter,  s.  Au  officer  of  the 
Boyal  household,  whose  duty  it  was  to  see 
that  the  king's  lodging  was  furnished  with 
tables,  chairs,  stools,  and  firing,  and  also  to 
provide  cards  and  dice,  <fec,  and  to  decide 
disputes  arising  at  cards,  dice,  bowling,  &c. 
He  was  allowed  to  keep  an  open  gaming-table 
at  Christmas.  The  office  was  abolished  by 
George  III. 

"The  groom -porter  bad  a  room  appropriated  to 
gaming.'  —Pope  .'  Duneiad,  i.  310  (Note). 

grooms-man,  s.    One  who  attends  on 
the  bridegroom  at  a  wedding  ;  the  best  man. 
"  Sudden  at  the  grojms-man's  side 
'  "Kb  he  I '  a  well-knowu  voice  has  cried." 

Longfellow :  Blind  Girl  of  Castel-CuilU,  iii. 

groom,  v.t.  [Groom,  s.]  To  tend,  care  for,  or 
dress,  as  a  groom  does  a  horse. 

*  grodm'-less,  a.  [Eng.  groom;  -less.]  With- 
out a  groom. 

"  A  rough  cob.  listless  and  groomless."  —  Disraeli  : 
Lothair,  en.  xxvlii . 

*grodm'-let,  s.  [Eng.  groom,  a.  ;  dimin.  suflf. 
-let]    A  little  or  young  groom.    (Hook.) 

*  groom -ship,  *  grome  ship,  s.  [Eng. 
groom;  -ship.]  The  office  or  position  of  a 

"  He  [Silas  Titus]  did  with  the  consent  of  his  Majesty 
resign  his  gromeship."—  Wood:  Athenas  Oxon. 

groot,  s.  [Dut.  =  great.]  An  old  money  of 
account  in  Bremen,  value  ££  ths  of  an  English 
penny.    [Groat.] 

groove,  *  grove,  ».    [Dut.  groef,  groeve  =  a 
grave,  a  groove.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Lit.  :  A  channel,  furrow,  or  long  hollow, 
such  as  may  be  cut  with  a  tool ;  a  rut,  fur- 
row, or  channel,  such  as  may  be  formed  by 
the  action  of  water  ;  a  channel  formed  by  any 

2.  Fig. :  The  natural  course  or  fixed  routine 
of  one's  life  or  events. 

II.  Technically: 

1.  Gun.  :  A  spiral  channel  between  the 
lands  in  rifling. 

2.  Join.  :  A  channel  in  the  edge  of  a  board. 
In  matched-boarding  it  receives  the  tongue. 

*  3.  Mining :  A  shaft  or  pit. 

4.  Anat  :  There  are  many  grooves  in  the 
human  frame,  as,  the  bicipital,  the  lachrymal, 
and  the  subcostal  grooves. 

groove-ram,  s. 

Needle-making :  A  stamp  for  making  the 
groove  in  which  the  eyes  of  needles  are  formed. 

groove,  v.t.  [Groove,  s.]  To  cut  or  form  a 
groove  or  channel  in  ;  to  furrow. 

"The  aperture  is  grooved  at  the  margin."— Pennant . • 
Drit.Zool.;  Tlie  Wreath  Shell 

grooved,  a.    [Groove,  s.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  Having  a  groove,  furrow,  or 
channel  in  it ;  channelled ;  furrowed. 

"  Each  grooved  and  dovetailed  like  a  box." 
Swift :  George-Nim-Dun-Dean's  Answer  to  T.  Sheridan. 

2.  Bot.  :  Fluted,  channelled,  marked  with 
longitudinal  furrows. 

grooved -bit,  s.  A  wood-boring  tool, 
adapted  to  be  used  in  a  brace,  and  having  a 
cylindrical  stem  with  a  spiral  groove. 

grooved-wheel,  s. 

1.  A  wheel  having  circumferential  indenta- 
tions, as  a  mode  of  increasing  the  traction  or 
effective  Motional  surface  contact ;  a  friction- 

2.  A  band-wheel  or  pulley  having  peripheral 
depressions  for  a  round  band,  as  in  some 

grobv'-er,  s.     [Eng.  groove,  v.  ;  -er.] 

*  1.  One  who  or  that  which  cuts  or  forms  a 

2.  A  miner.    (Provincial.) 

grodv'-ing,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Groove,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :    (See 

the  verb). 
C.  As  subst. :  The  act  or  process  of  cutting 

or  forming  a  groove  ;    a  groove,    or    set  of 

grooving -planes,  s.  pi.  Carpenters'  and 

joiners'  planes,  which  are  adapted  for  cutting 

grooves,  as  the  plough,  fillister,  router-plane, 

banding-plane,  &c. 

*  grope,  *  groop,  *  groupe,  *  growpe, 

*  grupe,  s.  [O.  Fris.  grope;  Dut.  groep ;  Sw. 
&  Dan.  grvp.]  A  channel  to  carry  off  urine 
from  a  stable  or  stall. 

"Agrupe:  minsorium." — Cathol.  Anglicum. 

*  grope  (1),  *  growpe,   *  growpyn,   v.i. 

[Grope,  s.]  To  make  a  groove  or  channel ; 
to  form  grooves. 

"  I  growpe,  sculpe,  or  suche  as  coulde  grave,  groupe 
or  carve." — Palsgrave. 

grope  (2),  *  grape,  *  graip,  *  gropen, 

*  groop,  v.i.  &  t.  [A.S.  grd2na?i=to  handle, 
to  seize,  from  0rap=:the  grasp  of  the  hands, 
the  grip  of  the  fingers,  from  gripnn  =  to  gripe  ; 
O.  H.  Ger.  grei/on;  Icel.  greifa.] 

A.  Intransitive: 

1.  To  feel  with  the  hands. 

"Loke  whattber  is  put  in  thin  bond  and  grope.' 
Chaucer:  C.  T.,  18,161. 

2.  To  use  the  hands  ;  to  handle. 

"  If  my  fader  groop  and  fele,  by  drede  lest  he  wene 
me  wiln  to  bigile  hyin.' —  Wycliffe:  Genesis  xxvii.  12. 

3.  To  search  or  seek  to  find  something  in 
the  dark  ;  or,  as  a  blind  person,  by  feeling 
about  with  the  hands  ;  to  feel  one's  way  as 
with  the  hands. 

"  We  grope  for  the  wall  like  the  blind." — Isa.  lix.  10. 

4.  To  seek  to  find  one's  way  through  doubt 
or  perplexity. 

* '  Groping  no  longer  in  night." 
Longfellow :  Children  of  the  Lords  Supper. 

*5.  To  seek  to  find  anything. 

"  As  blindly  groped  they  for  a  future  state." 

Dryden :  Religw  Laid,  23. 

*6.  To  examine  closely. 

"  He  is  the  gropande  God." 
Early  Eng.  Allit.  Poems:  Cleanness, 591. 

B.  Transitive  : 

1.  To  feel  with  the  hands  ;  to  touch ;  to 

"  Than  gropede  he  euery  wounde." 

Sir  Ferumbras,  1.3B8. 

2.  To  seek  out  by  feeling  with  the  hands  in 
the  dark  or  as  a  blind  person  :  as,  To  grope 
one's  way. 

*'  We  have  groped  aB  blinde  men  the  wall."—  Wyclijfe : 
Isaiah  lix.  10. 

*  3.  To  try  to  discover  or  find  out;  to  seek 
into  ;  to  try ;  to  sound ;  to  probe. 

"  How  vigilant  to  grope  men's  thoughts,  and  to  pick 
out  Bomewhat  whereof  they  might  complain.  "— 

*  4.  To  inquire  into  ;  to  examine. 

"  To  grope  tecdurly  a  conscience." 

Chaucer:  C.  T.,  7,399. 

grop'-er,s.  [Eng. grop(e);  -er.]  Onewhogropes; 
one  who  tries  to  find  his  way  by  groping. 

"  A  groper  after  novelties,  in  any  wise  do  flye." 

Drant :  Horace  ;  Epistle  to  Lollius, 

grdp'-ing,  pr.  par.,  u-.,  &  s.     [Grope,  v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst. :  The  act  or  state  of  seeking 
one's  way  by  feeling  with  the  hands  in  the 
dark,  or  as  a  blind  person. 

*  groping-iron,  *  grupinge-yren,  a. 

A  tool  for  forming  grooves. 

"The  groping-iron  then  spake  he." — MS.  in  Salli- 

grdp'-ing-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  groping;  -ly.]  In 
a  groping  manner  :  as  one  who  gropes. 

grop'-pite,  s.  [From  Gropp(torp),  in  Sweden, 
where  it  occurs,  and  suff.  -He  (Min.)  (q.v.).] 

Min.  :  A  rose-red  or  brownish-red  crystal- 
line mineral  of  splintery  fracture  :  its  hard- 
ness, 2*5  ;  sp.  gr.,  2-73.  Compos.  :  45'01 ; 
alumina,  22"55 ;  sesquioxide  of  iron,  3"06  ; 
magnesia,  1228 ;  lime,  4'55 ;  soda,  0'22  ;  po- 
tassa,  5"23  ;  water,  7'11  =  100,  Occurs  in 
limestone.    (Dana.) 

*  grop'-ple,  v.i.  [A  frequent,  from  grope 
(0.-v-)-]    To  grope. 

"  To  gropple  in  the  brook  for  crayfish." — T.  Hughes  : 
Tom  Brown  at  Oxford,  ch.  xxx. 

gror-oi'-llte,  s.  [From  Groroi,  in  Mayenne, 
France,  where  it  occurs,  and  Gr.  \C0os  (lithos) 
=  stone.] 

Min.  :  A  variety  of  Wad  (Bog-manganese). 
The  colour  is  brownish-black,  the  streak  red- 
dish-brown.   (Dana.) 

gros  (s  silent),  s.  [Fr.,  =  thick,  strong.] 
[Gross,  a.] 

Fabric :  A  heavy  silk  with  a  dull  finish. 

gros  em,  s.  A  silver  coin,  used  in  Swit- 
zerland, value  4s.  8d.  sterling. 

gros'-beak,  *  gross  "beak,  s.  [Eng.  gross, 
and  beak.  So  named  from  the  thick  bills  of 
the  several  species.] 

1.  Singtdar: 

(1)  Spec. :  The  genus  Coccothraustes  (q.v.), 

(2)  Gen.  :  Some  other  birds  having  thick 
bills.    LIT] 

2.  PI. :  The  English  name  of  Coccothraus- 
tinee,  a  sub-family  of  Friugillidse. 

IT  The  Cardinal  Grosbeak  (fiardinalis  vir- 
ginianus),  an  American  bird.  The  Pine  Gros- 
beak is  l.oxia  enuckator,  called  also  Pine  Bul- 
finch  ;  and  the  Social  or  ^Republican  Grosbeak 
is  Phil&tems  socius.  It  is  from  South  Africa, 
and  belongs  to  the  sub-family  of  Ploceinie 

gro'-schen,  s.  [Gross.]  A  small  silver  coin 
used  in  the  North  German  States,  value  j^th 
of  a  thaler,  or  about  ljth  of  a  penny  sterling. 
Each  grosehen  is  sub-divided  into  ten  pfen- 

gro'-ser,  gro'-sert,  gro'-si-er,  a.    [Gros- 


gross,  *  grosse,  a.  &  s.  [Fr.  gros  (fem. 
grosse)  =  thick,  coarse,  from  Low  Lat.  grossus, 
from  Lat.  crassus  —  thick,  coarse ;  ItaL  grosso; 
Sp.  grueso.] 

A.  As  adjective: 
I.  Literally : 

1.  Thick  ;  fat ;  bulky ;  great  and  coarse. 

"A.  gross  fat  man."— Shakcsp. :  1  Henry  IV.,  ii.  i. 

2.  Coarse  ;  opposed  to  fine  or  delicate. 

"  Fine  and  delicate  sculptures  are  helped  with  near- 
ness, and  gross  with  distance."—  Wotton,  Architecture. 

*  3.  Thick;  dense;  not  attenuated;,  not 
pure ;  coarse. 

"  They  would  Bhake  the  gross  clouds  to  the  ground.** 
Drayton :  Barons'  Wars,  bk.  ii. 

*  4.  Coarse  ;  unbecoming  ;  inelegant 

"The  gloomy  hue, 
And  feature  gross."       Thomson :  Summer,  88& 
II.  Figuratively : 

1.  Dull ;  stupid  ;  crass ;  heavy. 

"  If  she  doth  then  the  subtile  seiiBQ  excel. 
How  gross  are  they  that  drown  her  in  the  blood?" 

2.  Coarse  ;  vulgar  ;  not  refined  ;  indelicate  j 
sensual  ;  obscene. 

"  He  shunB  the  grosser  joys  of  sense."       ~ 
,Byron :  Corsair,  i.  2. 

3.  Enormous  ;  great ;  shameful ;  disgrace- 
ful ;  flagrant. 

"  That  gross  idolatry,  which  consisted  in  the  worship 
of  the  images  of  dead  men."— Bp.  Borsley:  Sermons-, 
vol  iii.,  ser.  37. 

i.  Whole  ;  entire ;  total ;  applied  to  a  sum 
or  amount  without  any  deduction  ;  opposed 
to  net. 

*  5.  Plain ;  palpable  ;  easily  discernible. 

"  Tis  gross  you  love  my  son." 

Shakesp. :  Atis  WellVwt  Ends  WeU,  i.  3. 

B.  As  substantive : 

*  1.  The  main  body,  part,  or  masB ;  the 
chief  part,  the  mass. 

"  Comets,  out  of  question,  have  likewise  power  rod 
effect  over  the  gross  and  mass  of  things.'  —Bacon. 

*  2.  The  main  force  or  body. 

"  Several  casuists  are  of  opinion  that,  in  a  battle, 
you  should  discharge  upon  the  gross  of  the  enemy, 
without  levelling  your  piece  at  any  particular  person. ' 
—Addison:  Freeholder. 

*  3.  The  sum  total  ;  the  full  or  entire 

"  I  cannot  instantly  raise  up  the  gross 
Of  full  three  thousand;ducats." 

Shakesp. :  Merchant  of  Venlee,  i.  3. 

*  4.  A  collective  or  united  body. 

"  After  they  have  separated  themselves  in  many 
petty  divisions,  they  rejoin  one  by  one  into  a^row."— 

5.  The  gross  or  great  hundred  ;  the  number 
of  twelve  dozen  ;  twelve  times  twelve. 

^  1.  A  great  gross:  Twelve  gross  or  144 

2.  In  the  gross;  in  gros^: 

(1)  In  the  bulk,  or  undivided  whole ;  whole- 

"Trafficking  in  grosse."— Carew:  Survey  in  Corn- 
wall, p.  65. 

(2)  On  the  whole ;  as  a  whole,  without  re- 
gard to  the  separate  parts. 

"Some  men  pass  swiftly  from  the  effect  they  look 
upon  in  gross  to  the  most  obvious  seeming  causa." — 
Digby  :  Of  Bodies,  ch.  xxxvL 

3.  Advowson  in  gross : 

Law:  An  advowson  separated  from  the 
property  of  a  manorr  and  annexed  to  the  per- 
son of  its  owner. 

boll,  bo^;  po*ut,  jo^rl;  cat,  9011,  chorus,  9hin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    -ing, 
-ctan,  -tian  =  shan.     -tion,  -sion    shun;  -tion,    sion  =  zhun.     -tious,  -sious,  -cious  =  shiis.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bel,  del. 


grossales— ground 

i.  Common  in  gross : 

Law:  A  common  not  appurtenant  to  land, 
but  annexed  to  a  man's  person. 

*  5.  Villein  in  gross : 

Feud.  Law:  A  villein  who  did  not  belong 
to  the  land,  but  immediately  to  the  person 
of  his  lord,  and  who  was  transferable  by  deed, 
as  other  chattels,  from  one  person  to  another. 

%  Crabb  thus  discriminates  between  gross 
and  coarse:  "  These  terms  are  synonymous  in 
the  moral  application.  Grossness  of  habit  is 
opposed  to  delicacy  :  coarseness  to  softness 
and  refinement.  A  person  becomes  gross  by 
an  unrestrained  indulgence  of  his  sensual 
appetites,  particularly  in  eating  and  drinking  ; 
he  is  coarse  from  the  want  of  polish  either  as 
to  his  mind  or  manners."  (Crabb :  Eng. 

gross-fed,  a.  Fed  or  supported  on  gross 
or  coarse  food. 

Thick-headed,  dull, 


stupid.    (Milton.) 

Gross  Mennonites,  s.  pi. 

Ch.  Hist.  :  A  name  given  on  the  Continent  in 
the  seventeenth  century  to  the  more  wild  or 
lax  Mennonites,  as  distinguished  from  those 
who  were  refined  or  more  strict.  The  former 
were  called  again  Water  landers.  (Mosheim: 
Ch.  Mist,,  cent,  xvii.) 

gross-weight,  s. 

Comm. :  The  weight  of  any  merchandise  or 
commodity,  including  the  dross,  dust,  bag, 
case,  cask,  chest,  or  other  receptacle  in  which 
it  is  contained.  The  net  or  neat  weight  is 
that  of  the  commodity  after  the  tare  and  tret 
have  been  deducted.    [Net,  a.,  Tare,  s.] 

gros-sa'-les,  $.  pi.     [Lat.  gross(us) ;  masc.  or 
fern.  suff.  -ales.]    [Gross al.] 

Dot. :  An  alliance  of  epigynous  exogens, 
having  the  flowers  dichlamydeous  and  poly- 
petalousi  the  seeds  numerous  and  minute, 
with  the  embryo  small,  lying  in  a  large  quan- 
tity of  albumen.  Lindley  includes  under  it 
the  orders  Gross  ulariacese,  Escalloniacepe, 
Philadelphacese,  and  Barringtoniacese  (q.v.). 

gros'-sart,  gros'-sert,   s.     [A  corrupt,  of 
Fr.  groseille.]    A  gooseberry  (q.v.). 

gross-beak,  «,    [Grosbeak.] 

*  gross'  ful,  *  grosse-fuU,  a.    [Eng.  gross; 
-full.]    Exceeding  gross. 

"  Thy  grosseful  faults." 

Chapman  :  Hussy  D'JmboU,  i.  2. 

gross-if-i-ca'-tion,  s.    [Grossify.j 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  The  act  of  making  gross, 
coarse,  or  thick  ;  the  state  of  becoming  gross 
or  thick. 

2.  Bot.  :  The  swelling  of  the  ovary  after  fer- 

*  gross'-l-fy,    v.t.  &  i.     [Eng.  gross;  i  con- 
nective, and  suff.  -fy.] 

A.  2  Vans.  :  To  make  gross,  coarse,  or  thick. 

B.  Iutrans. ;  To  become  gross,  coarse,  or 

gr0SS'-lyt  adv.     [Eng.  gross  ;  -ly.] 

*  1.  In  a  gross  manner;  in  bulky  parts; 
coarsely  ;  bulkily. 

"London  likes  pro  ssly;  but  ibis  nicer  pit 
Examines,  fathoms,  all  the  depths  of  wit." 

Dryden :  Prologue  to  the  Univ.  of  Oxford. 

2.  Coarsely,  vulgarly ;  without  refinement ; 

"  Speak  not  so  grossly." 

Shakesp. :  Merchant  of  Venice,  v. 

3,  Shamefully,  disgracefully,  flagrantly. 

"  But  that  which  In  an  age  of  good  government  is  an 
etil  may,  hi  an  age  of  grossly  bad  government,  be  a 
blessing.  —Maeaumy  :  Hist,  of  Mug,,  ch.  i.i 

*  i.  Stupidly. 

"  Led  bo  grossly  by  this  meddling  priest." 

Shakes}}. :  King  John,  iii.  1. 

*  5.  Palpably,  evidently,  plainly. 

"  To  counterfeit  thus  grossly  with  your  slave." 

Shakesp. :  -Comedy  of  Errors,  ii.  2. 

gross'  ness,  s.    [Eng.  gross;  -ness.] 

*  1.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  gross  or 
bulky;  bulk,  bulkinesa. 

"The  element  immediately  next  the  earth  in  gross- 
ness ia  water."— Digby  :  Of  Bodies,  ch.  xxvii. 

2.  Coarseness,  rudeness;  want  of  refine- 
ment or  delicacy. 

"  I  will  purge  thy  mortal  grossness  so." 
Shakcsp.  :  Midsummer  Might's  Dream,  iii   i. 

3.  Enormity  ;  shocking  nature  or  qualities  ; 
shamefulness ;  disgracefulness. 

"  Hiding  the  grossness  with  fair  ornament." 

Shakesp.  :  Merchant  of  Veirice,  i3.  2. 

*  4.  Stupidity. 

"  Such  impossible  passages  of  grossness  " 

Shakesp. :  Twelfth  Night,  iii.  2. 

*5.  Coarseness  ;  want  of  clearness  or  purity  ; 

"  [Its]  foggy  grossness  so  opposed  the  light 
Ab  it  would  turn  the  nounsted  into  night." 

Drayton :  Moon-Calf. 

fgros-su-la'-ce-se,  [Gkossulariace,*:.] 

gros-su-la'-ce-oiis  (or  ceous  as  shus),  a. 

[Mod.  Lat.  grossulace(ce)  ;  suff.  -ous.] 

Bot.  :  Of  or  belonging  to  the  Grossulacefe 
or  Grossulariacae  (q.v.). 

gros'-SU-lar,  a.  &  s.  [Low  Lat.  grossula  — 
a  gooseberry  ;  Class.  Lat.  gross-idus  =  a  small 
unripe  fig,  dimin.  of  grossus  =  an  unripe  rig  ; 
and  Eng.  suff.  -ary.] 

A.  As  adj. :  Of,  belonging  to,  or  resembling 
a  gooseberry. 

B.  As  substantive : 

Min. :  The  mineral,  called  by  the  French 
grossulaire.  The  same  as  GROS3ULARiTE(q.v.). 

grossular  garnet,  s. 

Min.  :  The  same  as  Grossularite  (q.v.). 

gros-su-lar'-i-a,  5.  [Low  Lat.  grossnl(a)  — 
a  gooseberry ;  ahd  Lat.  fern.  sing.  adj.  suff. 

Bot. ;  A  sub-genus  of  Ribes,  having  spinous 
branches,  the  leaves  plaited  in  bud,  and  one 
to  three  flowered  peduncles.  (Sir  Joseph 

gros-su-lar-i-a'-ce-se,  t  gros-su-la'- 
ce-£e,  s.  pi.  [Mod.  Lat.  grossularia  (q.v.), 
and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -acece.] 

Bot. :  Currantworts  ;  the  typical  order  of 
Lindley's  alliance  Grossales.  It  consists  of 
either  unarmed  or  spiny  shrubs,  with  alter- 
nate lobed  leaves  having  a  plaited  vernation, 
flowers  in  axillary  racemes,  a  superior  calyx 
four  or  five-parted,  five  minute  petals,  five 
stamens  ;  a  two,  three,  or  four-cleft  style ;  a 
one-celled  ovary,  with  two  opposite  parietal 
placentte ;  and  the  fruit  a  berry,  enclosing 
numerous  seeds  suspended  among  the  pulp 
by  long  fundamental  cords.  Lindley  enume- 
rated two  genera,  and  estimated  the  known 
species  at  ninety-five.  They  are  from  the 
temperate  and  mountainous  parts  of  Europe, 
Asia,  and  America.  The  typical  genus  is 
Ribes,  containing  the  gooseberry,  currant,  &c. 
Sir  Joseph  Hooker  calls  the  order  Ribesieae, 
and  reduces  it  to  a  tribe  of  Saxifragracese. 

gros'-SU-lar-lte,  s.  [Mod.  Lat.  grossu- 
laria =  the  gooseberry  genus  ;  suff.  -ite  (Min.) 


Min.  :  A  variety  of  garnet,  called  by  Dana 
from  its  composition  Lime-alumina-garnet. 
The  most  typical  sub-variety  is  the  Wiluite, 
of  Siberia,  which  is  pale  green.  Others  are 
Cinnamon-stone  or  Essonite,  Succinite,  and 

*gross'-y,  *grosa'-ie,  u.  [Eng.  gross;  -y.] 

"Spending  their  grossie  humours." — Fuller:  Wor- 
thies ;  Lincoln,  ii.  2. 

1  grot  (1), 


grot  (2),  s.    [Fr.  grotte,  from  Low  Lat.  crupta  = 
a  crypt ;  Lat.  crypta.]    A  grotto.     [Crypt.] 
"  The  Sibylline  grot  beside  the  dead 
Lake  of  Averaus."         Dyer :  Ruins  of  Home. 

gro-tes  que  (que  as  k),  *gro-tesc,  *  gro- 
tes-co,  a.  &  s.  [Fr.,  from  Ital.  grottesca,  from 
grotto,  —  a  grotto,  because  such  paintings  were 
found  in  old  crypts  and  grottoes.] 

A.  As  adjective : 

1.  Strangely  or  wildly  formed  ;  of  irregular 
or  extravagant  form  or  proportions  ;  antic, 
ludicrous,  laughable,  ridiculous. 

"  Many  a  grotesque  form  and  face." 

Longfellow :  To  a  Child. 

2.  Applied  to  artificial  grotto-work,  deco- 
rated with  rock-work,  shells,  &c. 

B,  As  substantive : 

1.  This  term,  which  is  now  familiar  among 
all  the  lovers  of  the  art  of  painting,  was  by 
the  Italians  appropriated  to  that  peculiar 
manner  of  composition  and  invention  observed 
among  the  antique  monumental  paintings 
which  were  discovered  in  the  subterraneous 

chambers  that  had  been  decorated  in  the  tunes 
of  the  ancient  Romans  ;  and  as  the  I»i»?JJ 
apply  the  word  Grotto  to  express  every  kina 
of  cave  or  grot,  all  paintings  which  were  in 
imitation  of  the  antique  designs  discovered  in 
those  chambers,  which  for  ages  had  been 
covered  with  ruins,  are  grotesqued  or  gro- 
tesque, which  is  now  applied  to  English  sub- 
jects of  a  quaint  and  anomalous  character. 

2  A  name  given  to  the  light  and  fanciful 
ornaments  used  formerly  to  characterize  per- 
sons and  things. 

3.  Whimsical  figures  or  scenery. 

i.  Artificial  grotto-work. 

5.  In  printing,  a  squat-shaped  type. 


gro-tes'que-ly  (que  as  k),  adv.  [Eng.  gro- 
tesque ;  -ly.]  In  a  grotesque,  extravagant,  or 
ludicrous  manner. 

"  Death  has  despoiled  the  jester  of  his  habiliments, 
and  grotesquely  decorated  himself  therewith." — Ex- 
planation of  Holbein's  Dance  of  Death,  p.  49. 

gro-tes'que-ness  (que  as  k),  s.  [Eng. 
grotesque ;  -ness.]  The  quality  or  state  of 
being  grotesque ;  extravagance. 

gro-tesq'-uer-y  (q  as  k),  s.  [Eng.  gro- 
tesque ;  -ry.]  The  act  or  practice  of  indulging 
in  grotesque  whims  or  antics ;  extravagant  or 
ludicrous  conduct ;  the  expression  of  gro- 
tesque ideas. 

"  The  most  daring  grotesqueries  of  humour." — Cham- 
bers' Encyc.  (1BG8),  x.  210. 

gro'-thite,  s.  [Named  after  P.  Groth,  who 
first  described  it ;  suff.  -ite  (Min.)  (q.v.).] 

Min. :  A  mineral  akin  to  Titanite  or  Sphene, 
but  differing  from  it  in  cleavage.  It  is  clove- 
coloured  or  dark  brown  in  mass,  and  reddish- 
brown  and  translucent  in  thin  splinters. 
Hardness,  6'5  ;  sp.  gr.,  3'5  to  3'6.  Compos. : 
Silica,  30*51  ;  titanic  acid,  31 '16  ;  sesquioxide 
of  iron,  5'83  ;  lime,  31*34,  &c.  Occurs  in 
syenite  near  Dresden. 

*grdt'-ta,  ;>.    [Grotto.] 

grot  tes  que  (que  as  k),  s.    [Grotesque.] 

grot'-to,  *■  grot-ta,  a.  [Ital.  grotta  ;  Fr. 
grotte.]     [Grot  (2).]* 

1.  A  cave  or  natural  cavity  in  the  earth  ;  a 
natural  covered  opening  in  the  earth. 

"Zoroaster  consecrated  a  round  grotto,  such  as 
nature  had  formed  it." — SoUngbroke  :  Letter  to  Mr.  De 

2.  An  artificial  or  ornamental  cave  or  cavern- 
like apartment,  decorated  with  rock- work,  &c, 
and  resorted  to  for  coolness  in  hot  weather. 

grotto  -  work,  s.  Artificial  and  orna- 
mental rock-work,  shell-work,  &c,  in  a  garden. 

grou-an,  s.    [Growan.] 

ground,  *grond,  *gronde,  *grounde, 
*  grownd,  *  grand,  s.  [A.S.  grund;  cogn. 
with  Dut.  grond;  Icel.  grunnr;  Dan.  grund; 
O.  H.Ger.  grunt;  Ger.  grund;  Goth,  grundus; 
Sw.  grund;  O.  Fris.  &  O.  S.  grund;  Gael. 
grunnd ;  Ir.  grunnt.  Probably  from  A.S. 
grindan  =  to  grind,  the  original  meaning  being 
dust  or  earth.] 

L  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  Literedly : 

(1)  The  surface  of  the  earth ;  the  outer 
crust  of  the  globe.    (Milton :  P.  L.  vii.  332.) 

(2)  The  surface  of  a  floor  or  pavement,  as 
supposed  to  be  resting  upon,  the  earth. 

*  (3)  The  pit  of  a  theatre.    [Groundling.] 
(4)  The  earth,  as  distinguished  from  air  or 

"  They  .  .  .  soaring  the  air  sublime, 
With  clang  despised  the  ground." 

Milton ;  P.  L.,  vii.  422. 

5.  A  region,  a  territory,  a  country. 

"  The  brook  that  parts 
Egypt  from  Syrian  ground"         Milton  :  P.  L.,  i.  421. 

(6)  Land ;  estate ;  property. 

"  A  fair  house  built  on  another  man's  ground"— 
Sliakesp. ;  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,  ii.  2. 

(7)  PI.  :  The  ornamental  land  attached  to  a 
house  ;  as  a  lawn,  a  park,  &c. 

(8)  The  position  or  place  where  a  body  of 
men  is  set ;  the  position  occupied  by  an  army. 

(9)  Bottom  ;  solid  earth.  (Shakesp. :  1  Henry 

*(10>  The  lowest  depths  ;  the  bottom.    (Old 
Eng.  Homilies,  p.  19.) 

fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  air,  marine ;   go,  pot, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try,  Syrian,     as,  ce  =  e ;  ey  =  a';  qu  =  kw. 



2.  Figuratively: 

(1)  (PI.):  The  foundation  or  basis  on  which 
anything  is  built  up  or  supported. 

"  Not  that  the  grounds  of  hope  were  fixed." 

Tennyson :  Two  Voices,  227. 

(2)  (PI.) :  The  first  or  fundamental  principles 
of  knowledge. 

"  Their  thoughts  will  be  beat  taken  up  in  the  easy 
grounds  of  religion  and  the  story  of  scripture."  — 
Hilton. :  On  Education, 

*  (3)  A  fundamental  principle. 

"  Contrary  to  this  true  ground  of  Plato."—  Raleigh  : 
Bist.  World,  bk.  i.,  ch.  i.,  §  15. 

(4)  The  fundamental  cause  ;  the  true  reason, 
cause,  or  motive. 

"  Albeit  the  grounds  and  first  original  causes  from 
whence  they  have  sprung  be  unknown."— Hooker: 
Secies.  Polity, 

(5)  A  foil  or  background  to  set  anything  off. 
"  Like  bright  metal  on  a  sullen  ground," 

SJutJcesp.  :  1  Henry  IV.,  i.  2. 

(6)  PI. :  Sediment ;  dregs  ;  lees,  faeces,  at  the 
bottom  of  liquors :  as,  the  grounds  of  coffee,  &c. 

*  (7)  The  bottom  ;  lowest  or  deepest  part. 

"  Crist  saht  all  hiss  hentess  grund." 

Ormulum,  13,280. 

II.  Technically: 

1.  Carpentry: 

(1)  PI. ;  Pieces  of  wood  nailed  on  as  guides 
for  the  plastering,  which  comes  flush  with  the 
face  of  the  grounds.  To  them  the  mouldings 
and  other  finishings  are  nailed. 

(2)  Framing  or  pieces  forming  a  basis  for 
other  structure,  as  ground-sills. 

(3)  Sheathing  upon  quarters  or  studding  to 
form  a  basis  for  cornice  work  or  mouldings. 

2.  Engrav.  :  An  acid-resisting  composition 
of  asphaltum,  four  parts  ;  Burgundy  pitch, 
two  parts ;  white  wax,  one  part.  This  is 
melted  and  mixed,  and  tied  up  in  a  silk  rag ; 
the  plate  is  heated  and  the  composition 
smeared  on.  It  is  then  spread  by  a  silk  dab- 
ber,  and  blackened  by  the  smoke  of  a  candle 
or  an  oil-lamp.  When  cool  it  is  ready  for  the 

3.  Fabric :  The  prevailing  colour. 

4.  Japan. :  The  pigment  mixed  with  hard 
varnish  which  forms  the  basis  for  the  japan  or 
polished  varnish  surface. 

5.  Mining :  Strata  containing  the  mineral 
lode,  or  coal  seam  ;  also  called  the  country. 

6.  Music : 

(1)  A  composition  in  which  the  base,  con- 
sisting of  a  few  bars  of  independent  notes,  is 
continually  repeated  to  a  continually  varying 

(2)  The  plain  song ;  the  tune  on  which  des- 
cants are  raised. 

"  For  on  that  ground  I'll  build  a  holy  descant." 

Shakesp. :  Richard  111.,  iii.  7. 

7.  Painting : 

(1)  The  first  layer  of  paint  placed  upon  can- 
vas previous  to  the  commencement  of  the 
artist's  work  on  a  picture  ;  the  substratum  of 

(2)  PI. :  The  substance  with  which  the  can- 
vas and  panel  are  covered  to  render  them  fit 
for  painting  on.  Grounds  are  either  absorbent 
or  non -absorbent.  Absorbent  grounds  are 
prepared  by  mixing  chalk  or  plaster  into  a 
paste  with  animal  glue  or  flour  paste.  By 
the  old  painters,  gold  grounds  were  used. 
Also  called  priming. 

8.  Sculpt.  :  The  flat  surface  from  which  the 
figures  rises ;  said  of  works  in  relief. 

9.  Sports:  The  place,  or  piece  of  ground 
assigned  to  a  player. 

10.  Telegraphy : 

(1)  An  accidental  connection  between  the 
line  wire  and  the  earth. 

(2)  The  earth  in  its  capacity  as  the  return- 
circuit  carrying  body.  The  wire  is  carried  to 
earth  and  connected  to  a  ground-plate,  or  in 
cities  to  a  water  or  gas-main,  which  forms  an 
admirable  and  extensive  conductor. 

If  For  the  difference  between  ground  and 
foundation,  see  Foundation. 
If  1.  To  break  ground : 

(1)  Lit :  To  penetrate  or  cut  through  the 
soil  for  the  first  time. 

(2)  Fig. :  To  take  the  first  step,  or  make  the 
first  move  in  any  direction  or  undertaking  ;  to 
make  a  start. 

*  2.  To  come  to  tlie  ground:  To  fall  to  the 
ground.    (Lit.  £fig.) 

3.  To  fall  to  the  ground:  To  come  to  nought; 
to  fail. 

4.  To  gain  ground : 

(1)  To  advance ;  to  make  way  against  oppo- 
sition ;  to  meet  with  success. 

(2)  To  prevail ;  to  become  more  general  or 
widely  spread. 

"I  wonder  it  has  gained  no  more  ground  in  other 
places." — Temple. 

*  5.  To  gather  ground :  To  gain  ground. 

"  And  gathers  ground  fast  at  the  labourer's  heels, 
Homeward  returning."  AfUton :  P.  L.,  xii.  C31. 

*  6.  To  get  ground  :  To  gain  ground. 

"  They  get  ground  and  vantage  of  the  king." 

Shakesp. :  2  Senry  J  V.,  ii.  3. 

*  7.  To  give  ground :  To  give  way  ;  to  yield  ; 
to  recede  ;  to  retire. 

"  Giving  no  ground  unto  the  house  of  York." 

Shakesjj. :  8  Henry  VI.,  ii.  C. 

8.  To  lose  ground : 

(1)  To  be  driven  back ;  to  retreat ;  to  give  way. 
"  At  length  the  left  wing  of  the  Arcadians  began  to 

lose  ground."— Sidney. 

(2)  To  lose  advantage. 

™    "He  has  lost  ground  at  the  latter  end  of  the  day,  by 
pursuing  his  point  too  far." — Dryden:  Fables.    {Pref.J 

(3)  To  lose  credit ;  to  become  less  general 
or  extensive. 

9.  To  stand  one's  ground :  To  stand  firm  ; 
not  to  yield  or  give  way. 

"  He  will  stand  his  ground  against  all  the  attacks 
that  can  be  made  upon  his  probity." — Atterbury. 

10.  To  take  the  ground : 

Naut. :  To  touch  the  bottom ;  to  become 

*  11.  To  set  on  ground  :  To  discomfit,  to 
gravel ;  to  run  aground. 

"  To  set  him  on  ground,  and  expose  him  to  the  con- 
tempt of  the  people." — Andrewes :  Sermons,  v.  127. 

ground  angling,  s.  Angling  without 
a  float,  with  the  weight  placed  a  few  inches 
from  the  hook. 

ground-annual,  s. 

Scots  Law :  A  estate  created  in  land  by  a 
vassal,  who,  instead  of  selling  his  land  for  a 
gross  sum,  reserves  an  annual  ground-rent 
from  the  vendee,  this  ground-rent  being  a 
perpetual  charge  upon  the  land. 

ground-ash,  s. 

1.  A  young  ash-plant ;  an  ash  sapling. 

"  Some  cut  the  young  ashes  oft*  about  an  inch  above 
the  ground,  which  causes  them  to  luake  very  large 
straight  shoots,  which  they  call  ground-ash,'  —Mor- 
timer :  Husbandry. 

2.  Bot.  :  jEgopudium,  Podagravia. 

ground -bailiff,  s. 

Min. :  A  man  who  has  the  supervision  of  a 
miue  or  mines ;  an  overseer. 

ground  bait,  s.  Bait  made  of  barley  or 
malt  boiled  and  dropped  into  the  bottom  of 
the  water  where  a  person  intends  to  fish  for 
the  purpose  of  attracting  the  fish  thither. 
"  Take  the  depth  of  the  place  where  you  mean  after 
to  cast  your  ground-bait  and  to  fish."—  Walton: 

ground-base,  ground-bass,  s. 

Music :  A  bass  passage  of  four  or  eight  bars 
in  length,  constantly  repeated,  each  succes- 
sive time  accompanied  with  a  varied  melody 
and  harmony. 

t  ground-bear,  s. 

Zool. :  Ursus  arctos. 

ground-beetles,  s.  pi. 

Entom.  :  The  predatory  family  of  Carabidse 
(q.v.).  They  pursue  their  prey  upon  the 

*  ground  -  chamber,  s.  A  room  or 
apartment  on  the  ground  floor. 

"  A  ground-chamber  Just  under  the  college-library." 
~Mede  :  Life,  p.  72. 

ground-cherry,  s. 

Bot.:  (1)  Cerasus  Cliamcscerasus ;  (2)  In 
America,  Physalis  viscosa. 

ground-cist  us,  s. 

Bot. :  Rlwdodendron  Chamcseistus. 

ground  crista,  s. 

Bot.  :  Cassia  Chamcscrista. 

ground-cuckoos,  s.  pi. 

Smith. :  Cuckoos  of  the  genus  Centropus. 
They  have  a  long  hind  claw  like  that  of  a  lark. 

ground-cypress,  s. 

Bot. :  Santolina  Chamaicyparissus. 

ground-doves,  [Grottnd-pigeons.] 
ground-elder,  s. 

Bot.  :  Dogs'  Mercury,  Mereurialis  perennis.  J 
ground  enelL,  s, 

Bot. :  Scandix  pecten. 

ground-fern,  s. 

Bot. :  Nephrodium  Thelypteris.     (Britten  & 


ground-finches,  s.  pi, 

Omith. ;  The  name  given  by  Swainson  to 
Fringillinfe,  the  typical  sub-family  of  the 
family  Fringillidse. 

ground-flax,  s. 

Bot.  :  The  genus  Camelina  (q.v.). 

ground-floor,  s.  The  lower  story  of  a 
house  ;  the  floor  on  a  level,  or  nearly  so,  with 
the  exterior  ground. 

*  ground-form,  s. 

Gram. :  The  stem  or  basis  of  a  word  to 
which  the  inflexions  arc  added  in  declension 
or  conjugation. 

ground-furze,  «. 

Bot. :  Ononis  arvensis. 

ground-glass,  s.  Glass  whose  surface 
is  ground,  so  as  to  break  up  the  pencils  of 
light  passing  through  it,  preventing  the  pas- 
sage of  a  distinct  image.  Lamp  globes  are 
ground  in  order  to  mellow  and  disperse  the 
light  passing  through  them.  The  process  is 
effected  by  the  wheel,  sand-blast,  by  rotating 
with  pebbles  inside,  or  by  fluoric  acid. 

ground-gru,  s.  The  name  given  in 
Lincolnshire  to  ground-ice  (q.v.). 

ground-hele,  s. 

Bot. :  Veronica  officinalis. 

ground-hemlock,  s. 

Bot. :  Taxus  baccata,  a  creeping  variety  of 
the  Common  Yew.    (American.) 

ground-hog,  s. 

Zoology  : 

1.  The  name  given  by  the  English  at  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  to  Orycteropus  capensis,  a 
mammal  like  a  short-legged  hog ;  called  by 
the  Dutch  aardvark  (q.v.). 

2.  The  American  name  for  Arctomys  monax, 
the  woodchuck  »f  New  England.  (Goodrich  & 

*  ground-hold,  s. 

Naut. :  Tackle  for  holding  on  to  the  ground. 

"  Like  aB  a  ship  with  dreadfull  storm  long  tost, 
Having  spent  all  her  uiastes  and  her  ground-hold.'' 
Spenser:  F.  y.,  VX  iv.  L 

ground-honeysuckle,  s. 

Bot.:  Lotus  corniculatus.  (Britten  &  Holland). 

ground-ice,  s. 

Hydrol.,  GeoL,  &c. :  Ice  which  forms  at  the 
bottom  of  a  river  or  other  body  of  water,  be- 
fore the  surface  appears  to  freeee.  As  water 
at  40°  F.  is  heavier  than  that  at  32°,  the  for- 
mer tends  to  sink  and  the  latter  to  rise.  It  is 
therefore  difficult  to  explain  why,  in  some 
cases,  the  former  should  freeze  first.  Such, 
however,  is  the  fact.  Ground-ice  can  bring  up 
gravel  and  even  boulders  from  the  bottom  of 
a  river,  and  float  them  away.  It  has  been  ob- 
served to  do  so  in  the  Siberian  rivers,  in  the 
Baltic,  and  even  in  the  Thames.  (Lyell.)  Called 
also  Anchor-ice  and  Greund-gru. 

ground-ivy,  s. 

Bot. :  Nepeta  Glechoma,  a  labiate  plant,  with 
blue  purple  flowers  and  deeply  crenate  pubes- 
cent leaves,  common  in  Britain  in  hedgerows 
and  copses.  It  is  found  also  in  the  north  of 
Europe,  on  the  continent  of  Asia,  and  in 
Japan.  It  flowers  from  March  to  June.  It  is 
bitter  and  aromatic.  It  was  formerly  used  for 
beer  and  tea.  Country  people  employ  it  as  a 
pectoral  medicine. 

ground-jasmine,  $. 

Bot. :  Stellera  Chamcejasme. 

ground-joint,  s. 

Mach. :  A  joint  made  by  grinding  together 
two  pieces  of  metal  with  emery  and  oil ;  or 
pieces  of  glass  with  fine  sand  and  water  :  the 
glass  stopper  is  a  specimen  of  the  latter. 

boil,  boj*- ;  pout,  jowl;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  a$;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,     ph  =  f. 
-clan,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  =  shun;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.   -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die,  &c.  =  bci,  dsl„ 


ground— groundlessly 

ground- joist,  s 

Carp. :  A  joist  of  the  basement  or  ground- 
floor  ;  often  termed  a  sleeper. 

ground-lackey,  a. 

Erilwii. :  Clisioca/nipa  caslrensis,  a  moth  of 
the  family  Bomhycidtc,  which  occurs  on  the 
banks  of  the  Thames  below  Erith. 

ground-law,  s.  Fundamental  or  essen- 
tial law.    (G.  Kingsley.) 

*  ground-layer,  s.    One  who  lays  the 
'  foundation  of  anything  ;  the  origin  or  cause. 

"He  wan  the  ground-layer  of  the  other  peace."— 
Stow  (an.  1603). 

ground-laying,  s. 

Porcelain:  A  coating  of  boiled  oil  to  the 
surface  of  porcelain,  in  course  of  manufacture, 
(o  receive  the  colour  ;  bossing. 

ground-line,  s. 

Geom.  &  Perspect.  :  The  line  of  intersection 
of  the  horizontal  and  vertical  planes  of  pro- 

ground-liverwort,  s. 

Bot. :  A  lichen,  Peltidm  canina.  Dog-lichen. 

ground-lizard,  s. 

Zool.  :  Ameiva  dorsalis,  a  small  lizard  from 
the  West  Indies.  It  frequents  roadsides  and 
open  pastures  in  Jamaica. 

ground-mail,  s.  Money  or  a  fee  paid 
for  the  right  of  interring  a  corpse  in  a  church- 
yard.   (Scotch.) 

ground-marker,  #. 

1.  An  implement  for  laying  off  corn-rows. 
It*  is  frequently  attached  to  a  corn-planter,  to 
make  a  mark  for  planting  on  the  next  bout. 

2.  An  apparatus  for  marking  out  the  ground 
for  cricket  or  lawn-tennis. 

ground-mould,  ... 

Civ.  Eng.  :  A  templet  or  frame  by  which  the 
surface  of  the  ground  is  brought  to  the  re- 
quired form,  as  in  terracing  or  embanking. 

ground-needle,  s. 

Bot,  :  Erodium  moschatvm, 

*  ground-nest,  s.  A  nest  built  on  the 

"  And  now  the  herald  lark 
Left  bin  ground-nest."        MUton :  I'.  R.,  11.  280. 

ground-niche,  ■■ 

Arch.  :  A  niche  having  its  base  or  seat  on  a 
level  with  the  ground-floor. 

ground-nut,  ..-. 

Bot. :  Various  plants  ;  spec.  (1)  Arachis 
hypogoza;  (2)  the  Earth-nut,  Bnniwtnjlexuoswni; 
(3)  Apio8  tubcrosa;  (4)  an  American  name  for 
Panax  trifolium. 

ground-oak,  .. 

1.  Ord.  Lang. :  An  oak  sapling. 

2.  Bot. :  .Teucrium  CkamcepUys. 

ground-pearl,  .. 

Entom. ;  Coccus  or  Margarodes  formicwrum, 
found,  in  ants'  nests  in  the  West  Indies. 
(Goodrich  &  Porter.) 

ground  pig,  .. 
Zoology : 

1.  A  South  African  mammal,  Aulacodus 

2.  &  3.  The  same  as  Ground-hoo  (q.v.). 

ground-pigeons,  ground-doves, 
Qrnith. :  The  family  Gouridse  (q.v.). 

ground-pine,  - 

Botany : 

L  Ajuga  Chamtepltys.  It  is  not  of  the  pine, 
bat  of  the  mint  order,  and  is  an  annual  villous 
plant  with  the  cauline  leaves  tri-partite, 
and  the  solitary  axillary  flowers  yellow.  It 
grows  on  chalky  fields  in  the  south  of  Eng- 
land ;  also  on  the  continent  of  Europe,  in  the 
north  of  Africa,  and  the  west  of  Asia  Said 
to  be  called  pine  from  its  resinous  smell. 

2.  Persoonia  Gh/jmuepitys. 

3.  The  Common  Club-moss,  Lycopodium, 

h  Lycopodium  dendrobUum,  a  North  Ameri- 
can plant. 

ground-plan,  a. 

Arch.  :  A  representation,  on  a  horizontal 
plane,  of  the  foundation  or  of  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  lower  tier  of  rooms  of  a  building. 

ground-plane,  a 

Perupwl.  :  The  horizontal  plane  of  projec- 
tion in  perspective  drawing. 

ground  plate,   i. 

1.  Build.  :  The  lower  horizontal  timber  of  a 
building  on  which  the  frame  is  erected  ;  a  sill. 

2.  Rail.  Eng.:  A  bed-] Ante  for  sleepers  or 
ties  in  some  kinds  of  ground.     [Mudhill.] 

3.  Tdcg.:  A  metallic  plate  buried  in  the 
earth  to  conduct  the  electric  current  thereto. 
It  should  bear  a  certain  proportion  to  the 
size  of  the  conductor  which  is  attached  to  it; 
it  should  have  a  surface  as  many  times  larger 
than  the  surface  of  the  conductor  as  the 
difference  in  the  conductivity  of  the  conductor 
and  the  earth.  Connection  to  the  pipes  of  a 
gas  or  water-rnaiu  is  usual  in  cities. 

ground-plot,  i 

I.  Literally: 

1.  The  ground  upon  which  any  building  is 

2.  The  same  as  Ground-plan  (q.v.). 
IL  Fig. :  Any  basis  or  foundation. 

ground  plum,  ». 

Bot.  :  Astragalus  oaryocarpns,  found  in  the 
United  States.  It  is  not  a  genuine  plum,  but 
a  papilionaceous  plant. 

ground-rat,  «.  The  same  as  Ground-pig 

ground-rent,  s.  Rent  paid  for  the  privi- 
lege of  building  fin  the  ground  of  another. 

"The  gnmnd-riifit  itt  scarce  anything. "  —  Smith  : 
Wealth  of  NatUtra,  bk.  v.,  ch.  II. 

*  ground  -  room,  «.  A  room  on  the 
ground-floor  of  a  house. 

"  I  benecched  him  hereafter  to  meditate  in  n ground- 
room ;  for  that  other-vlie  It  would  he  iinpottftibfe  for  an 
artiHt  of  any  other  kind  to  live  near  him."—  Taller, 

ground -rope,  s  The  rope  along  the 
bottom  of  a  trawl-net. 

ground-seat,  a. 

Sa-fld. :  A  ply  of  canvas  or  linsey  drawn 
over  the  straining  which  supports  the  pad- 
ding and  seat  of  a  saddle. 

ground-snake,  «. 

Zool.  ;  CeluM  umotna,  a  salmon-coloured 
snake  of  small  size,  and  not  venomous,  occur- 
ring in  the  United  States.  Called  also  Wonn- 

ground-squirrel,  s. 

Zool.:  Tarnias,  a  genus  of  burrowing  squir- 
rels, found  in  the  United  States.  One  species 
is  called  the  Chipmunk. 

ground-star,  ■ . 

Bot, :  Geagtrum  (q.v .). 

ground-table,  «. 

Arch. :  The  foundation  course  of  stones. 

ground-tackle,  ». 

Naut.  :  The  ropes  and  tackle  connected 
with  the  anchors  and  mooring  apparatus 


1,  Nautical  : 

*  (i)  The  lowest  ran^c  of  water-casks  in  the 
hold  of  a  vessel. 

(2)  The  lowest  range  of  any  materials  or 
commodities  stored  in  the  hold. 

2.  Theat. :  The  lower  or  pit  range  of  boxes 
in  a  theatre. 

ground  timbers,  ».  pi. 
Shipbuil/l. :  Those  which  lie  on  the  keel  and 
are  bolted  to  the  keel -son  ;  floor-timbers. 

ground-ways,  *.  pi. 

ShiphuJM.  :  The  lar^e  blocks  and  planks 
which  support  the  era/He  on  which  a  ship  is 

ground-wheel,  *. 

Agric.:  That  wheel  of  a  harvester  which, 
resting  on  the  ground,  is  turned  by  contact 
therewith,  when  the  machine  is  at  work,  and 
which  driven  the  cutter. 

ground-willow,  «. 

Bot  ;  Polygonum  amjiUHwnx,  the  form 
which  grows  on  land.    (Britten  &  Holland.) 

irrtfund.  *  grounde/  growd-yn/  grund, 
vA&L  [AH.  gryvxkn;  O.  U.  tier,  gruwHn; 
Dut.  grondeu  ;  Sw.  grunda;  Dan.  grunde.] 

A,  TiavHifwe  : 

I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  LUrral/y: 

(1)  To  set  or  place  upon  or  in  the  ground. 

"  Fvery  biirjd»>r  .  .  kIiouM  ground  arm*  In  tokon 
<Amhm\m\on?''-MortMh>.]i:  Ui*t.  ling.,  ch.  xlll. 

(2)  To  bring  to  the  ground  ;  to  bring  down. 

"  What  paetrlck*  at  a  »hot  ho  ffruntlU," 

Hogg  :  HeottUh  PastortUi,  p.  7. 

(3)  To  found  ;  to  lay  the  foundation  of. 

"  It  en  to  the  wawJ  aln  a  wall 
(/mtuted  f  ul  font."      Ouriior  Mundi,  29,862. 

2.  Figuratively : 

(1)  To  found,  as  upon  a  cause,  reason,  prin- 
ciple, or  basis  ;  to  base. 

"One  in  art,  another  lit  rhoiorfk©,  In  which  two  all 
lawH  ul  irifcnftroaHon  been  grounded." — Ofutucer:  Testa- 
ment of  Love,  bk.  111. 

(2)  To  instruct  thoroughly  in  the  first  or 
elementary  principles. 

"  He  woe  grounded  in  mttroriomyc." 

Cluiucar     0.  T..  416, 

II.  Naut. :  To  run  ashore  or  aground  ;  to 
cause  to  take  the  ground  :  as,  To  grownd  a 

B,  I'idrantttiive : 

Naut.  :  To  run  ashore  or  aground  ;  to  take 
the  ground. 

11  For  the  difference  between  to  ground  and 
tojoiiii.d,  see  Found. 

ground,  pret.  &pa.  par.  of  v.    [Grind,  u.] 

ground'  ago,  a.  [Kng.  ground;  -age,.\  A 
tax  or  due  paid  for  th«  ground  or  space  oc- 
cupied by  a  ship  while  in  port. 

"It  f»  ordinary  to  tako  toll  and  cnitt/mi  for  anchor- 
atfu, grriundage,  6w."—iiffetnvtn  ;  Of  ttu:  Admiral  Juris- 

ground    6*1,  pi.  pir.  or  a.     [Ground,  v.] 

*  gr6und'-ed-l$r,  adv.  [Eng.  grounded ;  -ly. ) 
In  a  grounded  or  firmly-established  manner ; 

upon  firm  grounds  or  principles. 

"  fie  hath  given  th»f\r*thtiil>>1  *i*akitii(ffround€<Uif, 
and  to  the  jmr|»oMe,  unon'tlilx  nubje«t,." — (JlanviU. 

*  ground'-en,  pa,,  pir.    [Grind,  v.] 

ground  heolc,  ».     [Gkound-hkj.k.] 

ground    irig,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  *.     fO bound,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  Ah  pr.  par.  &  pa.rtlcip.  adj. :   (Bee 
the  verb). 

C,  An  what. :  The  act  or  process  of  found- 
ing or  establishing ;  instruction  in  elementary 

grounding  in,  s.  The  application  of  the 
second/uy  and  suVjseo;uerit  colours  U)  a  cotton 
cloth,  after  it  lias  received  the  colour  of  the 
first  block.  It  Is  a  term  used  in  hand- 
block  printing,  and  the  grounrling-in  or  re- 
entering may  be  of  a  mordant,  a  topical  colour, 
or  a  resist.  The  correspondence  of  position 
of  the  colour  in  the  pattern  is  secured  by 
points  on  the  block ;  equivalent  to  the  register- 
point  of  the  chromatic  process  of  letterpress- 
printing  or  lithography. 

grounding  tool,  s. 

Engr. :  The  rocker  by  which  the  mezzotint 
steel  plate  is  roughened. 

*gro*und'-fhg-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  grounding; 
■ly.\     On  firm  or  sure  grounds  or  principles. 

"He  hath  (riven  tin;  fintt  hint  of  xjK-aklng  grtiwid- 
itighi  and  to  the  i'urT"«e."— fHgliy :  Of  /todien,  co.  xxxii. 

ground- less,    "  ground    Ion,    a.      \a  :-;. 

gruwJls&>i;  O.   U.  Ger.  yrvntUm;  Iccl.  grwnn- 
l/ivn  ;  Dan,  gruwWJH ;  0*;r.  gruri/lloH.] 
*  1.  Having  no  bottom  ;  bottomless. 

"  I  wolde  it  were  a  grrmndtc*  pit"        Oowrr,  IU.  2M. 

2.  Having  no  ground  or  foundation  ;  want- 
ing reason  or  cause  for  support ;  baseless,  un- 

"  /#  It  V/iit  ;i  grwj,ndle»*  '.ti-wJ  f* 

W'/rdtwirik.  Olrn-Almain. 

gr6Tilld'-l48B-l^,  adv.  [Eng.  gr&untUm; 
-ly.]  in  a  groundl-Ma  tnanuc;  ;  without  any 
ground,  reason,  or  cause, 

"  Diver?.  nerw>fijt  .  .  ,  Yiavh  gr'/undlejulj/  o*crlbed  the 
effect  t/i  »>ui>-  jH-'.uliar  ritutllty  of  Umm  two  li/ju/rtw."— 
liogU.    On  C>,lwr« 

fate,  f&t,  fSxe,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;  we,  wet,  here    camel,  her,   there 
or.  wore,  wolf.  work,  who,  son ;  mute,  cub,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full ;  try. 

pine,  pit,  sire,  nxr,  marine;  go,  pot, 
Syrian,    ee,  oe  «  e ;   ey  =  a.    qu  =  kw» 

groundlessness— grove 


round  less  ncss,  8.  [Eng.  groundless; 
-ness.]  The  finality  or  state  of  being  ground- 
less or  without  .just  reason,  cause,  or  founda- 

"  Sophron  alone  might  ovlnce  tho  groundlestnett  of 
nuoh  nn  opinion."—  V.  Knox :  Essay*,  No.  150. 

grolind'  ling,  «.     [Eng.  ground,  ana  dimin. 
suff.  -ling.] 

*  1.  Ord.  Ixing.  :  A  spectator  who  stood  on 
the  floor  of  a  theatre  ;  hence,  one  of  the  vulgar. 

"To  split  the  ears  of  tbo  groundlings." —HJiakesp. : 
Hamlet,  Hi.  2. 

2.  Zoology : 

(1)  Various  flshos  which  tend  to  keep  to  the 
"bottom  of  the  water  in  which  they  live ;  spec, 
the  Spined  Loach,  Gubitis  taenia. 

(2)  Gobiusniger,  more  commonly  called  the 
Black  Goby,  Rock  Goby,  or  Rock-fish. 

*  ground  ly.  *  grund  liche,  *  grund 

like,  a.  &  culv.  [0.  H.  Ger.  gruntllcho  ;  Dut. 
grondeiijk;  Ger.  griindlich.] 

A.  As  adj.  :  Hearty,  strong. 

"'lob   liabbo    blguiinen    a   weorc   mid    grundliche 
strengthe."  Layamon,  11  286. 

B.  As  adverb : 

1.  Heartily,  strongly. 

"0  bok  ful  grundlike  ho  swore."        ffavelok,  2,307. 

2.  Deeply  ;  solidly  ;  not  superficially. 

"  A  man,  ground!}/  learned  already,  may  take  muah 
proftt  hlmnolf  In  UBlng  by  epitome  to  draw  other 
men's  works,  for  blH  own  memory  sake,  Into  shorter 
room." — A  icham. 

grounds,  s.  pi    [Ground,  s.] 

ground'  sold),  *grd*und'-swell, *grene- 
swel,     *  groun  -  soyle,    *  grun  -  sel, 

ground-ie-swal-low,  s.  [A.8.  grunde- 
wuylige,  gruvrfrsinrhir,  griindeswilie,  grund- 
ewylige,  lit.  =  gntmid-swallower— i.e.,  occupier 
of  the  ground,"  abundant  weed,  from  grund  — 
ground,  and  sxmlgan  =  to  swallow.] 

Bot. :  A  composite  plant  witli  pinnatifld 
leaves  and  small  yellow  flowers,  as  a  rule  with 
raoiraya,  which  grows  as  a  weed  in  gardens,  and 
■is  given  to  cage-birds,  which  are  fond  of  the 

"  TMb  gmundtwoll  ia  an  hoarbe  much  like  In  shape 
to  germander."— P.  Holland:  Plinla,  bk.  xxv,,ch.  xlll. 

groundsel-tree,  s. 

Bot. :  Bttccharis  halimtfolia,  a  North  Ameri- 
can composite  plant. 

groUnd  sul  (J),  ground   sill,  "ground 
syll,  *grun-sel,  s.    [Eng.  ground;  -sill.] 

f.  Literally : 

1.  A  sleeper  ;  the  lower  timber  which  sup- 
ports the  remainder  of  the  frame. 

*  2.  A  threshold. 

"[H.oJ  ho  fyll  downo  deed  on  tho  ground*yU."— 
Burner*:  Frolssart ;  Cronycle,  vol.  I.,  oh.  clxxvl. 

*  II.  Fig.  :  A  groundwork  ;  a  basis ;  a 

"  Who  the  groundril  of  that  work  doth  lay." 

Drayton  :  Lady  Geraldine  to  Earl  of  Surrey. 

ground  sill,  v.t.  [Groundsill,  s.]  To 
furnish  with,  or  an  with  a  threshold, 

"  They  groundsUled  ovory  door  with  diamond." 

Quarlos:  Emblem*,  v.  14, 

"ground  siip/ growndo  sopo,  grund 
sopo,  s.  [A.S.  gruiul.-iupii;  Dut.  grondsop ; 
Ger.  grundsttppi'.}     Dregs,  lees,  grounds. 

"  Qroumdesopo  of  any  lyooaro.  Fax,  sodimon,"— 
Prompt  P*m>. 

ground    swell  (2),  s.  ("Eng.  ground,  and  swell 

(s).]     A  long,  deep  swell,  or  rolling  of  the  sea, 

occasioned  along  the  shore,  or  where  water  is 

shallow,  by  a  distant  storm  or  gale. 

"  Hoftvlly  tho  groundtwtt  rolled." 

LongfcUow :  Sir  Humphrey  Gilbert. 

"  gr o'und  wall,  grownd  walle  *  grund 
wal,  s.     [A.S.  grundweal;  M.  H.  Ger.  grunt- 
wal;  Sw.  grundval]    A  foundation. 
"  Crist  Lsb  etan  to  ben  grunndwall 
oil' nil  hiss  htillgho  tommplo." 

i  >, -inn  I  mn,  13,371 

ground    work,  s.     [Eng.  ground,  and  work.] 
1.  The  ground  ;  the  (1  rst  stratum  ;  that  which 
forms  tho  foundation  or  basis  of  anything. 

"  Tho  groundwork  1b  of  stars  "  Dryden. 

A    fundamental    principle ;    the    funda- 
mental part. 

"The  main  skill  and  groundwork  will  be  to  temper 
fcham  such  looturca  and  explanations,  upon  every  op- 
portunity."— Milton  :  On  Education, 

3.  The  first  principle  ;  the  original  reason. 

"  Tho  groundwork  thereof  is  nevertheless  true  and 
certain.  —Spenser  ;  Statt  of  Ireland. 

group,  s.  [Fr.  groupe,  from  Ital.  groppo  =  a 
knot,  heap,  or  group,  from  Ger.  1cropf=  a  bunch, 
a  crop,  or  craw ;  cf.  Icel.  kroppr  =  a  bunch 
or  hunch  on  the  body ;  Scotch  crav/pen  = 

I.  Ord.  Lang. :  An  assemblage  ;  a  cluster  or 
number  of  persons  or  things  collected  without 
any  regular  arrangement  or  order. 

"  Their  pannlered  train  a  group  of  potters  goad." 

Wordsworth :  Evening  Walk. 

II.  Technically : 

1.  Art:  The  union  of  several  figures,  or  of 
various  material  objects  placed  in  contact  with 
each  other,  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  single 
mass.  It  is  necessary  that  some  of  the  figures 
comprised  in  a  group  be  subordinate  to  the  rest, 
that  those  which  are  most  important  in  the 
action  be  also  the  most  prominent,  and  call 
the  attention  to  the  place  which  they  occupy 
in  the  group  by  the  attitude,  light,  develop- 
ment, &c. 

2.  Music: 

(1)  A  series  of  notes,  of  small  time-value, 
grouped  together ;  a  division  or  run. 

(2)  Th°.  method  of  setting  out  band  parts  in 

3.  Natural  Science : 

(1)  Min.  :  A  number  of  minerals  essentially 
agreeing  in  their  chemical  composition.  Dana 
has  a  group  called  fluorides,  another  called 
oxygen-compounds,  &c.  Many  of  these  again 
are  sub-divided. 

(2)  Geol. :  A  series  of  rocks,  or  strata,  which, 
speaking  broadly,  were  deposited  at  the  same 
period.  Lyell  arranged  the  fossiliferous 
strata  in  groups  and  periods,  the  former  re- 
ferring to  the  order  of  succession  on  the  sur- 
face of  the  earlh,  the  latter  to  the  series  of 
events  thence  inferred. 

(3)  Bot.  :  A  particular  grade  in  classification. 
Lindley  had  groups  in  his  Natural  System  of 
Botany,  though  lie  abolished  them  in  his 
Vegetable  Kingdom.  The  designation  "  group  " 
was  inferior  in  extent  to  "sub-class,"  and 
superior  to  "  alliance."  He  made  them  end  in 
-osa,  as  Albuminosa. 

(4)  Zool.  :  A  designation  which  may  be  con- 
sidered as  equivalent  to  "  tribe,"  and  superior 
to  "family.  Stainton,  in  his  British  Butter- 
files,  makes  them  end  in  -inn,  as  BoinbyciTui, 
Noctutm,  &o. 

group, v.t.  [Group, s.  Fr. grouper.]  Toform 
into  or  place  in  a  group '.  to  bring  together 
into  a  group  or  cluster  ;  to  arrange  in  a  group 
or  groups  ;  spoeif.,  in  art  to  combine  or  arrange 
in  groups  a  number  of  material  objects  or 
figures  so  as  to  produce  a  picturesque  and 
harmonious  whole. 

group   ing,  pr.  par.,  a.,&  s.    [Group,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  £  partklp.  adj. :  (See 
the  vci'b). 
C.  As  substantive : 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  The  act  of  forming  or  placing 
in  groups  :  an  arrangement  in  groups. 

2.  Art :  The  combining  or  joining  objects  in 
a  picture  for  the  satisfaction  of  the  eye,  and 
also  for  its  repose  ;  and  although  a  picture 
may  consist  of  different  groups,  yet  these 
groups  of  objects,  managed  by  the  chiaro- 
oscuro,  should  all  tend  to  unity. 

*  group '-let,  s.  [Eng.  group;  dimin.  suff. 
-let.]    A  little  group, 

"  Which  organic  groups  Again  hold  smaller  organic 
grouplot8.',~-varlyle :  Frencli  Revolution,  pt.  i.,  bk. 
lv.,  ch.  11. 

grouse,  growse,  grouss,  s.  [Etym. 
doubtful.  According  to  Skeat  grouse  is  a  false 
form,  evolved  as  a  supposed  singular  from  the 
older  word  grice  (cf.  mouse,  mice).  Grice  is 
from  0.  Fr.  griesche  —  gray  or  peckled 
(speckled),  poule  griesche  =  a  moorhen,  the 
lien  of  the  grice  or  moorgame.  (Cotgrave.)] 
Ornithology,  die. : 

1.  Sing.  :  Various  game-birds,  specially  the 
Tetrao  tetrix,  called  the  Black-grouse,  and 
Lagopus  scotievs,  the  Red-grouse.  The  male  of 
tho  former  is  called  the  Black-cock  (q.v.),  and 
the  female  the  Grey-lien.  The  Red,  called 
also  the  Common  Grouse,  inhabits  moors, 
feeding  on  the  young  shoots  of  the  heath.  It 
is  considered  to  be  peculiar  to  Britain. 

2.  PI :  The  family  Tetraonidffi. 
grouse  family,  s.  pi. 

Omith. :  The  family  Tetraonidse  (q.v.).  Be- 
sides Tetrao  it  contains  the  genus  Lagopus 

(Ptarmigan),  &c.  The  Ruffled-grouse  is  the 
genus  Bonasia,  Sand-grouse  are  the  family 
Pteroclidse,  and  the  Wood  -  grouse  is  the 
Capercailzie  (q.v.). 

*  grouse,  v.i.     [Grouse,  s.]    To  hunt  after  oi 
shoot  grouse. 

grou  some,  u.    [Grewsome.] 

grout,  *grut,  s.     [A.S.  grit  =  groats,  coarse 
meal;  cogn.  with  Dut.  grut  =  groats  ;   Icel. 
grautr=  porridge  ;  Dan.  grbd  =  boiled  groats  ; 
Sw.  grot  =  thick   pap  ;   Ger.  griitze  =  groats  ; 
Lat.  fitdafi  =■  rubble,  rubbish.    Allied  to  grit 
and  a  doublet  of  groats.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 
1.  Coarse  meal ;  pollard. 
"As  for  grout,  it  iB  an  old  Danish  difih."— King. 
Art  of  Cookery,  let.  fi. 

*2.  Rubbish,  dirt,  filth. 

"  The  toun  dykes  on  every  syde, 
e  aepe  and  full  wy " 
)  man  niygh 
Ricliard  Cceur  de  Lion,  4,899. 

Full  off  grut,  no  man  niyghte  ewymme." 

3.  {PI.) :  Lees,  grounds,  dregs. 

4.  That  which  purges  off. 

"  Sweet  honey  some  condense,  some  purge  tho  grout." 
Dryden :   Virgil ;  Georgic  lv.  239. 

5.  A  kind  of  thick  ale;  liquor  with  malt 
infused  for  ale  or  beer  before  it  is  fully  boiled. 

6.  A  species  of  wild  apple. 
II.  Building : 

1.  A  thin,  coarse  mortar  used  to  run  into 
crevices  between  the  stones  or  bricks  of  a 

2.  A  finishing  or  setting  coat  of  fine  stuff 
for  ceilings. 

grout,  v.t.    [Grout,  s.] 

Build. :  To  fill  up  the  joints  or  spaces  be- 
tween stones  by  pouring  in  grout. 

*  grout  head,  s.  [A  corrupt,  of  0.  Fr.  grosse- 
teste  =  great  head.]  A  blockhead  ;  a  thick- 
head.    (Tusser:  May's  Husbandry,  ?32.) 

gr6ut'-ing,  s.    [Eng.  grout;  -ing.] 

1.  The  act  or  process  of  filling  up  the  joints 
or  spaces  between  stones  by  pouring  in  grout. 

2.  Grout. 

*  grout  -ndl,  *  grout' -nold,  ■ 

head;  nol  =  head,] 

[Cf.  grout- 

1.  A  blockhead. 

"The  squire's  a  groutnold." —Beaum.  A  Flet.:  Knight 
of  the  Burning  Pestle,  li. 

2.  A  kind  of  fish. 

gro"ut'-y,  a.     [Eng.  grout;  -y.] 

1.  Thick,  muddy,  full  of  dregs. 

2.  Surly,  grumpy. 

grove,  5.     LA  derivative  from  grave  =  to  cut. 
Hence  grove  is  a  doublet  of  groove  (q.v.).] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 
1.  Lit.  :  A  cluster  or  group  of  trees  shading 
an  avenue  or  walk  ;  a  small  wood. 

2.  Fig.  :  A  cluster  or  group  of  objects  re- 
sembling a  grove  or  wood. 

II.  Comparative  Religion : 

1.  Ethnic:  The  sacred  character  of  groves  is 
closely  but  not  inseparably  connected  with 
Tree-  and  Serpent-worship  (q.v.).  Bearing  in 
mind  the  dictum  of  Statius  (Theb.,  iii.  661), 
"Primus  in  orbe  deos  fecit  timor,"  one  can 
imagine  how  the  solitude  and  mystery  of 
primeval  forests  must  have  wrought  on  un- 
cultured races,  and  led  them  to  hold  such 
places  in  reverence  as  the  abode  of  the  mighty 
and  not  always  beneficent  nature -forces.  As 
man  progressed,  and  the  objects  of  his  wor- 
ship became  personified,  the  sacred  character 
of  groves  by  no  means  passed  away.  The 
grove  at  Dodona,  and  Grant  Allen's  spirited 
translation  of  Catullus  {Garni.  lxiiiA  in  which 
we  read  of  the  frantic  fury  of  Atys,  of  his 
repentance  and  flight,  and  how  when  the 
turret-crowned  goddess  heard  his  plaint,  she 
sent  one  of  her  lions  after  the  fugitive,  with 
the  result  that  he 

"  Fled  back  to  the  grove  aghast. 
There  all  the  days  of  his  lifetime  as  Cybellfi's  thrall  he 

will  prove  the  case  for  Greece;  and  there 
is  scarcely  a  Latin  poet  whose  works  do 
not  furnish  instances  in  point.  Ovid  {Met. 
viii.  741,  sqq.)  tells  of  the  fate  that  befel 
Erisichthon,  because  he  ravaged  Ceres'  sacred 
grove— i.e.,  in  which  Ceres  herself  was  wor- 

oSll,  bolh  p6ut  .16\V1;   oat,  yell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;   expect,  Xenophon,  exist.     -I»g. 
clan,    tian  =  ahan.     -tlon,    sion  =  shun :    tion,    sion  =  zhun.    -clous,    tious.  -sious  =  shus.    -ble,  -die*  &c.  =  bel,  deL 


G-rove— growl 

shipped.  The  Germania  of  Tacitus  (7,  9, 
39,  40,  43)  furnishes  the  earliest  testimony  to 
the  estimation  in  which  groves  were  held  by 
Teutonic  and  kindred  nations.  Other  passages 
occur  in  the  Annals  and  the  History,  and 
Stallybrass  thus  Englishes  Grimm's  (Deut. 
Myth,,  ch.  iv.)  condensation  of  them  ;— 

"Gods  dwell  in  these  (/roves;  no  images  fire  men- 
tioned by  name  as  being  set  up,  no  temple  walls  are 
reared.  But  sacred  vessels  and  altars  stand  in  the 
forest,  heads  of  animals  bang  on  the  boughs  of  trees. 
There  divine  worship  is  performed  and  sacrifice 

From  Pliny  (H.  N.,  xvi.  95)  we  learn  the  part 
that  groves  of  oak-trees  played  among  the 
ancient  Druids,  and  he  seems  tu  favour  the 
derivation  of  their  name  from  the  Greek  8pvs. 
There  is  also  a  fine  passage  on  the  same  subject 
in  Luean  (PJmr. ,  i.  447-54).  In  remote  places,  a 
belief  in  the  sacredness  of  groves  still  lingers. 
Lubbock  (afterwards  Lord  Avebury)  (Origin  of 
Civilisation,  p.  287)  says  that "  even  recently  an 
oak  copse  in  the  Isle  of  Skye  was  held  to  be  so 
sacred  that  no  one  would  venture  to  cut  the 
smallest  branch  from  'it."  Dennis  (Buried 
Cities  of  Etruria,  i.  57)  says  that  he  saw  a 
clump  of  trees  on  Monte  Musino,  and  con- 
siders it  a  relic  of  a  sacred  grove ;  and  Fer- 
gusson  (Rude  Stone  Monuments,  ch.  xiii.)  says 
of  the  Khonds  and  the  Khassias,  "In  Cuttack 
we  have  sacred  groves,  human  sacrifices,  and 
a  powerful  priesthood,  all  savouring  of 
2.  Jewish : 

(1)  In  a  solitary  passage  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, "  grove  "  is  the  probably  correct 
rendering  of  the  Hebrew  word  biDH  (ishel). 
Abraham  "  planted  "  one  in  Beersheba,  and 
"  called  there  on  the  name  of  the  Lord,  the 
everlasting  God  "  (Gen.  xxi.  33).  The  original 
meaning  of  the  word  Eshel  is  a  particular  tree  ; 
Gesenius  thinks  the  Oriental  Tamarisk  (Tarna- 
rix  orienlalis),  which,  however,  would  scarcely 
be  shady  enough.  p^N  (Elon),  rendered  in 
the  Authorized  Version  "plain,"  seems  to 
mean  "grove."  If  so,  then  Abraham  at  a 
certain  period  lived  in  one,  that  of  Mamre 
(Gen.  xiv.  13),  and  built  an  altar  in  it  to 
Jehovah  (Gen.  xiii.  18) ;  whilst  in  a  second 
one  there  was  an  important  pillar  (Judg.  ix. 
6).  Other  groves  were  those  of  Moreh  (Gen. 
xii.  0),  of  Zaanaim  (Judg.  iv.  11),  of  Tabor 
(1  Sam.  x.  3),  &c. 

(2)  In  all  other  cases  in  the  text  of  the  A.  V., 
"grove"  is  the  rendering  of  the  Hebrew  word 
m$JM  (Asherah),  which  is  almost  certainly  an 
idol,  and  not  a  plantation  of  trees,  for  Josiah 
brought  one  out  of  the  house  of  the  Lord 
(2  Kings  xxiii.  6).  The  people  of  Judah  also 
"built  them"  high  places,  images,  and  groves 
(1  Kings  xiv.  23).  The  combination  of  images 
and  groves  occurs  constantly  (2  Kings  xvii.  1(3 ; 
2  Chron.  xiv.  3 ;  Isa.  xxvii.  9,  &c).  The  idol 
seems  to  have  been  of  wood,  for  it  could  both 
be  cut  down  (Bxod.  xxxiv.  13 ;  Deut.  vii.  5 ; 
Judg.  vi.  25-28;  2  Kings  xviii.  4,  xxiii.  14; 
2  Chron.  xiv.  3,  xxxi.  1,  xxxiv.  3-4)  and  burnt 
(Dent.  xii.  3 ;  2  Kings  xxiii.  15).  It  was  up- 
right (?),  and  therefore  probably  of  the  human 
and  not  the  bestial  form  (Isa.  xxvii.  9).  The 
name  Asherah  recalls  that  of  the  Phoenician 
goddess  Ashtorcth ;  the  former,  as  suggested 
by  Bertheau,  being  probably  the  name  of  her 
idol,  the  latter  of  herself.  There  was  a  rela- 
tion between  Baal  and  Asherah,  and  while  in 
Elijah's  time  there  assembled  at  Carmel  450 
prophets  of  Baal,  there  were  with  them  400 
"prophets  of  the  groves"  (1  Kings  xviii.  19). 
The  Asherah  seems  to  have  been  connected 
with  phallic  rites.    [Ashtoreth.] 

'   grove-dock,  *. 

Bot. :  Jtumex  Nemolapathum. 

grove-spirits,  s.  pi.    [Forest-spirits.] 
Grove,  s.    [William  Robert  Grove,  F.R.S.] 

Grove  battery,  Grove's  battery,  s. 

Elect.  Mach. :  A  double  fluid  galvanic-bat- 
tery, invented,  in  1839,  by  Mr.  Grove.  It  con- 
sists of  a  plate  of  amalgamated  zinc,  gener- 
ally bent  into  a  shape  like  the  letter  U,  so  as 
to  embrace  a  flat  cell  of  porous  earthenware 
in  which  is  suspended  a  sheet  of  platinum 
foil.  The  porous  cell  is  filled  with  strong 
nitric  acid,  and  the  whole  arrangement  placed 
in  a  jar  containing  dilute  acid  one  in  twenty. 

Grove's  cell,  s. 

Elect.  :  A  cell  or  jar  of  a  Grove's  battery. 

" The  destructive  force  of  a  Grove's  cell."— Everett : 
C.  G.  S.  System  of  Units  (1875),  ch.  xi.,  p.  T4. 

Grove's  gas-battery,  s. 

Elect.  Mach. :  A  battery  in  which  there  are 
two  glass  tubes,  and  within  each  a  platinum 
electrode,  covered  with  finely-divided  plati- 
num, and  furnished  on  the  outside  with  bind- 
ing screws.  One  of  the  tubes  is  partially 
filled  with  hydrogen,  the  other  partially  with 
oxygen,  and  they  are  inverted  over  dilute 
sulphuric  acid,  so  that  half  the  platinum  is  in 
the  liquid  and  half  in  the  gases.  By  joining 
the  dissimilar  plates  a  battery  is  produced  so 
powerful  that  one  element  of  it  will  decompose 
iodide  of  potassium,  and  four  will  decompose 
water.    (Ganot.) 

groV-el,  v.i.  [From  the  adv.  groveling  (q.v.), 
the  termination  -ing  being  mistaken  for  the 
sign  of  the  pr.  par.  of  a  verb.]    [Grof.] 

1.  Lit  :  To  creep  on  the  earth  ;  to  lie  prone 
or  with  the  face  towards  the  ground ;  to  move 
with  the  body  prostrate  on  the  earth. 

2.  Fig. :  To  be  mean  ;  to  be  without  dignity 
or  elevation ;  to  act  meanly  ;  to  take  pleasure 
in  mean  or  base  things. 

"  Several  thoughts  may  be  natural  which  are  low 
and  grovelling."— Addison  :  Spectator. 

gro've-Hke,  a.  [Eng.  grove,  and  Wee.]  Thick, 
bushy  ;  resembling  a  grove. 

"  Once,  grove-like,  each  huge  arm  a  tree." 
"^  Tennyson :  Ayhner's  Field,  510. 

*  grdV-el-ing,  *  grof-lyuges,  *  grov-el- 
yng,     *  gruf-el-ynge,    *  grufOinges, 

adv.  [Icel.  grufa,  in  the  phrase  liggja  d  gruftt 
=  to  lie  grovelling.]  [Grof.]  Prone  ;  flat  on 
one's  face  or  belly. 

"  Grouelyng  to  his  fete  thay  felle." 

E.  Eng.  AUit.  Poems;  Pearl,  1,119. 

grov'-el-ler,  s.    [Eng.  grovel;  -er.]    One  who 
grovels  ;  a  person  of  low,  mean  spirit  or  tastes. 
"This  lagging  race  of  frosty  grovellers."— Johnson : 
Lives  of  the  Poets ;  Milton. 

grov'-el-ling,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Grovel.] 

A.  As  pa.  par. :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective : 

1.  Lying  prone  or  flat  on  the  face ;  creeping 
on  the  belly  or  in  the  dust. 

"  Downward  fell  into  a  grovelling  swine." 

Milton :  Comus,  53. 

2.  Mean,   base,  low ;    with  low  tastes    or 


i       "  I  was  a  grovelling  creature  once." 

C'owper  :  Olney  Hymns,  Hi. 

C.  As  subst. ;  The  act  of  lying  or  creeping 
on  the  belly  ;  mean  ;  base  conduct  or  desires. 

"  Sink  without  grovelling :  without  rashness  rise." 
Broome  ;  To  Pope. 

*grdv'-et,  s.  [Eng.  grov(e);  dimin.  sun*.  -eL] 
A  little  grove. 

"  With  divers  boscages  and  grovets  upon  the  steep  or 
hanging  grounds  thereof. " — Beaum.  &  Flet. ;  A  Masque  ; 
The  Device. 

^grov'-y,  a.  [Eng.  grov(e);  -y.]  Pertaining  to 
or  abounding  in  groves. 

grow,  *  growe,  *  grow-yn,  v.i.  &  t.  [A.S. 
growan  (pa,  t.  greow,  pa.  par.  grdwen):  cogn. 
with  Dut.  groeijen;  Icel.  groa;  Dan.  groe ; 
Sw.  gro  ;  allied  to  green  (q.v.).] 

A.  Intransitive  : 

I,  Literally : 

1.  To  increase  or  become  enlarged ;  to  in- 
crease in  bulk  by  the  assimilation  of  new 
matter  into  the  living  organism. 

"  Fatr  hangs  the  apple  frae  the  rock, 
But  we  will  leave  it  growing." 

Wordsworth:  yarrow  Unvisited. 

2.  To  be  produced  by  vegetation ;  to  spring 
up  and  come  to  maturity  by  a  natural  process. 

"  Not  fairer  grows  the  lily  of  the  vale." 

Falconer :  Shipwreck,  L 

3.  To  increase  in  stature. 

"  I  hope  he  is  much  grown  since  last  I  saw  him." 

Shakesp. :  Ricluzrd  III.,  ii.  4. 

4.  To  issue  or  spring,  as  plants  out  of  a  soil. 
II.  Figuratively: 

1.  To  increase  in  any  way;  to  become 
larger,  greater,  stronger,  or  more  prevalent ; 
to  wax  ;  to  be  augmented. 

"  The  growing  labours  of  the  lengthened  way." 

Pope:  Essay  on  Criticism,  2U0. 

2.  To  advance  to  any  state. 

"  Days  that  grow  to  something  strange." 

Tennyson  :  In  Memorlam,  lxx.  11. 

*  3.  To  increase  in  number. 
"  Qrowe  ye  and  be  ye  multiplied. "~Wycliffe:  Genesis 

L  To  improve ;  to  make  progress ;  to  advance. 

"  Grow  in  grace."— 2  Peter  iiL  18. 

5.  To  come  forward,  to  come  nearer  ;  to  ad- 

"It  was  now  the  beginning  of  October,  and  winter 
began  to  grow  fast  on."— KnoUcs  :  Hist,  of  the  1  urkes. 

6.  To  accrue  ;  to  be  forthcoming. 

"  And  he  seith,  this  thing  I  schal  do :  I  schal  throwe 
doune  my  hemes:    and  I  schal    make    gretter,   and 
thidir  I  schal  gedere  thingis  that  growen  to  me  in  iny 
goodia."—  Wycliffc:  Luke  xii. 
*  7.  To  be  due  or  owing. 

"  Ev'n  just  the  sum  that  I  do  owe  to  you. 
Is  growing  to  me  by  Antipholus." 

Shakesp.  :  Comedy  of  Errors,  iv.  1. 

8.  To  be  changed  from  one  state  to  another ; 
to  become. 

"I  should  grow  light-headed,  I  fear." 

Tennyson .'  Maud,  I.  xix.  100. 

9.  To  arise,  to  spring  ;  to  proceed  as  from  a 
cause  or  reason,  as  plants  out  of  a  soil.  (Fol- 
lowed by  out.) 

"They  will  not  seem  stuck  into  him,  hub  growing 
out  oi  him."— Dryden:  Virgil;  jEneid.    (Dedic.) 

10.  To  adhere,  to  become  attached  ;  to  take 
root,  to  become  rooted.  (Followed  by  to  or 

"  That  we  become  a  part  of  what  has  been. 
And  grow  unto  the  spot,  all-seeing  but  unseen." 
Byron  :  Childe  Harold,  iv.  138. 

Ml.  To  swell. 

"Mariners  are  used  to  the  tumbling  and  rolling  of 
ships  from  side  to  side,  when  the  sea  is  never  so  little 
grown."— iialeigh :  Hist,  of  the  World. 

B.  Trans. :  To  cause  to  grow ;  to  culti- 
vate ;  to  raise  by  cultivation ;  to  produce  :  as, 
To  grow  wheat,  &c. 

IT  1-  To  grow  vp  : 

(1)  To  arrive  at  manhood,  to  advance  to  fuli 
stature  or  maturity  ;  to  attain  full  growth, 

(2)  To  close  and  adhere  ;  to  become  united 
in  one  body. 

2.  To  grow  together:  To  become,  united  in 
one  body  ;  to  be  closely  united ;  to  be  incor- 
porated.   (Lit.  &fig.). 

"  We  grew  together  like  a  double  cherry." 

Shakesp.  :  Midsummer  Night's  Dream,  iii.  2. 

%  For  the  difference  between  to  grow  and  to 
be,  see  Be. 

grow'-an,  s.     [Arm.  grouan  =  sand.] 
Min. :  Decomposed  grauite. 

IT  Soft  growan :  A  name  commonly  applied 
to  any  decomposed  gritty  rock.    (Weale.) 

growan -lodo,  a. 

Mining :  Any  lode  which  abounds  in  rough 
gravel  or  sand. 

*  growe,  z.    [Grove.] 

*  growe,  v.    [Grow.] 

grow'-er,  s.     [Eng.  grow;  -er.] 

1.  One  who  or  that  which  grows  or  increases 
in  bulk  or  size. 

"It  will  grow  to  a  great  bigness,  being  the  quickest 
grower  of  any  kind  of  elm." — Mortimer :  Husbandry. 

2.  One  who  grows,  cultivates,  or  raises ;  a 
producer,  a  cultivator. 

grdw'-ing,  *  grow-ynge,  pr.  par.,  a.  &  $. 
[Grow.]  * 

A.  &  B,  -4s  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj.  :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  substantive : 

1.  The  act  or  state  of  increasing  in  bulk  by 
natural  process ;  growth. 

"  Lich  to  tres  he  hath  grctoing."— Gowcr,  i.  35. 

2.  The  act  or  business  of  raisiug  or  produc- 
ing vegetables,  &c.  ;  cultivation. 

*  3.  That  which  lias  grown ;  a,  growth,  a 

growing-point,  s. 

Bot. :  A  minute  cellular  axis  in  the  centre 
of  a  bud,  from  which  growth  proceeds.  It  is 
in  direct  communication  with  the  woody  and 
cellular  tissue  of  the  stein. 

growing-slide,  s.  A  cell  formed  between 
two  glasses,  adapted,  as  a  slide  for  a  micro- 
scope, and  supplied  with  water  by  the  capil- 
lary action  of  a  few  filaments  of  cotton  ex- 
tending thence  to  a  little  reservoir  of  water. 
It  is  designed  for  preserving  algae  or  infusoria 
in  a  growing  condition. 

grd"wl  (1),  v-i-  &  t.  [Dut.  grollen~to  grumble  ; 
Ger.  qroilen  =  to  be  angry,  to  bear  ill  will,  to 
rumble  ;  Gr.  yptuXktfa  (grullizo)  =  to  grunt, 
7puAAd?  (grullos)  =  a  pig,  from  ypv  (gru)  =  a 


fate,  fat,  fare,  amidst,  what,  fall,  father ;   we,  wet,  here,  camel,  her,  there ;  pine,  pit,  sire,  sir,  marine ;   go,  pSt, 
or,  wore,  wolf,  work,  whd.  son;  mute,  cud,  cure,  unite,  cur,  rule,  full;  try,  Syrian,     ae,  03  =  e;    ey  =  a.    q.u  =  kw. 

growl— grudge 


A.  Intransitive: 

"     1.  To  snarl  or  murmur  like  an  angry  cur. 
"  The  gaunt  mastiff,  growling  at  the  gate." 

Pope :  A/oral  Essays,  iii.  198. 

2.  To  grumble  ;  to  speak  angrily  or  gruffly. 
"'What  took  him  there?'  growled  the  King."— 

Maeaula-y  :  Mist.  Eng.,  eh.  xvl. 

3.  To  make  a  hoarse,  murmuring  sound. 

"  The  growling  winds  contend." 
Armstrong  :  Art  of  Preserving  Health,  hk.  i. 

B.  Trans,  :  To  utter  or  express  in  a  growl- 
ing or  gruff  manner. 

"  Growled  defiance  in  such  angry  sort" 
**"  Cowper :  Task,  vi.  3.9. 

*  gr6*\fcrl  (2),  v.i.     [A  corrup.  of  crawl  (q.v.).] 

To  crawl,  to  creep. 
'  "Lice  continually  growling  out  of  his  fleshe." — 

Udal:  Apopth.  of  Erasmus,  p.  ITS. 

gr6*frl,  s.  [Growl,  v.]  The  snarl  of  an  angry 
cur  ;  a  grumbling  or  gruff  sound  made  by  an 
angry  person  ;  a  grumble,  a  complaint. 

gr6*TM'-er,  s.     [Eng.  growl ;  -er.] 

1.  Lit. :  One  who  growls;  a  grumbling, 
gruff  person. 

2.  Fig.  :  A  four-wheeled  cab.    (Slang.) 

"  He  had  evidently  studied  the  driver  of  a  London 
growler,  and  produced  a  good  sound  readable  type  of 
man."— Daily  Telegraph,  Oct.  1C,  1883. 

gro^l'-ing,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Growl,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  subst. :  The  act  of  snarling  or  grum- 
bling ;  a  growl. 

grb%l'-ing-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  growling;  4y.] 
In  a  growling,  gruff,  or  grumbling  manner. 

* gro~\vT  some,  a.  [Eng.  growl;  -some.]  In- 
clined to  growling  or  grumbling. 

"Growlsome  people,  who  talk  about  religion,  and 
don't  practise  it."— E.  J.  WorboUe  :  Sitsie,  ch.  xxx. 

grown,  pa.  par.  &  a-  [Grow.] 

A,  As  pa.  par. :  (See  the  verb). 

B.  As  adjective  : 

1.  Increased  or  advanced  in  growth. 
"Tarry  at  Jericho  till  your  beards  be  grown." — 

2  Samuel  x.  5. 

2.  Advanced  to  full  age,  stature,  or  matu- 

"  I  saw  lately  a  pair  of  China  shoes,  which  I  was  told 
were  for  a  grown  womui,  that  would  scarce  liave 
been  big  enough  for  one  of  our  little  girls." — Locke. 

grown  -  over,  a.  Overgrown  ;  covered 
with  growth  of  anything. 

"I  went  by  the  field  of  the  slothful,  and  by  the 
vineyard  of  the  man  void  of  understanding,  and  lo,  it 
was  all  grown  over  with  thorns,  and  nettles  had  covered 
the  face  thereof."— Proverbs  xxiv.  31. 

grown-up,  a.  &  s. 

A.  As  adj. :  tAdvanced  to  full  age ;  full- 

B.  As  subst. :  A  grown-up  person.    (Colloq.) 

"I   al 

grouse,  v.i.  [Ger.  grausen  =  to  make  to 
shudder,  to  shiver.]  To  shiver ;  to  have  chills. 

growth,  *grothe,  s,     [Icel.  grodhr,  grodhi.] 
I.  Ordinary  Language : 

1.  The  act  or  process  of  growing;  the 
gradual  increase  of  animal  or  vegetable 
bodies  by  the  assimilation  of  new  matter 
into  the  living  organism ;  development  from 
a  seed,  root,  or  germ  by  the  addition  of 
matter  through  ducts  and  secretory  vessels. 

2.  Increase  in  number,  extent,  prevalence, 
bulk,  frequency,  &c. 

"The  growth  of  their  trade,  riches,  and  power  at 
home."— Sir  IP.  Temple:  On  Government. 

3.  Increase  in  stature ;  advance  towards 

*'  though  an  animal  arrives  at  its  full  growth  at  a 
certain  age,  perhaps  it  never  comes  to  its  full  bulk  till 
the  last  period  of  life."— Arbuthnot :  On  Aliments. 

i.  That  which  grows  or  is  grown  ;  anything 
produced  iu  growth ;  a  product. 

"  The  prosperous  growth  of  this  tall  wood." 

Milton  :  Comus,  2G9. 

II.  Technically: 

1.  Physiology : 

(1)  Animal:  Growth  continues  as  long  as 
the  addition  of  new  matter  to  the  body  ex- 
ceeds the  amount  of  waste.  This  happens  in 
early  life ;  after  maturity  is  reached  new 
matter  and  waste  about  balance  each  other. 

(2)  Vegetable :  Similar  principles  regulate 
the  growth  of  plants. 

2.  Mining :  The  accumulation  of  water  in 
the  levels  of  a  mine. 

^[  Correlation  of  Growth  : 

Biol. :  [Correlation]. 

*  gr6"wt'-n6adt  s.    [Grouthead.] 
growt'-nol,  e.    [Groutnol.] 
groyne  (1),  s.    [Groin  (l),  s.] 
groyne  (2),  s.    [Groin  (2),  s.] 
groyned,  a.    [Groined.] 

*  gr6*yn'-ing,  s.    [Groin  (2),  i\] 

1.  The  grunting  of  a  pig. 

2.  Discontent,  grumbling. 

groz'-et,  s.     [A  corruption  of  Pr.  groseille.]    A 
gooseberry.    (Scotch.) 

"As  plump  and  grey  as  onie  groze*." 

Burns :  To  a  Louse. 

grdz'-ing,  «.     [Etym.  doubtful.] 

grozlng-iron,  ». 

1.  An  instrument  with  an  angular  steel  pro- 
jection, used  for  cutting  glass  before  the 
general  application  of  the  diamond  to  that 

2.  Plumb.  :  A  tool  used  in  smoothing  the 
solder  joints  of  lead  pipe. 

griib,  *  grobbe,  *  grubbe,  *  grub-byn, 

v.i.  &  (.     [Prob.  a  variant  of  grope  (q.v.).] 

A.  Intransitive : 

1.  To  dig  in  or  under  the  ground. 

"  So  depe  thai  grubbed  and  so  fast 
Thre  crosses  land  thai  at  the  last." 

Legends  of  Holy  Rood,  y.  34. 

2.  To  take  one's  food.    (Slang.) 

3.  To  drudge  about,  to  perform  low,  dirty, 
or  menial  work. 

B.  Transitive : 

1.  To  dig  up  ;  to  root  up  by  digging  ;  to  dig 
up  by  the  roots.     (Generally  with  out  or  up.) 

"  The  very  stumps  of  oak,  especially  that  part  which 
is  dry  and  above  ground,  being  well  grubbed,  is  many 
times  worth  the  pains  and  charge,  for  sundry  rare  aud 
hard  works."— Evely n :  On  Forest  Trees,  ch.  iii.,  §  14. 

2.  To  supply  with  food ;  to  provide  with 
victuals.    (Slang.) 

griib,  s.    [Grub,  v.] 

1.  The  chrysalis  of  an  insect ;  also  its  larva ; 
a  maggot,  a  caterpillar. 

"The  old  teeth,  therefore,  nre  cast  off  with  the 
exuviaj  of  tho  grub."—Paley;  Natural  Theologu, 
ch  xii. 

2.  A  short,  thick-set  man  ;  a  dwarf.  (Used 
in  contempt.) 

3.  A  dirty,  slovenly  person. 

4.  That  which  is  grubbed  up,  roots  or 
stumps  of  trees,  &c.    (American.) 

5.  Food,  victuals.     (Slang.) 

grub-axe,  s.    [Grubbing -axe.] 

grub-plank,  s.  Offal  plank  used  in 
fastening  the  cribs  and  strings  of  a  lumber 
raft  together.    (American.) 

grub-saw,  s.  A  hand-saw  used  for  sawing 
up  marble  slabs  into  strips,  such  as  shelves, 
mantelpieces,  &c.  The  kerf  is  started  by  a 
narrow  chisel  while  lying  upon  the  rubbing- 
bed.  It  has  ah  iron  blad_  notched  at  the 
edge,  and  stiffened  by  a  backing  of  wood,  like 
the  metallic  back  of  a  tenon-saw. 

.*  grub- worm,  i 

A  grub. 

grub'-ber,  s.     [Eng.  grub,  v. ;  -er.] 

I.  Ord.  Lang. .  One  who  or  that  which 

II.  Agriculture : 

1,  An  agricultural  implement  used  for  stir- 
ring and  loosening  the  soil  to  plough  depth. 
It  is  a  heavy  cultivator  drawn  by  four  horses, 
and  supported  on  wheels. 

2.  A  machine  or  tool  to  pull  up  stumps  and 
roots  of  bushes,  saplings,  and  small  trees. 

grub'-bi-a,  s.    [Named  after  Michael  Grubb, 

a  Swedish"  patron  of  botany.] 
Bot. :  The  typical  genus  of  the  order  Grub- 

biaeese  (q.v.). 
grub'-Tri-a'-ce-se,  s.  pi.   [Mod.  Lat.  grubbi(a), 

and  Lat.  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -acea,1.] 

Bot. :  The  name  given  in  1841  by  Endlicher 
to  an  order  of  epigynous  exogens,  included 
by  Lindley  in  Bruniaeeaj  (q.v.). 

grub'-bing,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.     [Grub,  v.] 

A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj.  :   (See 

the  verb). 

C.  As  s-itbst. :  The  act  or  operation  of  digging 

or  rooting  up  stumps,  roots,  &c. 

grubbing-axe,  s.    An  implement  having 
a  curved  bit  presented  at  right  angles  to  the 
helve,   like    an  adze,   and    another  bit   pre- 
sented in  the  line  of  the  helve,  like  an  axe  ; 
;_  a  mattock. 

grubbing  -  hoe,    s.      A   heavy  hoe  tor 

digging  round  stumps  or  stones. 

*griib'-ble,  v.i.  &  t     [A  frequent,  from  grub.] 

A.  Intrans. :  To  feel  or  grope  as  in  the  dark  ; 

to  grovel. 

B.  Trans. :  To  feel  with  the  hands  ;  to  grope  " 

grub'- by,  a.  [Eng.  grub(b);  -y.]  Dirty, 
slovenly.    (Hood:  A  Black  Job.) 

gru'-bl-a,  s.  A  genus  of  amphipodous  Crus- 
tacea. Upper  antennse  filiform,  and  longer 
than  tho  lower  ;  feet  in  pairs,  first  and  second 
subchelate;  segments  thirteen;  telson  scaled, 

Grub' -street,  s.  &  a.     [Sec  def.] 
*A.  As  substantive : 

1,  Lit.  ;  Originally  the  name  of  a  street  near 
Moorfields,  in  London,  much  inhabited  by 
men  engaged  in  the  production  of  low-class 
fugitive  literature ;  whence  any  mean  pro- 
duction is  called  grubstreet.  Its  name  was 
changed  iu  1830  to  Milton-street. 

2.  Fig. :  Poor,  mean,  or  needy  authors. 
B«  As  adj. :  Mean,  poor,  low. 

*  grucche   *grucch-en,  v.i.    [Grudge,  v.] 

'  grucch-yng,  &-.  [Grucche.]  a  grumbling  or 

grudge,   *  grochen,  *  grucche,  *  gruc- 

chen,  *gruchen,  v.i.  &  t.  [O.  Fr.  grocer, 
groucher,  gruger  =  to  murmur ;  a  word  of 
doubtful  origin,  but  probably  onomatopoetic 
and  Scandinavian.] 

A.  Intransitive : 

*  1.  To  murmur ;  openly  to  express  dissatis- 
faction ;  to  complain. 

"Mid  the  farisees  and  scribes  grucchiden ;  seiynge 
for  this  resceyveth  synful  meu  and  eteth  with  them. ' 
— Luke  xv,  2. 

*  2.  To  grieve,  to  repine,  to  feel  compunction. 

"We  grudge  in  our  concyeucc  when  we  remember 
our  synnes." — Sp.  Fisher. 

:vG.  To  find  fault ;  to  raise  objection. 

"  Theygrucht  not  with  her  liurial  there."—  Walpole, 
Anec.  of  Painting,  vol.  i..  ch.  1L 

4.  To  feel  unwillingness  or  reluctance  to  do 
any  act  or  for  any  reason. 

'*  Use  hospitality  one  to  another  without  grudging." 
—1  Peter  iv.  9. 

5.  To  feel  envy  or  ill-will  against  any  enc  or 
for  any  reason  ;  to  be  envious. 

"Grudge  not  one  against  another."— James  v.  9. 

B.  Transitive : 

1.  To  see  with  envy  or  ill-will ;  to  envy ;  to 
feel  discontent  or  envy  at ;  to  grumble  at ;  to 
find  fault  with.  (Tate :  Absalom  &  Achitcphel, 
ii.  206.) 

2.  To  grant,  allow,  or  permit  with  reluc- 
tance ;  to  begrudge  the  acquisition  or  pos- 
session of. 

"  They  grudge  me  my  natural  right  to  be  free." 
Cowper:  Trans,  from  Guion. 

*  3.  To  cherish  or  harbour  with  malice  or 
with  "an  envious  and  discontented  spirit. 

"Perish  they 
That  grudge  one  thought  against  your  Majesty." 

Sliakesp.  :  1  Henry  VI.,  iii.  1. 

grudge,  s.    [Grudge,  v.] 

*  1.  Ill-will,  discontent,  anger. 

"Heavy  looke,  and  lumpish  pace,  that  plaine 
In  him  bewraid  great  grudge,  and  maltalent." 

Spenser  :  F.  Q.,  III.  iv.  41. 

*  2.  An  unwillingness  or  reluctance  to  benefit 

3.  A  feeling  of  malice  or  malevolence , 
hatred  ;  secret  enmity. 

"  There  is  some  grudge  between  'em  ;  'tis  not  meet 
They  be  alone.  Shakesp. :  Julius  t'ecsar,  iv.  3. 

■y  4.  A  remorse  of  conscience. 
-  5.  A  slight  symptom  of  disease. 

"Struggling  against  the  grudges  of  more  dreadful 
calamities." — Milton. 

foSll,  b6^;  ptfilt,  jtfM;  cat,  cell,  chorus,  chin,  bench;  go,  gem;  thin,  this;  sin,  as;  expect,  Xenophon,  exist,    ph  -  t 
-cian,  -tian  =  shan.    -tion,  -sion  --=  shun ;  -tion,  -sion  =  zhun.    -cious,  -tious,  -sious  =  shus.    -Me,  -die,  fcc.  =  bel,  del. 


grudgefull— grumpish 

*  grudge-full,  a.  [Eng.  grudge ;  -full,]  Feel- 
ing a  grudge,  envy,  or  discontent ;  grudging, 

"  Kayle  at  tliem  with  grudgrfuU  discontent." 

Spenser :  F.  Q.,  IV.  viii.  28. 

*  grudge-kin,  s.  [Eng.  grudge;  dimin.  suff. 
-kin.}    A  little  or  slight  grudge.    (Tliackeray.) 

grudg'-eons,  s.  pi.  [Fr.  gmgeons,  from  gruger 
=  to  grind,  to  crash.]  Coarse  meal,  grouts  ; 
the  sittings  of  meal  remaining  after  the  fine 
parts  have  passed  through  the  sieve. 

grudg'-er,   *groch-er,   *  grucch-er, 

*  grutch-are,  s.    [Eng.  grudg(e);  -er.]     One 
who  grudges  or  grumbles  ;  a  grumbler. 

"  These  ben  gruccheris,  ful  of  playnts,  wandringe 
aiter  desires,"—  Wycliffe  :  Judas  li. 

grfidg'-ing,  *groch-Ing,  *grucch-yng, 

*  grudge-yng,    *  grutch-ing,  pr.  par., 
a,,  &  s.     [Grudge,  v.] 

A.  tfe  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  substantive : 

1.  Grumbling,  murmuring,  complaining. 

2.  Uneasiness  or  discontent  at  the  posses- 
sion of  anything  by  another  ;  envy. 

3.  Reluctance,  unwillingness. 

"Such  as  they  would  leaue  behinde  them  at  their 
awne  price,  without  any  grudging."— Grafton :  Edward 
11.  {an.  1325). 
*4.  A  secret  wish  or  desire. 

"  Even  in  the  moat  sincere  advice  he  gave, 
He  had  a  grudginq  still  to  be  a  knave." 

Dryden :  Medal,  58, 

*5.  Afterpain ;   remains  of  any  pain  or  dis- 

"  So  clerely  was  she  deliuered  from  all  grudgeyng  of 

the  ague." — Udal:  Matthew  viii. 

*  6.  A  symptom  of  disease,  as  the  chill  be- 
fore a  fever. 

*  7.  An  anticipation  or  premonitory  feeling 
of  anything  ;  a  presentiment. 

grudg'-ing-ly,  *  groch-inde-liche, 
* grucch-en-de-li,  adv.  [Eng.  grudging; 
-ly.]  In  a  grudging  manner  ;  with  reluctance, 
unwillingness,  or  grudging. 

"  Trouble  is  grudgingly  and  hardly  brooked. 
While  life's  subllmeat  Joya  are  overlooked."* 

Cowper  ;  Charity,  218. 

grudg'-ings,  s.  pL  [Grudqeons.]  Coarse 

*  fflriidg'-ment,  s.  [Eng.  grudg(e);  -ment.] 
Discontent,  grudging. 

"  Bather  to  Jacynth's  grudgment." 

Browning  :  Flight  of  the  Duchess. 

grue,  v.i.     [Grew,  v.] 

gru'-el,  s.     [O.  Fr.  gruel  (Fr.  gruau),  from  Low 

Jj8.t.'grutellumy  dimin.  of  grutum  =  meal,  from 
O.  Low  Ger.  grut  =  groats  (q.v.).]  Food  made 
by  boiling  oatmeal  in  water ;  any  kind  of 
mixture  made  by  boiling  ingredients  in  water. 

TF  To  give  one  his  gruel :  To  severely  punish 
or  kill  a  person.  (Brewer  says  that  the  allusion 
is  to  the  practice,  common  in  France  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  of  giving  poisoned  possets, 
an  art  brought  to  perfection  by  Catherine  de 
Medici  and  her  Italian  advisers.) 

"  Gave  the  truculent  rascal  his  gruel." 
Barham :  Ingoldsby  Legends ;  Babes  in  the  Wood. 

grue -some,  u..    [Grewsome.] 
*gruf,  *grufe,  adv.    [Groff.] 

*  gruff,  s.    [Prob.  connected  with  grave  (q.v.).] 

A  pit. 

"  In  one  of  the  deepest  gruffs  (for  bo  they  call  their 
pits)."—  Boyle :   Works,  v.  686. 

gruff,  a.  &  s.  [Dut.  grof  =  coarse,  great,  heavy  ; 
Sw.  grof  —  coarse  ;  Dan.  grov  ;  Ger.  grob ; 
M.  H.  Ger.  gerdb,  grop.] 

A.  As  adj.  :  Of  a  rough,  surly,  or  harsh 
apect  or  look  ;  sour,  rough,  harsh,  hoarse. 
(Applied  to  the  voice.) 

"  After  some  gruff  muttering  with  himself." 

King:  The SkiUet. 

B.  As  substantive : 

Min.  (PI.) :  The  worst  pieces  rejected  in  the 
manufacture  of  black-lead  pots.  These  are 
coarse,  harsh,  gritty,  and  deficient  in  lustre. 

*  gruff '-ish,   a.      [Eng.  gruff;  -ish.]     Rather 

or  somewhat  gruff. 

"A  short  elderly  gentleman,  with  a  grujflsh  voice."— 
Dickens:  Sketches  by  Boz;   Watkins  Tattle. 

gruff-ly,  adv.  [Eng.  gruff;  -ly.]  In  a  gruff, 
rough,  or  surly  manner. 

"  The  form  of  Mar3  high  on  a  chariot  stood, 
All  sheathed  1.11  arms,  and  gruffly  looked  the  god." 
Lewis:  Statius;  Thebaid vii. 

gruff'-ness,  s.  [Eng.  gruff;  -ness.]  The 
quality  or  state  of  being  gruff;  roughness; 


gru'-gru,  s.     [An  American  negro  word  (?).] 

1.  Entom.  :  The  larva  of  a  huge  insect 
(Ca'landra  palmarum),  eaten  in  South  America. 
Called  also  Ver  Palmiste. 

2.  Bot.  :  A  name  given  in  Trinidad  to  two 
palms—  Astrocary urn  vulgare  and  Acrocomia 

gru'-l-dse,  [Lat.  grus  (genit.  gruis)  =  a 

Ornith. :  A  family  of  Grallatores,  tribe  Cultri- 
rostres.  It  consists  of  large  handsome  birds, 
withastrongsharp-edgedbill,  long  slender  legs, 
with  a  considerable  part  of  the  tibiae  bare ; 
toes  four,  the  two  outer  ones  connected  by  a 
very  small  membrane,  the  hind  one  short  and 
elevated.  It  contains  two  sub-families ;  Gruinse 
(Cranes  proper),  and  Psophinae  (Trumpeters) 

gru-i'-nse,  s.  pi.  [Lat.  grus  (genit.  gruis)  =  a 
crane,  and  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -iiue.] 

Ornith. :  The  typical  sub-family  of  the  family 
Gruidse  (q.v.).  The  mandibles  are  of  equal 
length  and  pointed  at  the  tip  ;  the  tertiary 
feathers  of  the  wings  are  often  long  and  de- 
composed into  beautiful  pendent  plumes  on 
each  side  of  the  tail.  The  sub-family  contains 
the  Cranes  proper. 

*gru-in-a'-les,s.pZ.    [Lat.  grus  (genit.  gruis) 

=  a  crane,  and  masc.  or  fern.  pi.  adj.  suff.  -ales.] 

Bot. :  The  name  given  by  Linnseus  to  an 

order  in  his  Natural  System,  under  which  he 

included  the  Cranesbills. 

grul'-shy,    a.        [Etym.   doubtful.]       Gross, 

coarse,  clumsy. 

"  They  had  a  genteeler  turn  than  the  grvlshy  bairns 
of  the  cottars."— Gait :  Annals  of  the  Parish,  p.  28. 

*grum,  a.  [A.S.  gram,  grow.  =  furious,  angry, 
offended;  0.  S.  gram;  Icel.  gramr  =  wroth, 
grom  =  fiends.] 

1.  Sour,  surly,  severe,  harsh,  morose,  glum. 

2.  Low,  deep  in  the  throat,  gruff,  guttural ; 
as,  a  grum  voice. 

gru'-mach  (ch  guttural),  a.  [Gael,  gruamach 
=  gloomy,  sulky,  morose,  sullen,  of  a  forbid- 
ding countenance.]  Ill-favoured,  grim.  (Scotch.) 

"The  nickname  of  Gillespie  Grumach  {or  the  grim)." 
— Scott :  Legend  of  Montrose,  ch.  xiL 

grum' -Me,  v.i.  &  (.  [Fr.  grommeler ;  O.  Ger. 
grummelen ;  a  frequent,  of  grummen,  grumen, 
or  gromman ;  Dut.  grommon  =  to  grumble, 
to  growl ;  cf.  Ger.  gram  =  vexation,  grimmen 
=  to  rage  ;  Russ.  grome  =  thunder  ;  A.S.  gram 
=  angry.  ] 
A.  Intransitive: 

1.  To  murmur  with  discontent ;  to  give  vent 
to  expressions  of  dissatisfaction. 

"Now  wrangling  and  grumbling  to  keep  up  the  ball  I". 
Goldsmith:  Betaliation. 

2.  To  growl,  to  snarl. 

"  From  the  old  Thraciau  dog  they  learned  the  way 
To  snarl  in  want  and  grumble  o  er  their  prey." 

Pitt :  To  Mr.  Spence. 

3.  To  make  a  hoarse  noise  or  rattle ;  to 

"  Shake  the  woods 
That  grumbling  wave."  Thomson:  Winter,  75. 

*  B.  Trans. ;  To  express  or  utter  in  a  grum- 
bling manner. 

grum'-ble,  s.    [Grumble,  v.] 

1.  The  act  or  state  of  grumbling ;  a  com- 

2.  (PI.)  A  grumbling,  discontented  dispo- 

*  3.  Grime,  dirt. 

"The  grumbles  and  mud  of  their  acquaintance. " — 
Sanderson :  Sermons,  i.  160. 

griim'-bler,  s.     [Eng.  grumbl(e);  -er.] 

1.  Ord.  Lang.  :  One  who  grumbles  ;  a  dis- 
contented or  dissatisfied  person. 

"  Some  uucourtly  grumblers  described  it  as  the 
only  good  thing  that  had  been  done  since  the  king 
came  in." — Macaulay :  Bist.  Eng.,  ch.  il. 

2.  tchthy.  :  Various  species  of  Trigla  (Gur- 
nard), which  utter  sounds  like  grumbling 
when,  being  caught,  they  are  lifted  from  the 

water.    (Griffith's  Cuvier.) 

Grum-ble-to'-ni-an^  *.  [Apparently  mo- 
delled on  some  such  word  as  Accringtonians 
=  inhabitants  of  Accrington,  Barringtoniaus 
=  inhabitants  of  Barrington,  &c] 

Hist  •  The  inhabitants  of  an  imaginary  town 
or  parish  notable  for  grumbling ;  a  nickname 
given  in  England  to  the  Country,  as  distin- 
guished from  the  Court  party  during  the  reigns 
of  the  later  Stuarts.  The  reason  why  they 
grumbled  was  that,  in  modern  language,  they 
constituted  the  Opposition,  and  naturally 
found  fault  with  the  measures  of  their  political 
adversaries  who  were  in  power. 

"Who  were  sometimes  nicknamed  the  Grwmblef- 
nians  and  sometimes  honoured  with  the  appellation 
of  the  Country  party."— Macaulay  :  Hist.  Eng.,  ch.  xix. 

grum'-bling,  pr.  par.,  a.,  &  s.    [Grumble,  v.] 
A.  &  B.  As  pr.  par.  &  particip.  adj. :  (See 
the  verb). 

C.  As  suhst. :  The  act  of  murmuring  in  dis 
content ;  complaining  in  dissatisfaction. 
"  I  have  served 
Without  or  grudge  or  grumblings. 

Shakesp.\:  Tempest,  L  2. 

griim'-bling-l^,  adv.    [Eng.  grumbling;  -ly.] 
1.  In    a  grumbling,  dissatisfied,  or  discon- 
tented   manner;    with  grumblings    or   com- 
*2.  Hoarsely,  roughly. 

"  They  speak  good  German  at  the  Court  and  In  the 
city  ;  but  the  common  and  country  people  seemed  to 
speak  grumblingly."— Browne  :  Travels,  p.  156. 

*  grum'-bol,  s.  [Grumble.]  A  term  of  re- 
proach ;  a  surly  persoD. 

"  Come,i7?-um6o^  thou  Bhalt  mum  with  ub."— Dekker: 


*  grume,  s.      [O.  Fr.,  Fr.  grumein  =  a  clot; 

from  Lat.  grumus  =  a  little  heap.]    A  fluid  of 
a  thick,  viscid  consistence ;  a  clot,  as  of  blood. 

grum'-ly,  a.  [Eng.  grum(e);  -ly.}  Muddy, 
thick,  as  with  dregs  or  sediment. 

grum'-ly,  adv.  ['Eng.grum;  -ly.]  Inagruin, 
surly,  morose,  or  sullen  manner. 

grum-mels,  s.  pi.  [Eng.  grume. ;  dim.  sufL 
-el.]    Dregs,  sediment. 

grum'  met,  s.    [Grommet.] 

*  grum'-ness,  s.  [Eng.  grunt;  -ness.]  Sonr> 
ness,  sullenness. 

"The  grumness  of  thy  countenance."—  Wycherley? 
Country  Wife,  L  L 

gru'-mose,    a.      [Mod.   Lat.   grunwsus,  fro  in 
Class.  Lat.  grumus  =  a  little  hill,  a  hillock.] 
Bot. :  Clubbed,  knotted.     (Paxton.)     [Gru- 


gru-mous,  a.     [Eng.  grum(e);  -ous.] 

*  I.  Ord.  lAzng.  :  Thick,  clotted,  concreted. 
"  But,  having  for  this  purpose  exposed  some  serum 
of  human  blood  to  cold  air,  in  two  freezing  nights 
consecutively,  the  serum  wa3  not  found  to  congeal, 
though  some  grumous  parts  of  the  same  blood  did;  as 
has  formerly  been  noted." — Boyle:  Works,  vol.  iv., 
p.  751. 

H.  Technically : 

1.  Anat.  (of  blood):  Clotted,  coagulated. 

2.  Bot.  :  Divided  into  little  clustered  grains, 
as  the  faecula  in  the  stem  of  the  sago  palm, 
or  the  root  of  Neottia  Nidus-avis.     (Lindley.) 

gru'-moiis-ness,  s.  [Eng.  grumous ;  -ness.] 
The  quality  or  state  of  being  grumous  ;  clotted 
or  concreted. 

grumph,  v.i.  [An  imitative  word.]  To  grunt ; 
to  make  a  noise  like  a  sow. 

"  A  grumphin,  girnin,  snarlin  jade." 

Tarrat :  Poems,  p.  62. 

grumph,  s.  [Grumph,  v.]  A  grunt ;  a  noise 
like  a  sow. 

"  He  drew  a  long  sigh  or  rather  grumph,  through 
his  nose." — Saxon  &  Gael,   t  42. 

grum'-phie,  ».  [Eng.  grumph;  -ie.]  A  sow. 

"  Wha  waa  it  but  Grumphie." 

Burns:  Halloween. 
grump'-l-ly,  adv.    [Eng.  grumpy;  dy.]    In  a 
grumpy,  sullen,  surly,  or  gruff  manner  ;  gruffly. 

grump'-i-ness,  a.  [Eng.  grumpy ;  -ness.]  Tlie 
quality  or  state  of  being  grumpy  or  surly ;